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University of Mysore 

, N 










In the preface to the last volume of the Annual Report published by this 
department, some of the special features which I hoped to introduce into the new 
series were mentioned. This volume is the second of the new series. In addition 
to the usual notes on epigraphs, manuscripts, coins, ancient sites and monuments, 
detailed studies of some of the latter are published. But in the case of large 
monuments, like those of Halebid, the volume of the notes is so heavy that only 
some extracts have been printed. Full and detailed studies of these great works of 
art will be published in the special monographs on architecture in Mysore for which 
materials are now being collected. 

It is regretted that it has not been possible to issue a second instalment of the 
report on the Chandravalli excavations along with this volume. Since the finds 
yielded by the excavations are very numerous, and the resources of the office 
limited, the study of the antiquities collected therein could not be completed. 

A word of explanation is necessary about the delay in the publication of this 
report. Owing to the general economic depression and all-round retrenchment, the 
question of publishing a very short and mainly administrative report was raised 
and considered. But ultimately, Government were pleased to permit the continua- 
tion of the new series in its present form. This report was sent to the press as 
soon as a sufficient printing grant was available to the department. For the past 
delay, it is proposed to make up by publishing the reports, which are in arrears, in 
rapid succession. 

I may be permitted to express my sincere thanks to the authorities of the 
Mysore Government Press, Bangalore, for their co-operation in bringing out these 
reports in an improved and attractive form and for undertaking to print them 
expeditiously, and to the Indian Photo Engraving Company, Calcutta, for making 
a large number of blocks for us. I am specially indebted to the Assistants ano 
other members of the staff of the Archaeological Office for their ungrudging help. 

My thanks are also due to the scholars and journals who have expressed then 
opinions on the previous report in highly appreciative terms and given numerous 
suggestions for future work, 

Director of Archceological 
Researches in Mysore. 


PART I Administrative. 


Staff, Tours, Monuments, Epigraphy, Manuscripts ... ... ... 1 

Publications, Excavation, Conservation ... ..... ... ... 2 

PART II Study of Monuments and Ancient Sites. 

Anekannambadi ... ... ... ... ... ... 3-4 

Narayana Temple, Interior, Images ... ... ... ... 3 

Aciagur, Laksbmluaraya9a Temple, Images ... ... ... ... 4 

Dindagur, History, K^sava Temple, Images, etc., Mall6svara ... ... ... 5 

Anekere, Janardana Temple ... ... .... ... ... 5-6 

TJndiganal ... ... ... ... ... ... 6-7 

Chamundesvarl Temple, Images ... ... ... ... ... 7 

Kolar District. 

Alambgiri, Tiru.malan.atba Temple ... ... ... ... ... 8 

Murugamale ... ... ... ... ... ... 8-10 

Venkataramanasvami Temple, Moslem Dargas, Burned Town, Muktagiri Matha ... 9 

Neolitbs ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Hara]ak6te, Srmivasapur Taluk ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Old Town Site, Bana Inscriptions ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Avani ... ... ... ... -.. ... 10-14 

Inscriptions, Valmlki Gave, Lava-Kusa Gudi, Kantaramma Temple ... ... 11 

Dbanushk6ti, Hill Top, Slta-Parvati Temple ... ... ... ... 12 

Old Site, Isvar a Temple ... ... ... ... ... 13 

Virupakshapura ... ... ... ... ... ... 14 

Kurudumale ... ... ... ... ... ... 14-17 

Maha-Ganapati Temple ... ... ... ... ... ... 14 

Colossal Ganesa, Somesvara Temple... ... ... ... 15 

Images, -Site of Old Town ... ... ... ... ... 16 

Mulbagal ... ... ... ... ... ... 17-18 

Anjaneya, "Vitbala and SdmMvara Temples ... ... ... ... 17 

Hyder Wi Darga .., ... ... ... ,.. ... 18 

Kolar ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 18-22 

"Visv6svara Temple, Antaragange ... ... ... ... ... 18 

Vishnu Image, Ylbbutipura ... ... ... ... ... 19 



Kolararnma's Temple 


Somesvara Temple, Makbara 

Naga Kunte and other Buildings 



Chitaldrug District. 

Brahmagiri ... ... 23 ~ 27 


List of Monuments ... 

Brahmagiri, Mabal, Foundations of Palace ... ... 2 ^ 

Fortifications and Buildings, Trisankesvara Temple, Eelief Figures on Bocks ... 25 

Elurapade, Hulikunte, Trial Excavations ... ^6 

Siddapur, Bamachandresvara Temple ... ... ^' 

Jatinga Bamesa ... ... 27 ~ 30 

Jatinga Ramesa Hill, Hire Jatinga Bamesa ... ... 27 

Temple Area, Pampapati and Virabhadra Shrines ... ^8 

Janardana and other Shrines ... ... *& 

Sitamrnana-done, etc. ... "" 

Haneya ... ... ... - 3 - 32 

Akkataiigi Temple ... ... ^0 

Jain Temple, Pagade Salu Gudda ... ... .- ^1 

Kaunada Inscription ... -. ... ^^ 

Bamadurga ... ... 32-33 

Fortifications ... ... 32 

Gave Temple ... ... ... ... 32-33 

Hassan District. 

Halebid ... ... ... ... 33 - 60 

Hoysalesvara Temple ... .... 34-49 

General Description ... ... ... ... 3 ^ 

History ... ... ... - - - 35 ~ 36 

Detailed Study ... ... ... ... .- 36 ~ 37 

Mythological Frieze ; ... ... ... ... ~. 37-46 

North-east ... ... ... 37-38 

North-east Door, East ... ... ... ..- 39 

South-east Door, South-East ... ... ... ... ... 40 

South Door, South-west ... ... ... 41 

Main Wall, West Main Wall ... ... ... 42 

North Additional Niche of South Shrine ... ... ... ... 43 

South Additional Niche of North Shrine ... ... ... ... 45 

North Additional Niche of North Shrine ... ... ... ... 46 

Four Outer Doors ... ... - ... 46-49 

South Door ... ... ... ... 47 

South-east, North-east and North Doorways ... ... ... ... 48 



Kgddresvara Temple : General Description ... ... ... ... 49-50 

Survey of the Site of Dorasamudra ._. ... ... ... 50-61 

Paiichalingesvara Temple ... ... ... ... ... 50 

Eudresvara Temple and Nadugeri Maram ma ... ... ... 51 

Old Fort "Wall, Suladavana and Jain Euins ... ... ... 52 

Benne Gudda ... ... -, ... ... 53 

Palace ... ... ... ... ... 54 

Basti Temples : History ... ... ... ... ... 55 

Parsvanatha Basti ; Mukhamantapa ... ... ... ... 55 

Main Temple ; Outer Walls ; Parapet ... ... ... ... 56 

Navaranga, Navaranga Ceiling, Parsvanatha Image ... ... ... 57 

Adinatha Temple ... ... ... ... ... 58 

Santinatha Basti ... ... ,.. ... ... 58 

Yirakta Matha ... ... ... ... ... 59 

Ylrabhadra Temple ... .. ... ... 59 

Eanganatha Temple ... ... ... ... ... 60 


Isvara Temple : ... ... ... ... ... ... 61-67 

General Description, History, "foundation and Basement ... ... 61 

Wall Decorations, Wall Images ... ... ... ... 62 

Eaves, Parapet, Tower, Mantapa, etc. ... ... ... 64 

Porch, Navaranga ... ... ... ... 65 

Sukhanasi, Garbhagriha ... ,.. ... ... 66 

Double Temple on the North ... ... ... ... 67 

PART III Numismatics. 


Krishnadevaraya ... ... ... ... ... 68-76 

Yenkatesa ... ... ... ... ... 68 

Umamahsvara ... ... ... ... ... 69 

Balakrishna ... .. ... ... ... 70 

Durgi Yaraha ... ... ... ... ... 72 

Imitations, Akola Finds ... ... ... ... .., 73 

Bull ... ... ... ... ... 74 

Bull and Garuda ... ... ... ... ... 75 

Garuda " ... ... ... ... ... 75 

Eecumbent Bull ' ... ... ... ... ... 75 

Achyutaraya . ... ... ... ... ... 76-78 

Type A : Gandabherunda ... ... ... ... ... 75 

Type B : do ... ... ... ... ... 77 

Gandabherunda, Prancing Horse ... ... ... ... ... 73 


PART IV Manuscripts. 

(.a) Paradara-S6dara Eamana Kathe 

(6) Hyder-Nama (a Manuscript in Kannada) 

Date of the Manuscript ... ... ... 

Historical Importance 

Ancestry of Hyder 

Eaten Ali 

Eise of Hyder Ali ... .... ... 

Mysore Service, Siege of Devanahalli 

Carnatic Affairs, Trichinopoly , - Tamil Polegars ... 

Nayars of Calicut, Mahratta Levy 

Hyder Indispensable ; Hyder's Opportunity ; Siege of Bangalore, 1758 

Half the Kingdom: Khande Eao's Plot 

Hyder Gains Full Power 

The Conquests ... ' ... ... ... 


Conquest of Bednore; Mahratta Invasion, 1763... 

Conquest of Malabar, 1765 ; Mahratta Invasion, 1767 

The First Mysore War ... 

Early Eeverses ; Dissentions ... ... ... 

Hyder's Victories ; Treaty 

Eelation with the Mahrattas 

Gurrum-Konda ; Mahratta Invasion, 1769 

Battle of Nijakal 

Mahratta Victories ; Hyder Eecovers ; Peace ... 


Mahratta Affairs 


Hyder's Successes ; Bellary ; Gutti 

Conquest of Chitradurga 

Eise of Purniah ... ... 

Conquest of Kadapa 

Second Mysore War ... ... ... 

Hyder Invades the Carnatic ... ... ... 

Bailey and Munro; Coote; Maclease; Tellichery 

Hyder's Views on English Power ... .... ... , 

Battle of Ami ; Hyder's Victory 

Negotiations for Peace ... 

Death of Hyder ... "" ... 

Extent 'of Hyder's Kingdom 


Trade and Commerce 


Building Activities 



















Private Life ... ... ... ... -) -IQO 

Character of Hyder ... ... . .. ... ... ' 

Appendices ... ... ... ... 103-106 

PART VlnscriptioBs. 

Hassan District 


Lithic Record in Arsikere ... .... ... ... ... 107 

Do atTalalur ... ... ... ... ... 113 


Keregalur Plates of the Ganga King Madhava II ... ..." ... ... 113-124 

Text ... ... ... ... ... 114 

Transliteration ... ... ... .-. ... 115 

Translation ... ... ... ... ... 117 

Note Description ... ... ... ... ... 118 

Paleography ... ... ... ... ...") 

Language ... ... ... ... ... i. 119 

Maker of the Grant - ... ... ... ... ...j 

Purpose of the Inscription ... ... ... . . , . . . -, 

Geographical - ... ... ... .,. ...J 

History - ... ... .-.. ... ... 121 

Date ... ... ' ... ... ...} 

Other Particulars -- ... ... ... ... ...J 

Kaduc District. 


Copper Plates of the Vijayanagara King Narasimha (from Ambale) 

Text ' ... ... " ... 

Transliteration .. ... ... 

Translation ... .'.. ... 

Note Description - -- ... - ... ... 

Paleography ... ... ,.. 


Language - ... ... ... 

Purport--- "-- - ... - ... '- ... 

Date ... ... - ... ... 

Geographical Details ... ... ... 

- -History-.- ... .... - - ... - ... 

Other Lithic" 'Records at and near Ambale ""' ... "'" ... 


Kolar District. 


Lithic EecoM at Badarnakalahalli 


Lithic Eeeord at Tekal . ... ... ... ... 134 

Do at Kommanahalli ' ... ... ... ... ... 135 

Do at Dinnur ... ... ... ... ... ^35 

Do at Halahalli ... ... .., ... . ^37 

Mysore District 


Copper Plate from Haradanahalli ... ... ..... ... ... 137 

Lithic Records at Hoggotara ... ... ... ... ... 144 

Do at Kirugotbara ... ... ... ... ... 149 

Do at Sambhupura ' ... ... ... ... ... 151 


Copper Plate from Gundlupt ... ... ... ... ... 153 

Lithlc Eecord at Madeha'lli ... ... ... ... ... 155 

Do at Masahalli ... ... ... ... ... 157 

Do Eeeords at Hangala '.., ... ... ... ... 159 

Copy of a Paper Sannad from Hangala ... ... ... ... ... 161 

Other Lithic Eeeords at Hangala ... ... ... ... ... 163 

Lithic Eecord at Siddaiyanapura ... ... ... ... ...\ 

Do atKalllpnra ... ... ... ... ...) 167 

Do at ChannamallapTira ... ... ... ... ... 168 

Lithic Eeeords at Berambadi ... ... ... ... ... 169 

Do Eecord at Puttanapura ... ... ... ... ... 171 

Do at Kunagahalli ... ... ... ... ... 172 

Do at Gdpalapura ... ... ... ... ... 173 

Do at Devarahalli ... ... ... ,.. ... 175 


Lithic Eecord at Eahalli ... ... ... ... ... 179 

Do at Kalkunda ... ... ... ... ... 183 

Do atlggali ... ... ... ... ... 183 

Do at Saiinamallipura ... ... ... ... ... 

Sannads of Krishnaraja Yadeyar from Sutttr ... ... ... ... 

A Copper Plate from Suttur ... ... ... ... ... 192 

Lithic Record at Sutttir ... ... ... ... ... 195 

Do Eeeords at Tayftr .,. ... ... ... ... 195 



Lifchic Becord at T.-Narsipur 
Do Becords at Bairapura 
Do Eecord at Hunasur 
Do at Kirugasftr 



Lithic Becord at Belagunji 
Do Becords at Jatnbani 
Do at Keladi 
Do at Nadakalasi 
Do at Bairapura 
Do Becord at Belandur 

Do at Kannilr 
Do Becords at Gauja 
Do Beeord at Tagarti 

Lithic Becords at Banntiv 
Do record at Hale-BanntUr 
Do records at Salftr 

Do at Chikkapura 
Do Becord at Belagami 

Shimoga District, 








Tumkur District. 


Lithic Becord on the Boad to Ohittanhalli from Kallfir 
Lithic Becord at Nitttr ... 

Copper Plate from Mtikanayakanakdte ... 
Nittiir Grant of the Ganga King Madhavavarma 


Transliteration ... 

Translation ... 

Note Description ... 

Peculiarities of the Letters ... 




Lithic Becord to the West of Banganafcha-devara-betta 
Do at Chagatiir 
Do on the Boad to Vdbal&pttra 













Lithic Keeord at Bellada Maduvu ... ... ... ... 268 

Do at Tonasagondanahalji ... ... ... 268 

Do atDodMalur ... ... ... ... ... 272 

Do atKalenhalli ... ... ... ... ... 273 

Do records at Gundugal ... ... ... ... 273 

Do record at Tereyur ... ... ... ... ... 275 

Do at Bidirakere ... ... ... ... 275 

Supplement Tamil Inscriptions ... ... ... ... ... 279 

List of Inscriptions published in the Eeport, arranged according to Dynasties and Dates 281-295 

Appendix A. Conservation of Monuments ... ... ... ... 297 

Do B. List of Photographs taken during the year 1929-30 ... ... 300 

Do C. List of Drawings prepared do do ... ... ... 304 

Index ... 305 






Hoysalesvara Temple, Halebid View from North-west 



(1) Lakshminarayana Temple, Adagur View from South-east 

. facing 3 

(2) Do do South-west ... .. 


(3) Janardana Temple, Anekere View from South-east 


(4) Narayana Temple, Anekannambadi South View 



(I) Sarasvati, Lakshminarayana Temple, Adagur ... 


(2) Venugopala, do ... .. 


(3) Do Narayana Temple, Anekannambadi 


(4) Lady drumming, Chamundesvari Temple, Undiganal 



Plan of Narayanasvami Temple at Anekannambadi 



(l) Makbara, Kolar 

,, 23 

(2) Brahmagiri, Chitaldrug District 



(1) Akkatangi Temple, Haneya North-west View 


(2) Do Inner Doorway 


(8) Old Fort- Wall, Haneya 


(4) Trisankesvara Temple, Brahmagiri South-west View 



(1) Jatinga Bamesa Hill View from Brahmagiri 


(2) Do Temple Buins and Lamp Pillar ... .. 


(3) Bamadurga Fortifications 


(4) Do Gave Temple 



Sketch Map of Dorasamudra (Halebid) 



(1) Parsvanatha Basti, Bastihalli, Plalebid Side View of Mukhamantapa ,. 


(2) Virabhadra Temple, Halebid South View 



Plan of Hoysalesvara Temple, Halebid 



Hoysalesvara Temple, Halebid, Ground Plan (with Index to its Sculptured 

,. 40 


(1) Do South-east-Doorway 


(2) Do View from North-east 

> ^-" 


(1) Do Arjuna fights Siva 
(2) Do Bhima slays Dussasana 
(3) Do Prahlada is persecuted 

>, * * 


Plan of Isvara Temple, Arsikere 

,, 59 


Isvara Temple, Arsikere --Tower from North-west 



Do View from North-east 



DO Pillars 



XVIII. Isvara Temple, Arsikere Niche ... ... ...facing 66 

XIX. Do do ... .. ... 68 

XX. (l) Coins of Vijayanagara : Krishnaraya, Achyutaraya ... ... ,, 78 

(2) Hyder-Nama .. .. ... ... ,,78 

XXI. Keregalur Plates of Madhava II Ganga- ... *... ... 1H 

XXII. . Do (contd.) ... ... ... 116 

XXIII. Devarahalli Stone Inscription of Prince Durvinita ... ... ... 176 

XXIV. Nittur Plates of Madhava Ganga ... ... ... ,,259 





Dr. M. H. Krishna, M.A., D. LIT. (Lond.) 3 continued to be part-time Director 

of Archasology in addition to his own duties as the- 

Stall. Professor of History at the Maharaja's College, Mysore. 

There was no important change in the staff. 

The Director toured in parts of the Kolar, Bangalore, Mysore, Chitaldrug, 
Shimoga and Hassan Districts in connection with the 

Tours. conservation and study of ancient monuments and also for 

collecting archa?ological data and for noting sites suitable 

for excavation. The Assistant to the Director toured in parts of the Tumkur, Shimoga 
and Mysore Districts and collected many interesting inscriptions. The part-time 
Travelling Pandit also collected a few inscriptions and some copper-plate 
records in the Tumkur and Hassan Districts. The Architectural Assistant 
surveyed several new monuments in the districts of Hassan and Kadur. 

The number of monuments newly surveyed during the year was about 15 

including a fine star-shaped three-celled Hoysala temple 

Monuments. at Ane-Kannambadi in the Hassan District. The ancient 

sites and monuments at Siddapur in the Molakahnuro 

Taluk, and those at Halebid in the Belur Taluk and the temples at Arsikere were 
studied in detail. 

The total number of inscriptions collected during the year was more than 100 

and included some important stone and copper plate 

Epigraphy. records of the early Western G-angas. One of these throws 

interesting light on the relations of the Gangas with tbe 

Pallava Empire ; another is the useful stone inscription tracing the succession 
of Ganga rulers ; and a third gives valuable information on early Ganga history. 

The manuscript of the Hyder-nama was examined and a detailed note prepared 
Manuscripts. on it, in comparison with Wilks' History of Mysore. 


During the year, the Index to the Annual Reports of this department for the 

years 1906-1922 was printed and made ready for publica- 

Fubiicafions. tion. The Annual Report for the year 1928-29 was 

prepared and sent to the press. 

Of the special schemes carried on by the department during the year, the 
work of excavating the ancient site of Chandravalli 

Excavation. near Chitaldrug was continued, and more than a thousand 

interesting antiquities were collected and brought to 

Mysore for study. Trial excavations, conducted near the Asokan inscriptions at 
Siddapur in the Molakahnuru Taluk, disclosed the existence on that site of four 
inhabited layers ranging back from the Chalukyan times through the Mauryan and 
prehistoric periods to the microlithic age, dating back, perhaps, to about the fourth 
or fifth milleniuin B. C. Further excavation in this field promises to be of great 
value. Trial diggings at Kitfcur in the Heggaddevankote Taluk of the Mysore 
District revealed the fact that buried in the fields near the village there are ruined 
brick structures which are probably the remains of Kiitipura, tbe capital of the 
ancient kingdom of Punnad. 

The preparation of a monograph on Chalukyan Architecture in Mysore made 
steady progress, many valuable drawings and ground plans being prepared and 
detailed descriptive notes being taken. 

The University arranged to house this department in the western part of the 
Jubilee Hall, the eastern part being given away to the Oriental Library. The 
Museum was transferred to the large room in the western wing and rearranged, 

During the year, Government Orders were received arranging for the co-opera- 
tion of the Director of Archaeology and the Consulting 

Conservation. Architect to the Government of Mysore in the work of 

conserving the ancient monuments in the State. The 
respective duties of the two officers were defined. 

Notes were submitted separately from time to time about repairs to a number 
of monuments. 


B H 

3 p 






This village is about 15 miles south of Hole Narasipur Town. Tradition says 
that in the ages gone by an elephant roamed ahout in 

Narayana Temple. the forest nearby in search of water and found it here in a 

pond called dnegundi near the village, which is still pointed 

out as the place where it quenched its thirst. The Sri Narayana temple situated 
in the village is a very good example of the early Hoysala style and may he roughly 
ascribed to the first quarter of the 12th century in the absence of more definite data 
to decide its date (Plate II, 4). It was reported that a copper plate grant was found 
in the village ahout 12 years ago and was taken away by one Narasimhia of 
G-aligekere. Perhaps, that would have thrown some light on the age of the temple. 
The temple faces east and coiisiste of three garbliagrikas^onQnava^anga^ oiieporch* 
and a sukhandsi between the navarafiga and the main cell. (See Plan on Plate IV.) 
The peculiarity of this structure is that the main cell has a star-shaped plan of 
sixteen points as in the case of the temples at Arsikere and Belur, while the other 
two cells are of the usual rectangular shape. The design of the temple is simple, 
there being no carvings on its outer surfaces as in the temples of Belur and Arsikere, 
A later brick gdpura, ugly and now in rains, mars its beauty to a considerable 

The pillars of the navaranga are circular in shape and well carved. Those of 

the porch are fluted and nicely polished. The ceilings of 

Interior. the navaranga are of two types : the central ceiling and 

those at the four corners are deep with elaborate patterns, 

while the remaining four are flat with rosettes. The ceilings of the garbhagrilias and 
suJchandsi are also flat and adorned with flowers. The ceiling of the porch, how- 
ever, consists of a plain slab of stone. 

The main image is that of Kesava, five feet high, standing on a Garuda 

pedestal of about two feet in height. The figure holds 
Images. in its four hands clockwise 1 : padma, saiikha, chakra and 


The northern cell enshrines a seated figure of Narasiniha holding chakra, 
padma, gada and ssankha, with the goddess Lakshml sitting on his left lap. The south 
cell contains an image of Venug6pala which is in every way similar to the image 
found in Belavadi, Chikniagalur Taluk (Plate III, 3). Images of Namrnalvar and 

1, Throughout these notes, whenever the symbols held in the hands of an image are described, 
they are mentioned in a regular ordei'j commencing with the front right hand and running clockwise* 


Bainanujacharya are kept in. the sukhanasi and those of Mahishasuramardini and 
Yighnesvara in the navaraiiga. All these images are fortunately intact and in a 
good state of preservation. 

A new inscription stone was discovered in front of the village gate. It contains 
only a few lines which are quite illegible. 


This village is about four miles to the east of Hale'bid. Its original name 
was and it was once very nourishing. 

The Lakshniinarayana Temple in the village is a trikutachala in the Hoysala 
style (Plate II, 1 and 2). It consists of three garbha- 

Lakshminarayana grilias, one navaraiiga and one porch with a sukhanasi 

Temple. between the navaraiiga and the main cell. The temple 

stands on a platform, four feet high, which follows- the 

contour of the plan of the temple. From an inscription found in the temple 
(Vide Ep. Cam. Belur Supplt. 376), it can be presumed that this temple must 
have been erected in the llth century A.D. 

The ceilings in the temple are well carved and the stone tower over the main cell 
is well preserved and surmounted with a stone finial. The outer surface of the wall is 
not carved with images ; nor are there any elaborate carvings in the interior either. 
The navaraiiga has polished pillars and two niches, the one on the right containing 
an image of Nammalvar and that on the left a few loose Naga stones. 

In the main cell, there is a seated image of Lakshminarayana, about five feet 
high, over a pedestal of about two feet. G-oddess Lakshmt 

Images. is sitting on his left lap. The attributes of the image are : 

sankha, padma, gada and chakra. The front left hand goes 
round the waist of his consort. . 

The south cell contains an image of Yenugopala (Plate III, 2) about four feet 
high, standing on a pedestal, about one and half feet high. This image is a little 
too slender in proportion and not so much overworked with ornaments as in the 
case of the image at Aiie" Kannambadi. It cannot be asserted that it is of Hoysala 

The north cell contains a beautiful and well proportioned image of Sarasvati, 
'(Plate III, 1) a figure of about four feet high, sitting on a swan pedestal of about 
one and half feet, holding rosary, arikus'a, pas"a and pustaka. 

The surroundings of the temple are kept in a filthy condition. The stones of the 
basement are loose and falling down. 


AD AGUE (p. 4). 

AD AGUE (p. 4). 


Mysore Archaeological Survey.} 



This is a village about seven miles to the north of Channarayapatna Town, 
The village is also called Mallikarjunapura in the inscrip- 

History. tions. A copper plate grant dated 1209 A.D. mentions 

that Pandita Dandinatha, one of the ministers of Yira 

Ballala Deva, begged the king for the grant of this village and converted it into 
an agrahara calling it Mallikarjunapura and apparently built also the two temples 
that are in the village, viz., Kesava and Mallesvara. An inscription dated 1232 A.D. 
is found inside the Kesava temple. 

The Ke"sava temple is simple. It consists of a qarlliagriha, a sukandsi, a 
navaranga and a mukhainantapa and has a low stone 

Kesava Temple. g&pura. The wall surface is plain, so are also the panels 

above the Ghajja and on the axial lines of the tower. 
The ceilings are all well carved, the central one being domelike. 

The Kesava image, about six feet high, stands on a pedestal, one and half feet 
high, and holds padma, saiikha, chakra and gada. The 

Images, etc. lintel over the navaranga doorway has Venug6pala 

on it, while Gajalakshml is carved above the garbhagriba 

doorway. The temple is in a dilapidated condition, one of the ceiling slabs 
having fallen showing the gap above. The outer prdMra has disappeared and 
only the front entrance gate is standing. The temple is endowed with some Inam 
lands which are auctioned every year, and it is stated that there is also some 
amount at the credit of the temple in the taluk treasury. It appears an estimate 
for Rs. 1,300 has been prepared by the Public Works Department for constructing 
a compound wall round the monument. 

The MallMvara temple is similar in plan and elevation to the above temple. 
One of the ceilings has been renewed to admit light inside. 

Mailesvara. The ceilings in this temple are all well-carved. The temple 

seems to have undergone repairs some time ago. Vegeta- 
tion is already growing again on the temple. An inscription on one of the back 
panels of the temple dated 1651 A.D. speaks of the construction of some mantapa 
by one Doddayya. 


This village is about three miles to the west of Channar&yapatna. Its original 
name in Kannada was Anegala-kere and it is also called 

Janardana Temple. Kesavapura in the inscription. In the heart of the village, 

there is a beautiful temple in the Hoysala style dedicated 
to Channakesava (Plate II, 3). The temple faces east and consists of a gwlhagriha, 

a suJthandsiy a navamtlga and a porch standing in the centre of a courtyard 
surrounded by a covered verandah. A cell is attached at the centre of each of the 
northern and southern verandahs, both of which are empty now. At the centre of 
the eastern verandah is the pouch giving entrance to the courtyard. 

The temple belongs to the early Hoysala style and its date goes prior to 1191 
A.D. as it is mentioned in a copper plate inscription of that date found in the 
village. An inscription found on the right side wall of the entrance gateway seems- 
to state that the enclosure walls of the temple having fallen, one Byrappa Nayaka. 
got them rebuilt in the year ^ubhakrifcu. This rebuilding might have been a 
century or two later, Tbe temple on the whole is well-conceived, and the work- 
manship simple but bold and elegant. 

The entrance porch has a stone bench on either side and so also the porch 
attached to the temple. Figures of Gajalakshmi are carved on the lintels of the 
garbhagnha and the navaranga, while the sukhandsi lintel is left uncarved. 

The pillars in the navaranga, are of the usual shape; but those in the 
verandah are plain and round. All the ceilings are richly carved, each one differing 
from the other in design and execution. The central ceiling is the most ornamental 
one and has a pendant carved in the shape of a huge conch hanging down several 
feet from the top. 

The image of Kesava, called Janardana by the people, is about six feet high 
standing on a pedestal about one and half feet high. The 

Ima S e - attributes are padma, sankha, chakra and gada. The 

original image having been mutilated by some enemies 

during troublous times, the present one was installed some time ago. Even this is 
broken and it is learnt that an order for another image has been placed with 
Mr. Silpa Siddhanti Siddhalinga Svami, sculptor of Mysore.* 

The tower over the sanctum is also of stone and in a good state of preservation.. 
The dedicatory slab in front of the gdpura is left uncarved. 

The present condition of the temple is very deplorable ; much of the surrounding 

verandah has fallen and the rest is in the course of tumbling down. All the stones are, 

however, lying on the spot and it may not be very costly to rebuild the verandah. ' 

It is reported that the temple enjoys no Inam at present, all the Inam having 

been resumed at the time of the Inam Commission. 


This is a village far in the interior of the Arsikere Taluk situated in the midst 

of hills and scrub jungle not easy to reach even by the ordinary conveyance The 
name of the village is mentioned as Umligeya Hal in. the inscriptions. 

* It is learnt that the new image has since been installed in the temple. ~~~ 

PLATE 17. 




Mysore Archaolofjical Survey.] 

(p. 3.) 

The temple here is an unimportant structure at present, though there are traces 

here and there of its ancient grandeur, with evidence of sub- 
Chamundesvari Temple. sequent in fi ueiices . The temple which faces east is trikiita- 

chala in plan consisting of three garbhagrihas, one sukhaitdsi, a naoaranga and a 
mukliamantapa. The navaranga is an enlarged hall consisting of 25 arikanas instead 
of the usual nine. The muhhainantapais also wide and deep and has six ankanas. 

There is an image of Siva in the cell opposite to the entrance, an image of 
Kesava in the north cell and a figure of Mahishasuramardini or Chamundesvari in 
the south cell. The temple is called Chamundesvari temple though the main 
image appears to be Isvara as stated above. The reason for this seems to be that 
the Chainuiida shrine must have been the most ancient portion of the temple and 
the rest of the structure must have been added later on. 

An inscription, stone standing to the left of the temple states that one 
Munijetti built this temple during the reign of Vishnu Vardhana Hoysana Deva 
at Bankapur. Another inscription, fixed to the right of the temple which is dated 
1276 A. D. refers to some endowment to the temple and calls the deity " Nirnbaja 

The four central pillars of the navaranga are well carved Hoysala pillars, while the 
rest are ordinary Dravidian ones with square mouldings and octagonal shafts. The 
ceilings are all of flat simple squares crossing one another, with a flower in the centre. 

An image of Graneeia, another of Bhairava, two bulls and a small Saptamatrik& 
.group are kept in the navaranga. Another image of Granes'a is kept in a niche. 

Against the wall of the navaranga to the right of the Chanmndes'varl shrine, a 

beatiful image of a madanika figure (bracket figure) is 

Images. kept (plate III 4). This is a female figure, in a dancing 

posture, beating a drum. The carving is as good as in the 
bracket figures of Belur and Halebld. 

The gopura over the main cell is of brick and mortar and positively ugly. 

To the south of the temple just behind the Chamundesvari shrine, a high 
swing frame or Uyyalekamllia stands and in front of it there is a small mantapa of 
three ankanas with beautifully carved stone pillars in the Hoysala style. This 
latter has now been converted into the living quarters of the Archaka. 

In the cell behind this mantapa is a- female figure on a low pedestal, standing 
on the back of a peacock, with six hands, holding the attributes of Brahma, Vishnu 
and Siva ; w>., from the left rosary, trident, discus, conch, drum and water-pot. 
This is perhaps an aspect of Sakti. 

Two figures of Jetties (wrestlers) are carded on either side of the Sakti 
shrine and two on the side pillars. 

Two new inscriptions were found, one on a pillar in front of the Chamunde'svari 
temple, and the other on a Mastikal standing beside it. 




Alambgiri is a village in the Chintarnani Taluk. It has an old stone gate-way 
Tirumalanatha Te I leading in from the east and a temple of Tirumalanatha 

Svami, evidently of the late Yijayanagar days. 

The latter's inahadvta tower is about 65' high and is of brick and mortar with 
plenty of stucco figures, now out of repair. The doorway is about 12' high and lj' 
wide. On the inner side of the doorway are two granite figures in high relief : on 
the right side is a dancing woman, perhaps Mohini, standing at ease and hanging 
from creepers, with a monkey and parrot at the bottom ; on the left is a huntress, 
also Mohini perhaps, about 4' high, from whose foot a man, (may be Dakshina- 
murti) is removing a thorn. This mahadvara is a later structure built to support 
a larger one of earlier days, which has also a Gaja-Lakshmi on the lintel. There 
are two finely carved tall pillars, 15' high, with interesting figures among which 
may be mentioned : anthropoid Gandabherunda, dancing Krishna, Chandra, Hanu- 
man, Sarabha, Narasimha, Hiranyakasipu and Lakshrni Narasimha. 

To the right of the doorway, on the inside, is the kalyanamantapa which has 1 
five pairs of ornamental pillars, 12' high, the others being plain. It appears to 
have been built in two instalments, the portion with the raised dais being earlier. 

The garbhagriha, which is small, contains a stone image of Yenkates'a, 2| r 
high, accompanied by Sri and Bhu. There are also metallic images of these deities 
serving as utsavamtirtis. 

The Sukhanasi (6' x 7') is also very plain, its doorway being about 5' x 2J'. 
The navaranga (20' X 20') is supported by ornamental square pillars of the Yijaya- 
nagar type with sculptures on each face. These pillars are only 6' high. The 
whole structure is of granite. The larger and later navaranga is about 10' high, 
with pillars of the Dravidian type. In front of it is a mukhamantapa having ] 5 
pillars and pilasters, with the names of its builders carved on the floor. 

The temple has a copper plate grant of five plates with the signature in 
Kannada, ' Sri Venkatesa.' On the whole, the building has no extraordinarily 
interesting features. 

Murugamble is a hill about 600 feet high and nearly seven miles to the north of 
Murugamaie. Chintarnani. The old Hindu fortress on the hill, which 

is of the early 18th century, is now in ruins. 

The small $iva temple on a low hill adjoining the town is a post-Moslem 
structure of no great importance. It is built on a rock and has, around it, a high- 
compound wall enclosing an area of about 120' x 100'. Behind the temple is a 
tank which is the chief source of water supply to the town. 


On the hill there is a small Verikatararnanasvami temple belonging to the 
Palegar days. The temple of Chandramaullsa has a 

Venkataramanasvami garbhagriha (7'x7' and 6i' high) without any orna- 
Temple. mentation, containing a small Linga 'S" in height) and the 

utsavamurtis of Siva, Parvati and Ganapati. The sukha- 

nasi (6' X 6'), which is also very plain, contains a small Basava and an image of 
Chandikesvara. Flanking the sukhanasi are two chambers (7' X 6'), the one on the 
right containing Ganapati and that on the left, Parvati holding lotuses. The latter, 
which is about 3' high, is the best figure in the temple The navaranga (25' X25') 
has four plain pillars and contains a well ornamented Nandi, about 2' high and 
3' long. 

On the left side of the hill, near the foot, there is a large cave called inTelugu 1 
' Edurlagavi.' According to local tradition, the people of seven villages used to take 
refuge in it when hostile armies approached. 

Fakir Shah Wali Darga is a brick structure, about 40' X 20,' with a number of 

small minarets. It has two chambers, the one on the 

Moslem Dargas. east containing two tombs and having a low dome about 

15' in diameter. One of the tombs is of Fakir Shah 

himself and the other, of his wife. The back chamber of this darga has the tombs of 
Fakir Shah's children. The Shah is said to have had a friend, Khaki Shah Wali, 
whose Darga, situated at Nimbkainahalli, about 3 miles further to the east, is said 
to be a large and important structure with a tank, etc., built by Hyder and Tippu. 
On the west side of the hill, at its foot, is a ruined town with a fortress and 

fortgate called ' Puranipet ' or : Cbalamakote, 5 said by the 

The Ruined Town. Moslems to have been built about three hundred years ago 

by one Latif Sahib who came from Bijapur. In this 

ruined town there is a temple of Venugopala, a plain structure intact and very 
similar to the Isvara temple in the new town, but slightly larger. Its garbhagriha has 
a Venugopala image, 2J' high, of the Palegar days, flanked by a goddess on each side. 
The old town was deserted after the great famine of the cyclic years Dhatu and Isvara. 
Two furlongs away is a group of new houses forming a Mutt called Muktagiri 

Mat ha founded by one Siddhalingasvami about thirty 

Muktagiri Matha. years ago, near the perennial spring called ' Ohakra tirtha/ 

The latter originates in a cave and is led to a finely built. 

little pond (6' X 6') with a ' Basavanabhavi ' leading into it. The pond appears to 
have been an old Hindu structure. Below it is built another larger tank now in 
use- A broken slab containing the Saptamatrika figures is kept in. the cave. 

Near the Mutt is a new temple containing an old blackstone Linga, about % 
high (on a pedestal 4' high) 3 apparently of tbe Ch6la times. It was removed here, 
from the old town at the foot of the hill. 



About two furlongs further on, is the Muktesvara temple which is a small 
structure. To its north on a boulder is found a Kannada inscription of six lines, 
which belongs to the reign of Rajendra Chdla (See Ep. Carn. X, Chintamani, 153). 
In the neighbouring sloping ground plenty of Pandu-gudis are said to have 

existed in the past and potsherds are found strewn about 

Neoliths. even now. Up the slopes of the hill neoliths can be 

collected. A sample was obtained. 



About five miles to the east of Srinivaspur, is the ancient site of Haralakotie, 
In the water courses on the way at a depth of 4' to 6' are seen plenty of potsherds 

sticking out of the earth. On the south side of the old 

Old town site. town are large boulders arranged like a fort and the gound 

slopes northward. In the high ground, certain creeks are 

found through which appear bones and pottery. The pottery ware, however, is 
peculiar, some pieces being glazed red and black and some resembling the 
Chandravalli dolmen pottery. Those of the latter type are found 4 feet below the 

In the jungle are two Bana inscriptions (Ep. Carn. X Srinivaspur 5 and 6) 

n , . x . both more than half buried in red alluvial earth. 

Bana inscriptions. 

To the northwest of the hill (No. 1), about a hundred yards away, there is a 
large slab of granite (4' x5') on which is a relief figure of a man (4') fighting a tiger 
in defence of a cow which stands behind him. Above are drawn a chamara bearer 
.and a goddess. This is probably a viragal of Bana times. Another slab found on 
the way has a trident mark. 

Between the next two hills (Nos. 2 and 3) there is a mound, about 40 feet in 
diameter and 12' high, which looks very artificial on account of its smooth sides 
formed of laterite gravel. It looked like a Buddhist stupa mound but its contents 
were not examined. 

A cave, winding and long, leads into the side of hill No. 3. On the top of this 
hill, a modern flat stone slab is set up as a pillar. The old pillar inscription has 
now disappeared. 


Avani is a well known place of pilgrimage about 10 miles to the south of Mul- 
bagal. Close to it is a hill connected by tradition with an episode in the life of 
Slta, the heroine of the Ramayana. 


On the way to the hill at its foot stands a large rock on which are said to have 

been a nurober of inscriptions now lost by quarrying slabs, 
Inscriptions. Ep. Cam. X. Mulbagal 61 exists but another copied by Rao 

Bahadur Narasimhachar is reported to have been lost, 

' Met In' is a single rock with about 200 steps cnt in it. The piled rock 
called .' Totlu gundu ' is associated witb the story that Sita watched from its top 
the battle between her sons standing on a rock half-a-mile away (Lava-Kusara, 
bande) and Bama standing on a similar rock (Rainana bande) near Ganja gunte. 

To its north is a rock on which are numerous heaps of three or more stones 
which childless mothers erect as apologies for temple towers and after a year return 
with their children to offer worship. The children are named Kama, Lava, Kusa 
and Sita. The Bam&svara temple in the town was probably similarly built by 
Devambika (Ep. Car. X, Mulbagal 38), a Nolarnba Queen who lost her first son 
Vira-Mahendra Nolambadhiraja and desired to see her younger son Iriva Nolamba, 
come to the throne. 

A little higher up is a cave called ' Yalmtki-gavi ' with a bas-relief of a rishi in 

padmasaiia wearing ' jata ' and holding a rosary. There is-, 

Valmiki Cave. an inner cave pointed out as the birth chamber of Lava 

and Kusa. The cave leads further downward. Near 

Valmiki is a figure of Virabhadra with Daksha by bis side engraved 011 the rock. 
It is pointed out as Janaka. 

Nearby is an old temple with five large black lingas, probably of the Ch6la 
times. These are attributed to the five Pandavas. 

A doorway leads inside a fortress with two gates piercing a rude stone wall. 

Inside it is a small pond pointed out as the ( Kashaya tirtha ' where Stta is said to 

have washed her clothes. Near it is a ' halade ' (milk-feeder) engraved on the rock. 

A little to the north and facing north is a large overhanging rock converted 

into a chamber (15' x 12' and 6' high) with a pair of green 

Lava-Kusa Gudi. stone lingas, 9" high, called the 'Lava-Kusa' lingas.' 

The temple is called ' Lava-Kusa gudi.' The roof rock 

has about twenty cavities, less than 1-J' deep, which are pointed out as ' Lava- 
Kus"ara totlu ' (i.e. the cradle of Lava and Kusa), ' Sita handi ' (the cooking pot of 
Sita), etc., said to have been overturned by Hanuman to prevent people from 
treading on them. The hande, being of granite, gives a metallic sound. On the 
floor are a number of inscribed names of votaries : Dfivaroma, Kamalamma, etc. 
To its south is the Kantaramma temple, a small structure of the Chola type, 

with a garbhagriha (6'x6'), a sukhanasi (5' X 5') and a. 

Kantaramma Temple, navaranga (14' X 12'), the last having four rounded pillars 

of granite, 6' high, the work done under the Chola 

governors of Ballala III. The black linga (1J ; ) in the garbhagriha is mounted on 



an octagonal pedestal (!' high). The navarariga has its real doorway to the south, 
bub there is a later one to the north opposite to the Sita temple. On the lintel of 
the main door is Gajalakshrni flanked by Chamara hearers. On the rock in front, 
votaries have inscribed a trident (trisula). 

About a hundred feet higher up, there is a cleft in the rocks, 100 feet long and 

6 feet broad, called * Dhanushkoti.' Lakshmanais said to 

Dhanushkoti. have created it for Sita's bath. On the northern rock are 

numerous inscriptions of names, divine feet, standing 

figures, bulls and liigas, among which is E. C. X, Mb. 76 of Sugatur Tammiah's 
sister and one of Ilavanji Vasudevaraya (E. C. X Mb. 78). Certain inscriptions, for 
instance, Mb. 79 (a) and (b), are now missing on account of quarrying. Such inter- 
ference with the valuable ancient records should be strictly forbidden. 

Inscription No. 77 is flanked by two large figures, five feet high. There is also 
a Telugu inscription in five lines of Pedda Appayya. On the south is a white patch 
shown as Lakshm ana's left foot. Fifty feet higher up is a large boulder with a 
horizontal crack shown as Sita's jewel box. To its east, a boulder with two hori- 
zontal clefts is pointed out as the place where Lava and Kusa tested their swords 
before fighting. Near it is the pool ' Brahma tirtha.' 

On the top of the hill stands the famous temple of Sita. To the west is a cave 
pointed out as the place where Rama and Sita played at 

The Hill Top. dice. At the western end of the hill top is a large rock 

over which is another boulder, thus forming a horizontal 

crevice (1J') in between. Here, women, desirous of children, roll from the west side 
to the east and after bathing in the 'Dhanushk6ti' pool, they pray to Sita for children. 
To the north is a rock called 'Kurchi gundu' (chair boulder) on which Rama is 
said to have sat while Sita entered the fire in the cleft to its west. The rock looks 
like a high -backed chair. A little lower down is another rock where Rama's sacrificial 
horse is said to have eaten into the stone causing a cavity (3' x3' X2'). 

The temple of Sita-Parvati is a modest structure perched on the top rock which 
slopes to the east. It has only a garbhagriha (12' X 3') 

Sita-Parvati Temple. and a mukhamantapa of twelve rough pillars. The image 

is in a rock shelter formed by an overhanging boulder. It 

appears to be a cave temple of the Nolamba-Pallava period. On the boulder is a 
modern tower of brick and mortar. The temple doorway (5' x &!') is of granite 
stone with ornamentations similar to those of the Nolamba period. 

The shrine has two images, about 2-|' high, of which the one now worshipped 
has the following attributes (clockwise) abhaya, padma, padma, dana. But the other 
stone image, only in relief, is more beautiful and was dug out about twenty years 
ago from the back of the cave. It was not present during Mr. R. Narasimhachar's 
visit in 1911 A. D. Evidently, it is the original image buried either by neglect or 


ior fear of the Moslems. It has a fine kuita and the following attributes in its 
hands abhaya, chakra, sankha, katihas'ua. Vaishnavl-sakti has also the same 
signs. But this image is possibly of Slta to whom the whole hill is dedicated. 

Before the ruder and more recent image is a ' yantra ' said to have been set up 
by Adi-Saiikara. There are several modern inscriptions in Kannada characters on 
the rocks near about. One of them in the mantapa reads ' Koneriya-Kambaya 
Kotara madisida '. This refers bo the construction of the temple or at least of a 
part thereof. 

The most important monument at Avani is the temple of Kames'vara which is 
of considerable antiquity. 

The mahadvara, yagasala and kalyanamantapa are of the thirteenth century 

when Ilvanji Vasudevaraya was governor of the province. 
The Old Site. Opposite to the south mahadvara is B. C. X Mb. 38 on a 

green stone pillar called ' Nagara kunte ' or ' $esha tlrtha '. 

To its south is a part of the basement of a large temple with a Tamil inscription 
mentioning Jayangondasola-mandalam, etc. Numerous parts of pillars are lying 
.about. Among the nagarkals is a piece of inscribed stone with Hale-Kannada 
characters. An inscription is submerged by the water of the tank. Local tradition 
states that a Vishnu temple was existing here formerly. To the west of the tank 
are three viragals with inscriptions. A granite pillar, said to have been called 
4 Ranastambha ' by Mr. R. Narasimhachar, stands nearby with an inscription. A 
rock by its side also contains an old Kannada inscription of seven lines (E. 0. X 
Mb. 62). 

In the group of Siva shrines we can see a distant development from the Mamalla- 

puram style of architecture. The arrangement, perforated 
Isvara Temple. windows, lines of light and shade, pilasters, friezes, lions 

and other ornamentations are Pallava in origin. The 

vimanas, however, are all modern and of brick. To the north of Lakshmanes"vara, 
above the S6masutra there is an inscription reading i Tribhuvana-kartara-bhatar ' 
and an image is seated by its side on a padma with the sacred thread, jolige or rice 
bag, rudraksha-mala and lamp. The perforated screens have Dakshinamurti, 
Tandavesvara and Ghamutida figures and scroll work. The friezes contain 
elephants, yalis, lions, etc. The central ceiling of the Bharatesrara and Lakshma- 
nesvara navaranga has the 'Dikpalas ' with Uniamahe~svara in the centre. It is not 
certain whether these come from Ilavanji Yasudevaraya's time or from the late 
Pallava period. The pillar to the east of the Rama temple is 14 feet high and has a 
Nolamba inscription. 

In the Ramdsa navaranga, i. e. : the second one, there are, in front, figures of 
IJavanji Vasudeva (4' high) and his brother Khande-Raya (4J' high) who ruled at 
Kurudumale for a long time as subordinates of Ballala III. Between these is a figure 


of Sdrya and behind a Tamil inscription. There is also a large Nandi in the nava- 
ranga. The pillars are composite with a rearing lion in each corner. In the first 
navaranga which is of Nolainba times, the pillars are round and sixteen sided. 

The suklianasi has a fine figure of Kamakshi (brought} from Kathari Saluva's 
temple) with the following attributes abhaya, padma, dana. The garbhagriha 
(10' X 8') contains a large black linga. 

In Yasudevaraya's navaranga to the north is a small cell with an image of 
Sita-Parvatl, three feet high, which, being of poor workmanship, raises a doubt 
whether it belongs at all to the 13th century. To the right of Yasude'va Eaya is a 
Narayana image. 

The Anjanesvara and Satrughnesvara temples are small and plain structures, 
also Pallava in form. 


This town which was destroyed by Moslem troops under a raider locally called 
Walls Medis, contains a very large temple of the Dravidian type with three 
mahadvaras of which the first was a gigantic structure. This is now ruined, the 
second partly ruined and the third tolerably intact. The second has a great 
compound wall of stone running round an. area measuring about 350' X 250'. The 
third mahadvara has a gdpura (about 50' high) of brick work like the Yijayanagar 
temples. The doorway (12' x 6') is of granite with an inscription of six lines in 
Kannada (E. C. X Mb. 96). The threshold and stones nearby bear Tamil inscrip- 
tions. The temple itself has a copper plate inscription of Saka 1353 corresponding 
to A. D. 1431. 

The walls of the temple are plain . The pillars are 12' high in the mukhamantapa, 
The floor of the mantapa is full of votary effigies and names. 

The Durga temple has a figure, about 5 feet high, of Durga seated on a lion to. 
front, holding khadga, chakra, saiikha and trisula. The whole group is made up 
of one greenish stone. 


Kurudumale, about 6 miles north-west of Mulbagal, was a local capital in the 
Hoysala times. It has several interesting antiquities, 

Maha-Ganapati Temple. Of these, the Maha-Ganapati temple appears to have been 

built in two instalments. The ruined mah&dvara and 

prakara, traces of which are still visible, appear to have been of the Yijayanagar 
period. The mukhamantapa with its twenty-four tall pillars (about 12' high) is also. 
of the Yijayanagar period. An inscription in Grantha characters (E. C. X. Mb. 180) 
on a greenish stone slab is kept in the mantapa. There is a large green stone rat 
& high and 3' long) with trappings, etc., in the mantapa (vide Annual report for 


1914. p. 21). Formerly it was perhaps in the open and the Vijayanagar people 
may have constructed a mantapa covering it. 

The navaranga is a large one (25' X 25'). In it, to the south, is a large figure of 
Kumara on a peacock, ahout 5 feet high in all a beautiful figure of greenish 
stone, which was rescued from a ruined temple situated to the south. His twelve 
hands are thus disposed: abhaya, pasa, chakra, khadga, ankusa, sula, vajra, kodanda, 
buckler, (doubtful), gada and dana. 

An extra ankana forms the sukhanasi (10' X 8'). This and the garbhagriha 
appear to be partly of greenish stone. The doorway is flanked by two fine 
ornamental pillars. The garbhagriha (20' x 14' and 16' high) is a large one with 
two pillars in front. These pillars have 16 solid shafts between cubical mouldings 
with carvings on them. Near the pillar on the north, are two figures, one of 
Yaishnavl, recently made, and the other of Bhairava, neither of them being 

The Maha-Ganapati image is seated on an oval seat, 1J' high, which is raised 

on an oblong pedestal, 2 feet high. The oval seat and the 

Colossal Ganesa. image are all of the same green stone and form one piece. 

The image is a beautiful, well-proportioned one about 8J 

feet high excluding the seat. It holds the usual tusk piece, aiikus'a, pas"a and apupa, 
to the last of which the god is helping himself with his trunk. He wears a snake 
girdle, his sacred thread, necklaces of ' rudraksha ' and golden ' rudrakshi '. A 
snake encircles him like the sacred thread. The girth of the belly is about 12 to 13 
feet. Near him, on the west face of the north east pillar, is the relievo image of the 
builder of the temple. 

The finest structure at the place is the Somesvara temple. It has a 
garbhagriha (20' X 10') and a sukhanasi (10' X 8') with an. 

Somesvara Temple. ornamental doorway flanked by two octagonal pilasters well 

carved with beaded work as in the Chennakesava temple. 

The extra ankana is also seen here. The navaraiiga (25' X 25') is supported by four 
pillars with, sixteen sided shafts and cubical mouldings. Each face is beautifully 
carved with finely finished Saiva and Vaishnava images and dancing figures. Near 
the west wall of the navaranga are kept a Ganapati and a Nagaresvara linga brought 
from its own temple, now ruined. Against the north wall are now kept the 
following in order : 

(1) Bhairava with canine teeth, moustaches and flames near head, holding 

tiisula, damaru, sarpa and kapala. 

(2) Dakshmamurti with chinmudra, sarpa, jata and talapatra. Crossing his 

left leg over the right he is seated on a hill treading on a ' rakshasa ' ; 
a ' rishi ' is listening, 

(3) A linga. 


(4) An alvar with hand in chinmudra,jata and no *yajfl6pavlta' . 

(5) i Chennakes'ava (brought from his ruined temple 12 years ago), about. 
(6H five feet high, with the following attributes: abhaya, ohakra, saiikha. 
(7) ) katihasta and standing between Sri and Bhu, 4 feet high. The image 

is possibly Yenkatesa. 

(8) Small Hanuman (9"j. 

(9) Raraanujacharya (also brought from the Chennakesava temple), 1^' 

high, with the danda resting on shoulder and hands folded in anjali. 
He is seated in padmasana and wears the sacred thread, sikha, tulasi- 
inala and a necklet. 

(10) A smaller Chennakesava, similar to No. 6 (3' in height). 

(11) A female devotee, 3' high. 

(12) A Nagarakal. 

(13) A male devotee. 

Against the east wall are the following : 
(1) Nandi. 
(3) Ilavanji Vasudeva Raya and his consorts. 


(5) Nandi. 

(6) } Two male devotees with sacred thread, shown as Jakanachari andi 

(7) y Dakanachari. The figures are 9" high and are cut out in relief on 

the wall. 

Each one of the figures on the pillars is well executed. The figure of a lion 
killing an elephant on the south east pillar (bottom, south face) may refer to the 
Hoysala conquest of the Gangas. 

The navaranga door is to the south and has in front a porch of 12' X 10'. 
Two pillars of the latter are as beautiful as those of the navaranga. 

The vimanas of the Somesvara and Parvatl temples are brick structures of the 
composite Dravidian type midway between the Pallava and Vijayanagar periods. 
They are of the Ch6la form but smaller. The garbhagrihas of this period have a. 
wooden beam inserted among the ceiling slabs to let down a chain for a water vessel 
(dharapatra) for abhisheka. 

To the north stands the Kamakshi temple of similar design, but plain and 
without ornamentation. The image is beautiful and five feet high. (Hands: 
abhaya, padma, padma and^dana). 

North of the town are two pillars resembling a t6rana. Near them is pointed 

out a place where a Vaisya woman named ^riyamma 

Site of Old Town, performed ' sati/ Plenty of Virarayi lianas of the ordinary 

kind are said to be found nearby. On the site of the old 


town can be picked up coins of the Elephant type with sun and moon on top and 
chequered reverse. These coins may be of not merely old Mysore but also of late 
provincial Vijayanagar types. Yira Ballala III ruled all this country and issued 
the Virarayi hanas. (See Annual Eeport for 1929, page 27). 

Near the hill and spread over several square miles are ruined walls showing 
the great extent of the town. Worked stones are turned up in every excavation : and 
among these are reported to have been found a 'Buddha' (Parsvanatha probably) and 
numerous other images. The 'Buddha' is now said to be in Kolar or in the Buddha 
temple at the Kolar Gold Fields. The place is very promising for excavation. 

In the pujari's house are several copper images of Ganapati, the most notable 
one of which is a small figure of a ten-handed Lakshmi- G-anapati with ' Balamuri ' 
trunk (to right), seated on mouse and with a goddess on his lap. 


Mulbagal (correctly Mudala bagilu or Eastern gate of the highland) was the 

seat of the Viceroys of the Vijayanagara Empire. It 

Anjaraeya Temple. has a number of old monuments. The largest building 

in the place is the Anjaneya temple. Its mahadvara is 

a late Yijayanagar structure with a modern (19th century) gopura, about 55 feet 
high. The compound is about 250' x 150'. The main temple is now in the form 
of a * trikutachala ' with three vimanas of the Yijayanagar type. It has a 
1 garbhagriha ' (10' X 10'), a ' sukhauasi ' (10' X 8') and a ' navaranga ' (28' x 25') with 
several ankanas converted into rooms like the ' Sayanamantapa/ The floor is full 
of votive relievos and names which deserve detailed examination. 

The main image is a colossal bas-relief, about 10' high, and of no great 
sculptural importance. In the sukhanasi are kept the ' utsava ' images of the 
Bama group. The temple has in all ten gods which are worshipped. 

The Yithala temple also belongs to the Vijayanagar period. The mahadvara, 

about 40' high, the gdpura and prakara wall are all in ruins, 

Vithaia Temple. while the navaranga is leaking. The main building, 

however, is intact. The main god, about 5' high, has two 

hands abhaya and sankha and Sri and Bhu on the sides. The 'utsava murti' is 
not Yithaia but Janardana and has four hands with abhaya, chakra, sankha and 
gada (?) On a floor slab in the niukhamantapa is a Kannada inscription. 

At the back of the prakara wall, with face to west, is the Krishnananda matha 
with a Vdmigopala image. 

The S6mes"vara temple is a very plain temple of granite with a natural linga, 

about 1' high, on a low seat, 4" in height. The main temple 

Somesvara Temple. consisting of the garbhagriha (8' X 8'), the sukhanasi 



(10' X 8') and the goddess 1 shrine appears to be of the time of Ilavanji Vasudeva 
Bay a as is shown by an inscription in Grantha characters on the basement of that 
portion of the outer wall of the sukhanasi which is now included in a strong room. 
The extra arikana, the navaranga (excluding its outer walls which are also of 
Vasudevaraya's time) and the rest of the temple are all of the Vijayanagar period. 
The pillars in the navaranga are, as in the Vijayanagar period, square and have carved 
figures. The image of Devi (Kamakshtj is 3j-' high. In the compound lies a 
beautiful stone image of Kumara with the peacock's head broken. 

The darga is a Hindu temple facing east, converted into a Moslem tomb. In 
the navaranga are two tombs of Hyder Vali and Haji 

Hyder Vali Darga. Maccai. The door is evidently of a temple with the 

usual ornamental work. The -old pillars are still seen in 
the navaranga and mukhamantapa. 

Between the navaranga and the mukhamantapa there is a pillar of the square 
Vijayanagar type, which is said to be of glass but is really only of stone. The 
pillars have been deprived of images except the ornamental floral work and lion. 

The south door is also of a temple. The old temple tank is situated' on the 
north (200' X 150'). 

The- mukhamantapa is too well carved to be a work of the Vijayanagar 
period. If it is the latter, the workmanship is surprisingly good. Probably it is of 
earlier times. 


The neighbourhood of Kolar has many places of archseological interest. One 

of the most popular spots is the source of the Antaragange, 

- Visvesvara Temple. a stream taking its rise on the Kolar hill. Nearby is the 

temple of Visvesvara, a small Dravidian structure, with its 

garbhagrihas facing east and opening into a two-pillared navaranga. The whole 
temple is very plain and appears to date from the Palegar days. Theliiiga (2' high) 
in the central garbhagriha and four others kept in the navaranga seem to be old 
ones of the Granga and Chola days rescued from the ruins of the temples in the 
neighbourhood. In the right garbhagriha is Grane'sa and in the left one, Parvati. 
A small Chandikesa, image is kept in the navaranga as also a small modern looking 
Nandi. The outside of the temple has a row of bas-relief figures of Saiva images, 
some of which have been used for a parapet wall nearby. A new verandah has 
been constructed in front of the temple. Two rooms meant for Government Officers 
adjoin the temple on the north. The temple is not of archaeological or archi- 
tectural importance. 

The stream itself takes its origin among the rocks to the south of the temple 
Antaragange. and is led by a drain into a small tank (3' deep) from 


which another drain leads it through the mouth of a bull to the large tank 
(50' X 35') below. Therefrom the water flows down towards Kilukdte. It is a poinfc 
for consideration whether the dynastic name ' Gaiiga ' may not have originated 
from ' A ntara- Grange.' Above the bull from whose mouth water falls is a 
{ brindavana ' and on its top a vimana of brick and mortar of the Palegar times. In 
the centre of the lower tank stands a small mantapa with a Gariapati in it. A 
number of votive names like Kabe-Devaru, etc., are carved on a rock near it. 

Before the water issues out of the bull's mouth, it is made to wash the feet of 

a standing image (1-J' high) of Vishnu in the form of 
Vishnu Image Venkatesa with the following attributes : padma pointing: 

downwards, chakra, sankha and katihasta. 

Yibhutipura is a ruined old town at the foot of the hill. In it is a very 

old granite temple of Nilakanthesvara. On the basement 

Vibhutipura. of the back of the temple, there are three Tamil inscrip- 

tions. The temple has a garbhagriha (10' x 8'), a sukhanasi 

<7'x6') and a navarariga (22'x22') with a passage ankana (6'x6') The 
garbbagriha contains a black stone linga (1-J' high) 011 a pedestal (3' high). The 
navaranga has a broken Ganesa image. The garbhagriha and the sukhanasi 
doorways are somewhat ornamental. In the ceiling of the garbhagriha there is 
only a padma but in that of the sukhanasi there is a pendent bud in the padma. 
The navaranga has four round bell-shaped pillars. On the lintel of the navaranga 
doorway there is a linga with a bull on each side. The doorway is flanked by 
dvarapalas, The mukhamantapa is modern, perhaps of the Palegar times, and on 
the side of the front left central pillar is a fragmentary Tamil inscription, probably 
part of an inscription stone, used as a pillar. The ruined vimana of the temple is 
of brick and perhaps of Vijayanagar times. 

In the town of Kolar, the most popular place of worship is the temple of 

Kolarainma. It has no g6pura. The mahadvara (12' X 6') 

Kolaramma's Temple, is finely ornamented with Gaja-La.kshmi in green stone 

on the lintel. On each jamb is a female attendant, about 

4' high, in high relief and creeper work with sculptured figures in the convolutions. 
Most of these figures are terrible in look and highly vigorous though lacking in 
finish, being of granite. The square pillars (2' thick) inside the mahadvara have 
sculptured figures on each face twelve on each, mostly in vigorous attitudes. The 
front figure to our left appears to be that of a Vijayanagar ruler or governor who 
perhaps got the mahadvara constructed. The other figures are of dancers, Kali in 
various forms, KMrigamardana, etc. The arches of plaster work on the sides are 
post-Moslem. The inner doorway of the mahadvara is also carved. On the jambs 
are large figures of females each of whom is having a thorn removed from her foot 
{Mohinl ?). While this mahadvara has no prakara wall, the second one has a, 



prakara with a ruanlapa of fourteen pillars of which four belong to the sixteen-sided 
type bearing, like the basement, Tamil inscriptions. The inner-temples and outer 
walls are covered with inscriptions mostly in Grantha characters with a few in 

In the garbhagriha there are the stone images (2' high) of. the c Saptarnatrlkas' 
with Dakshinamurti to the right and Vinayaka to the left. Of these, Chamunda 
faces south and is larger than the others, being 3' high in the posture of sitting 
and fighting. She has a simple floral ' torana ' with a seat under which lies a 
demon. In her eight hands she holds : dagger, damaru, sword, thumb and fore- 
finger joined together in dancing pose, (doubtful), buckler, cobra, kapala. She 
is dancing after killing the demon and her ' kirita ' has death's head in the centre 
with a cobra and the moon on the sides, while flames are darting forth upward. 
A * Sriyantra ' has been installed before her. 

In the middle ankana stands the image of KapAla-Bhairavl, five feet high, 
with her face to the wall. She is naked with a dagger in the right hand and a 
'kapala' or bowl in the left and has katihasta. This' deity is said to cure 
scorpion stings. 

In the southern cell which has four pillars, are stucco colossi of the c Sapta- 
rnatrikaB ' and the ( utsavamurti ' of Kdlaramma. It is not known whether the 
former have come down to us from the Pal lava days when stucco images were 
popular. In the northern navaranga are a large image (3' high) of Chandikes'vara 
and a small one said to be that of a Chdla (Eaja-Baja?). The former has tris"ula, 
damaru, sarpa and kapala, wears * rudrakshamala ', is naked and has Gang& and 
death's head in ' kirita ' with flames darting forth. 

To the left of the original temple is an extension of the Ohola times. The 
original temple may be earlier than the Ohola period as seen by the stone parapet 
work outside. The Ohola figure (!' high) is really that of a Siivaishnava with 
'chakra' and sankha branded on the upper arms and wearing the three-line 
' vadagalai' caste mark on the forehead. 

In the outer compound of the Kolararnrna temple, at the back, are kept three 
slabs of which one has a Kannada inscription of ten lines and the other two are 
memorial stones of two persons who offered themselves to the goddess with 
their own hands. To the south of the inner mahadvara, there is a large slab 
(7' X 5') containing a battle scene. On the right (of us) is arrayed a large army 
of horsemen and footmen with a leader seated on an elephant and holding a javelin. 
A queen overlooks the battle from a mantapa along with her maids. On the left 
is another army of footmen with a large horse from which the hero of the battle, 
a figure 2J ; high, has dismounted and with a curved sword in one hand and an 
oblong shield in another is fighting the man on the elephant. The hero is a king 
as seen by the umbrella and the two chamaras held aear the horse. Above him 


is a small figure riding on a stag and moving towards the queen. Evidently the hero 
is fighting for his queen who has been attacked by the enemy while travelling with 
her kit. It must be a viragal. The bottom (1J') is worn out so that no inscription 
is now visible. 

The Somdsvara temple is large in dimensions. Its kalyanamantapa, which is 

of green stone, has around the ' Bhuvanes" vari ', the eight 

Somesvara Temple. Dikpalas on the beams and dancing figures above. The 

composite pillars are exquisitely carved. The mantapa 

appears to belong either to the days of the Ballalas or to the time to which the 
kalyanainantapa of Naridi belongs. Ve"nugopala on the south-east pillar has four 
hands holding in the lower two a flute, in the upper right chakra and in the 
upper left saiikha. The vimana of the main temple is of comparatively later 
times, possibly of the Yijayanagar period. The main liriga is large and of 
the Chola type. The other images in the temple are of Kumara, Vlrabhadra and 
Ganesa. The mukhamantapa is 15' high and Dravidian in style. 

The granite mahadvara (14' X 8' } of the S6mesvara temple is finely carved 
with a pendent lotus in the central ceiling. The work appears to be of the Vijaya- 
nagar period. To its north is a large tank (100' x 100') called^ gaja gundla' with 
fine stone steps on all sides. 

Near the old reading room building is kept a granite statue (3' high) of a seated 
Tlrthankara in l yoga ' posture and padmasana. A beautiful Buddha image which 
was formerly in the District Office compound is now reported to be worshipped 
in a temple in Kolar G-old Fields. (See notes on Kurudumale, page J7 above.) 

The chief Moslem building of Kolar town is the Makbara, which contains 

the graves of numerous relations of Hyder AH. The 

Makbara. neighbourhood was a Hindu town later on converted into a 

Moslem graveyard. There is a ' matha ' called ' Ohayarn- 

mana rnatha ' and a few mantapas. The latter have been used as graves. The 
posts of the Makbara, 34 nearly, are held by hereditary servants of whom some are 
Hindus including the clerk. Every evening 27 poor Moslems are fed according to 
.a register. Travellers too are fed. The Makbara celebrates three urses' for: 
(1) Hyder's father, (2) first step-mother and (3) his own mother. 

The persons buried in the Makbara are twelve in all (See sketch plan 
Plate V.I). 

1. Khoolsin Blbi Hyder's first wife- 

2. Muhammad Bhalool Step-brother of Hyder. 

3. Nawab Fatheh Ali Khan Sahib Father of Hyder. 

4. Sultan Shah Saidani Blbi First step-mother of Hyder. 

5. Muhammad Ali Sahib Step-brother of Hyder. 

6. Muhammad Vali Sahib do 


7. Sakina Bibi alias Khaja Bibi Grandmother of Hyder. 

8. Mohammad All Khan Sahib Grandfather of H-yder, 

9. Ohand Bibi Second step-mother of Hyder. 

10. Muhammad All Sahib Step-brother of Hyder. 

11. Muhammad Shahbaz All Khan Sahib Own brother of Hyder. 

12. Eazia Begum Own mother of Hyder. 

In the compound there are two buildings : the Darga which faces north and the 
Mosque. Only Hyder's father has a dome in the ceiling over his tomb with a low 
tower above. The building is like a stone mantapa only and of no architectural 
importance. The walls are of raw brick and one yard thick. To the north is a 
large tank (150' X 120'). Outside and inside the compound are numerous Moslem 
graves and Hindu pillars bearing bulls, etc. 

Naga-kunte is a large pond (200' X 100') with a partly submerged mantapa in 
the middle and the temples of Yenkataramana and Nanjundesvara to its north. 


Garudanahalli is a village two miles north of Narasapur (a place in Malur 
G , , . Taluk) nine miles from Kolar. To the south of Garuda- 

nahalli is a low range of gneiss granite hills extending 

to the Kolar hill range. To the north of the Kendatti hill is a wide pasture 
ground overgrown with bushes. Here, spread over an area of nearly half a square 
mile, are about a hundred cromlechs. Nearly half of them are said to have been 
opened mostly by Mr. Cooke of the Kolar Gold Fields in 1914. He photographed 
the excavations and sent the pottery to European museums. 

The typical cromlechs have a ring of about thirty large rough stones all 
around with a head stone, a slab of eight or ten feet high, three feet wide and one 
foot thick. The diameter of the ring is about 20 feet and each stone is of about 
two or three cubic feet. In the middle of the ring, almost on a level with the 
ground, is a large slab (about 15'xl5'xl|-' generally). Below this slab is a 
chamber of slabs (8' X 5' X 5') the corners being cemented with mortar sometimes. 
There is a bottom slab, below which fine sand is found. The east slab has 
invariably an artificial hole, about 1-|-' in diameter, with a round slab fitting into it 
and covering it. Inside the chamber are found fired and wheel-tnrned earthen pots of 
various sizes and shapes (4' to 2'' high). Some of these are like the ones in the Ban- 
galore Museum, with three legs. Some are rough on the outside and thick-walled,, 
while otbers, especially the black or bicoloured ones, are glazed and thin-walled. 
The broken pieces of a blade, perhaps of iron, and a brass (?) ring werealso found. 
Some pots contained ashes. Fo coins or bracelets were discovered. The place 
appears to be a prehistoric necropolis and is one of great promise to the excavator.. 




1. (p. 21). 





Mysore Archceological Survey.] 

2. (p. 23). 





1. Siddapur inscripfcion of Asoka. 

2. Brahmagiri inscription of As*oka. 

3. Cromlechs and cists. 

4. Bile guiidu (Gare gundu). 

5. Akkatangiyara gudi. 

6. Eocky pathway. 

7. Mound of Durga temple. 
8, Yiragals. 

9. Pete area of Haneya. 

10. Viraballala's inscription. 

11. Old forfc wall. Jali katte. 

12. Pagadesalu gudda. 

13. Mound of small temple, 

14. Jain temple. 

15. Pathway among rocks. 

16. Mahal. 

17. Water in cave. 

18. foundations of palace. 

19. Lakshmi temple. 

20. Hulikunte. 

21. Borekunte. 

22. Mounds of small stones. 

23. Valley with neoliths. 

24. Perennial spring (Pallakki Chilume) . 

25. Village Boppa. 

26. Cromlechs, dolmens, and kistveans (Mauryara-mane), 

27. Old town site, 

28. Pits dug for bones formerly. 

29. Uduvalagoridi. 

30. Underground spring and cave. 

31. Mound with potsherds. 

32. Brick foundations near the road. 

33. Way to Hanuniapur. 

34. Way to Jatiiiga Ramesa hill. 

35. Way to Siddapur and high road. 


The neighbourhood of Siddapur in the Molakalrnuru Taluk is already well known 

to archaeologists owing to the occurrence of three minor 

Brahmagiri. rock edicts of As'dka (See Plate V-2). The best preserved 

of these records is close to Brahmagiri or the Bharmagiri 

hill which we first explored. There are three ways leading up this hill. The 
first is from Boppa, on the south-east, the second from near the Jain temple at 
H&neya, and the third from near the Akkatangi temple on the south-west. The 
.last is a dangerous rocky pathway leading up the hill fco the Mahal, but it is the 

The Mahal is the best building for many miles around. In the last century, 
an Ayya or Lingayat recluse got it built up for his 

The Mahal. residence, most of the materials except stone being 

brought up from below. It is a two-storied building of 

stone, bricks and mortar with a fine front. It has a small quadrangle inside 
(20' x 20'} from which doors open to three chambers finely plastered and with good 
flooring. The east chamber has an attached room with a stone safe in a wall, 
The upper floor has also three rooms and some glass doors and painted walls. 
The building commands fine views from all sides. To the south is the citadel hill 
with the old cementless fort wall, three of whose round bastions are visible. The 
latter have no cannon platforms but have musket holes and possibly belong to the 
16th or 17th century. There is also an old temple of the Chalukyan type. To 
the east is a wide plain overlooking part of the Bellary District, while to the north 
is the Bellary range with the Jatinga Ramesa hill and the Ghikka Hagari river in 
the foreground. To the west is also a hill range and we overlook Nagasamudra, 
Gourasamudra and Siddapur. On the south is the MolakaJmuru range of hills. 
Half way down the hill on the east there is a tank with lotus creepers, containing 
good water. To the west of the Mahal is a pool of dirty water and behind 
it a kitchen has been built. To the north-east of the Mahal among the 
rocks there is a cave with a long natural trough containing cool fresh water 
for drinking. 

The walls of the quadrangle have stucco figures among which are two couples 
(perhaps the donors of the building and their wives) and two Vaishnava dvarapalas. 
The bulls at the corners of the building show that the buildiag was built 
for a Saiva Ayya somewhere about 1850 A.D. as seen from the hooks for the 

Crossing a ravine, we come to the fort where we have the stone foundations 

of an important building, perhaps a palace, built on a. 

Foundations of Palace, terrace bounded by roughly worked stone beams. 

Potsherds are lying about and it can be seen that the 
building faced eastward. Passing through a breach in the fortwall by the side of 

an Anjaneya temple and two pools of water, we come to the Trisankesvara temple, 
Fortifications and a plainish 13th or 14th century structure of the 

Buildings. Chalukyan style. 

This building is typical of a prevalent local type and has a garbhagriha (8' X 8'), 

a sukhanasi (6'x6 ; ) and a iiavaranga (20'x20')* The 

Trisankesvara Temple, garbhagriha contains a linga (6') and a pedestal of black 

stone (10'), placed under a shallow lotus Bhuvanesvari. 

The garbhagriha doorway has aiva dvarapalas on the jambs. Above these are 
pilasters, the northern one having rounded mouldings. The lintel has projections 
and drops common to the Chalukyan and Hoysala work. All the ceilings of the 
temple are similar. The sukhanasi has a Naiidi of the 14th century type. The 
sukhanasi doorway has a Gaja-Lakshmi lintel supported by jambs with rhomboid 
floral ornamentation, all in granite. All round bhe door, except below, is a, 
perforated screen with square holes and below a kalasa is carved on each 

Beyond the pillar on the sides are niches now! containing a Granesa and aKesava, 
evidently brought here from some other temple. 

The open navaranga has nine ankanas with sixteen pillars and shallow padma 
ceilings with a large circular stone usually called Chandrasiia (about 6' in diameter) 
in the raised floor of the central square. The pillars have sixteen-sided fluted 
shafts with square mouldings at the bottom and in the middle, and round ones 
near the top. They are of granite and appear to belong to the 14th or 13th century. 
A stone railing, 2J' high, runs round the navaranga. 

In the navaranga are now kept also a granite G-anesa, a granite vtragal 
with four panels and an illegible modern Kannada inscription on soap-stone 
(Bp. Car. XII Ml. 20) of Irungola's son (13th century). 

The temple has above it only a pyramidical ' vimana ' with seven projecting 
dentil cornices and a square-bottomed ' slkhara ' with no kalasa above, (Plate V 4). 
The stones of the vimana are uncarved. The navaranga parapet has cornices as in 
the Hoysala platforms. 

Above the sukhanasi is a raised top looking like a projection of the virnana as 
on the Arsikere temple. 

Passing through another breach in the fort we pass by a rock on which a 

Palegar on horseback is going in procession with fifteen 

Relief Figures on swordsmen. A 'Begar' (messenger casteman) is drumming 

Rocks. on the opposite boulder by the side of a large stone platform, 

perhaps a gateway or the basement of a building, beyond 

which are the ' nirinakunte ' fin which there is a well with perennial water supply) 
and a rock. On the latter is a partly carved recent relief figure of Siddappa-devaru 
and a stone beam on which a man is stabbing himself. 



Vindhya mountains. In European prehistory, the latest date assigned to similar 
cultures is some centuries earlier fchan 1000 B.C. A detailed illustrated note on 
these trial excavations will appear in a subsequent report. Farther work on the 
site is expected to throw much light on the development of South Indian culture 
in the unknown past. 


At the commencement of the Siddapaur tank bund is a relief image on a rock 

with two long Vijayanagar inscriptions in Kannada above 

T j a it. Lower down there is a small temple of Ramacbandres'- 

vara with a garbhapriha and a porch of one ankana, both of 

them having a padma ceiling. The Gaja-Lakshmi lintel is supported by jambs on 
which kalasas are placed. The temple is probably of the 14th century. 

On the north side of the rock on which the temple stands is a Nolamba 
inscription ! in large old Kannada characters. Further to the north there is a 
boulder poised upon another and on its west face is a modern Kannada inscription 
recording a grant to Sanna-Hanumanta-Raya of the village. Further to the north, 
a boulder has another inscription. 2 Near it are carved figures of Ganesa, Linga and 
Basava, and a man and his wife (donors) prostrating before Gaiiesa, 


About two miles directly to the north of Siddapur is situated the large hill of 

Jatinga Rames'a (Plate VII-1). A comparatively fine 

Jatinga Ramesa Hill. flight of steps leads us past a Ganesa temple of probably the 

Nolamba period and two unimportant small shrines to the 

Asokan inscription on the hill. The JatiiLga Rames'a temple is built beyond the 
latter on the western height. (Plate VII-2.) 

In the central part of the hill on the topmost peak there is a small temple of 

Ramesa. We can reach it only by clambering up the 

.Hire Jatinga Ramesa. rocks from the direction of Sarma Jatinga Rame's'a and 

finally by climbing a tree and reaching the topmost rock. 

The pathway is very dangerous and difficult. On the top is a small temple, about 
9' square and 6' high, made up of a wodden mantapa, not more than two hundred 
years old, and of the rudely repaired ruined walls of a well constructed structure of 
brick jointed by mortar. The doorway in the north wall is closed by stone chips. 
Inside there is a white linga, small in size (4" diameter) and quite round on top. 
The bricks used here measure 12"X9" x2j". 

About 15' to the north of the temple, on the same rock, there is a circular 
trigonometrical survey mark inscribed and near it, a square hole evidently intended 

1 B. P. Cam. XII, Molakalmura 10. 2 Ibid, Ml. 11. 


About a hundred feet lower down on the way to Hulikunte is a huge rock, called 

' Elurapade' under which is a low cave, 2 to 3 feet high, and 

Efurapade. about 200' X 50' in area. Under the rock the people 

of seven villages are said to have been accidentally crashed 

long ago. 

Further down near Hulikunte are two old ruined temples the larger one of 

which is said to be of Bhagya-Lakshmi. It is very similar 

Hulikunte. to the Tri^ank^svara temple but now has neither the 

vimana nor the perforated screens. Its navaranga is 

protected by a recently added stone wall all around. Several iiagarkals are half 
buried by silt in the navaranga but no images exist now. The pillars are similar 
to those in the Trisankesvara temple. The temple faces east and to its north is a 
small one-ankana temple, with 110 image, called the Vtrabhadra temple. In front 
of it are three Saiva viragals of the usual type. 

On the face of some sloping rocks we descend to Brahmagiri (or Eoppa), a small 
village of about 100 houses of Nayaks and Gollas. To its south on a large stray 
boulder called G-auri gundu there is a Nagari inscription of three lines dated saka 
1121 1 . Below it is an outline engraving of a hero holding high an umbrella in his 
left hand and a circular thing in his right. 

Trial excavations of the mounds close to the Bramhagiri Eock Edict of Asoka, 

have revealed the existence of at least four different 

Trial Excavations. inhabited layers, one below the other, belonging to various 

epochs of time : the topmost layer consists of the stone 

walls of Haneya, a fortified Chalukyan town of c. 1100 A.D. ; the second contains 
the ruins of the Asokan town of Isila of c. 250 B.C ; below it, in the third layer, 
are the vestiges of a prehistoric Iron age town which must be many centuries older 
than the earliest known landmarks of South Indian History; and, lastly, the fourth 
and lowest layer contains the oldest remains. 

These last corne from a stone age settlement of the late rnicrolithic period, 
yielding numerous pygmy implements of chert, chalcedony and other varieties 
of stones, among which can be identified a tanged crystal arrow-head, finely 
retouched knife-blades, scrapers and small well-ground flat celts, triangular in shape. 
These are associated with shell and bone beads and coarse rough darkware pottery 
made up of clay, freely mixed with mica. The potsherds are varied showing marks 
of sunburning and firing, handmaking and turning on the wheel. 

That the South Indians had a knowledge of copper and iron even at this remote 
epoch, is known from the occurrence of a copper fishing hook and iron slag pieces. 
The condition of culture appears to be much earlier than that found in the excavated 
levels in the Indus valley and is probably akin to the pygmy flint culture of the 

1 Bp. Cam. XII, Molakalmuru 23. 


for receiving a lamp post. Between the temple and the absent post is a boat-like 
hollow caused by the stone masons and pointed out as the place where Jatayu was 

Prom the top we can get a beautiful view of the surrounding country on all 
sides and especially of the white building of Sanna Jatinga Bam^svara. 

About 20 feet lower down and SOfeeb to the north, stand other rnantapas of stone 
facing north with no ornamentation and having walls made of large slabs placed one 
upon another without cement. Nearby is a cave under a large overhanging rock 
which has been converted into a shrine, perhaps in the Vij ay anagar period, by raising 
up a wall of bricks (12"x8" or 9"x2|") facing east, between which and the rock a 
covering roof is made. A doorway has also been added and on top is a gdpura- 
The walls and rock flooring are covered with a thick (2j") coating of chunam. (It 
is a likely place for an Asokan inscription.) In the shrine are now a liiiga, a broken 
Venkatesa image (If) and a Naga stone. On the rock there is a Nolamba-Pallava 

On the lower hill a fine flight of stone steps, partly of the Palegar times and partly 
of the Vijayanagar period, leads to a large plain mahadvara 

The Temple Area. which is of about the time of Devaraya of Vijayanagar. 

The brick top and the stucco figures are now in a ruined 

condition. On either side is a linga shrine with a bull. Immediately inside this 
mahadvara is a smaller one with a shrine on each side for Ganapati (south) and 
Ohamundfi. (north). The latter is a soap-stone standing figure. The small 
mahadvara has shortish pillars with eight and sixteen-sided shafts and cubical and 
circular mouldings similar to those at the Hidimbesvara temple in Chitaldurg and 
the Trisanke'svara temple in Brahmagiri. The four shrines have low granite door- 
ways with G-aja-Lakshmllintels, floral jambs and rounded pilasters (4'-5" x 2'-3") 
and the bricks are 14" X 9" X 2*75". Ganapati and Chamunda are both somewhat 
damaged. The latter is a finely proportioned standing image, three feet high, 
spearing a Eakshasa seated on a buffalo. Behind her is a small lion. Her hands hold : 
spear, chakra, sankha and demon's hair. The images and toran& are of one stone. 

The lamp pillar (Plate YI1-2) which tapers to a height of about 40' has a 
sixteen-sided shaft with fifteen quadruple double-bodied lion steps. It belongs 
perhaps to the Palegar period. 

The Parhpapati shrine has a small linga in a step-pyramidical vimana and a 
G-aja-Lakshmi doorway of granite. 

The Virabhadra shrine has a sanctum and an anti-chamber with a projection 
of the gopura over the sukhanasi. The image, 4'-6" in height, is a well proportioned 
plain figure of the early Yijayanagar period, wearing 'kirita ' and 'rudrakshamala' and 
holding sword, arrow, bow and oblong shield, while on the back is the quiver and 
round the head a 'torana'. The sukhanasi doorway has Gaja-Lakshmi. To its south 


Is a natural cave (25' x 20') called ' Kuraara Baroana Garadi mane ' in which that 
hero is said to have taken gymnastic exercises. 

At the end of the maatapa there is a small linga shrine of Jambukesvara builfc 
of bricks of various sizes (12" x 6" x2'75";. The Saptamatrika shrine has a broken 
panel of the Seven Mothers. 

The Janardana shrine has a later Vijayanagar image, 1' 3", with four hands : 
abhaya, discus, lotus and gada. 

The Chamunda shrine has a pofcstone image, 1'.75", similar to the one near 
the doorway. 

The Rishi shrine has pillars and lintel of the early Vijayanagar period. 

Behind the Chamunda shrine are two cave shrines of Chandramulisvara and, 
Mahabalesvara. Near the latter on a rock known as Nagarpade-Gundu several 
Pallava inscriptions have been inscribed. Of these Ep. Cam. Ill, Ml. 27 gives 982 
A.I), as the date of the oldest stone temple in the place. 

The Arkesvara shrine has a Gaja-Lakshml doorway and the linga is two feet 
high. It is eight-sided at the bottom, round in the upper part and flattish at the top. 

Chandik&svara is a small linga, 4' high, and has over it a pyramidical brick 
structure in imitation of stone sikharas similar to that of Trisankesvara in 

Tap6linga has also a Gaja-Lakshmi doorway and no sikhara. 

The Bhairava shrine has been repaired and a large mantapa added to the old 
structure of one ankana. The image, which IB of the early Vijayanagar period 
is 4' high and in high relief, holding a dagger and kapala (both damaged). Snakes 
are dancing below, and one of them is swallowing a rat. The group is not very fine. 

Opposite to the main temple is situated the shrine of Surya. It has a very 
plain Gaja-Lakshmi doorway of the early Vijayanagar period and contains a fine 
image of Surya with two hands. The height of the image with the pedestal is about 
4i' and the material used is dark stoae. The god holds a lotus in each band and 
the ornamentation is not elaborate as on the Hoysala images. The torana is 
also of dark stone and quite plain, though arched. At its bottom is a small Chhay 
with bow and arrow 7 . On the pedestal Aruna drives the seven horses. 

The main temple which, according to Ep. Cam. XI Molakalmuru inscription 
No. 27, was very probably built in 962 A.D. has a garbhagriha, a navaranga and a 
sukhanasi. The garbhagriha has a natural linga, 8" high, on a stone pedestal. 
The garbhagriha doorway has a Gaja-Lakshml on the lintel. The sukhanasi has a 
very ordinary padma ceiling which is supported by pillars, perhaps of the Nolamba 
period. The sukhanasi doorway has pilasters and other ornamental work, all 
hidden by a thick coating of chunam. The navaranga which appears to have been 
repaired some years ago seems to have had three doors of which the north one has 
now been closed. The pillars are of three kinds, eight-sided with cubical mouldings, 


star-shaped and round. A fine example of the last type is partly seen in the south 
wall. It is possible that the navaranga was re-built in the Vijayanagar days, part of 
the old materials being used. There are a broken image of Bhairava in a corner 
and a Nandi facing the linga. The central ceiling has a padma in the centre. 

Sitammna-done is a natural pond on the north-west. Near it are two pairs of feet 
saidtohave been those of Sita who stayed here during Havana's fight with Jatayu on the 
eastern Mil. Close to these feet is an elephant in a small shrine and it is said that the 
rock emits strange sounds when the ear is placed on it. There is a viragal near the- 

To the north of the temple a steep descent of roughly cut steps on the face of 
the rocks takes us to a cave with a pool called Bkanta-Tirtha. Here Eama is said to 
have stayed when he reached the hills searching for Sita. If great eagles like Jatayu 
did at any prehistoric time live on the hill, this cave was one the likeliest places for 
their habitation. 

On the eastern hill there is said to be a cavity in the rocks which is pointed 
out as the place where Jatayu kicked Havana. 

The outer faces of the temple, sukhanasi and garbhagriha have pilasters, double 
and single. Below the line of pilasters is a moulded basement part of which is 
buried now. A ruined rampart wall surrounds the temple area. 

Though there is an inscription of A46ka on the hill, no Maurya structures are 
found in the neighbourhood, but potsherds of the Nolamba and Vijayanagar times 
abound all over. 

At the foot of the hill there is a Ganapati temple with a linga and a two-handed 
Oanesa of potstone. The bricks are 12" x 8" x 2| ". 


The fields to the west of the Brahmagiri hill are called 'Pete~-hola' or 'town 
fields.' Near the hill slopes are the twin temples of two 

Akkatangi Temples. sisters called the Akkataiigiyara gudi. The better sculp- 
tured of the two is said to have been transferred in Pur- 

naiya's days to Chikerahalli, six miles away to the south-west, and made into a Eama 
temple. The other is still standing. It has a garbhagriha, an open sukhanasi, and 
an open pillared navaranga (Plate VI-1). The garbhagriha has no image but has a 
padma in the ceiling and a horizontal projection in the middle of the walls. The 
garbhagriha doorway is a fine granite specimen of Nolamba work (Plate YI-2). The 
lintel stone has Gaja-Lakshmt and two drops. The jambs have floriate creepers, 
sixteen-sided ornamental pilasters, rows of gryphons like man-headed and elephant- 
headed lions, etc., and leaf ornamentation. The dvarapalas are Saiva. The open 
sukhanasi has a padma ceiling. The square navaraiiga which is open on all sides, 
except the south, is bounded by a stone, bench, three feet high, on which ornamental 









granite pillars, five feet high, support the roofs. Projecting stone eaves were present 
formerly but they have now disappeared. The vimana is typical and of 
stone with seven tiers rising pyramidically. The four chief pillars have 
sixteen fluted shafts and octagonal, cubical and round mouldings. The navaranga 
ceiling has a shallow granite Bhuvanesvari with a Chandrasila below it. The 
neighbouring temple had a fine sikhara as seen by the turrets lying about. 
Going southward we pass through fields strewn with brickbats and potsherds. 

There is a well with good water, near which lies a Janar- 
Jain Temple. dana image of soapstone, two feet high. Further on we 

see the rocks from which beams and slabs were quarried. 

Beyond the spur of the hill, thare is a Jain temple facing south on a high terrace and 
having a garbhagriha, an open sukhanasi, a navaranga and an open small porch. 
The vimana is now covered with plaster and post-Moslem ornamentations of the 
18th century. Inside it there is a Chalukyan stone vimana of granite with seven 
pyramidical tiers as in the Trisankesvara temple. A projection covers the sukhanasi, 
but the navaranga has over it a modern parapet wall. The garbhagriha has the 
image of a seated Tirthankara with a broken head. The image is three feet high. 
The sukhanasi and navaranga doorways have nothing remarkable except the two 
kalasas, and the image of Jina on the lintel. Plaster work covers the doorway of 
the navaranga. The pillars of the latter are larger and plain ones of granite with 
octagonal mouldings. The granite pillars of the small porch in front of the temple 
have octagonal and round shafts with cubical and rounded mouldings. The stone 
* jagali ' or bench has rounded parapet walls. To the south of the temple, is a low 
mound, probably the site of a ruined temple. 

To the south west of the Akkatangiyara-gudi near the viragals there is a mound, 

6' high and 50' in diameter, strewn about with rough and 
Pagadesaiu Gudda. worked stones. On its east lies a broken headless soapstone 

image (original 4') of seated Durga holding c rundamala.' 

A slab with a pair of feet lies in front. Nearby are seven vfragals of granite 
looking very fresh. Perhaps they were set up by Vira-Ballala II after the 
capture of Haneya. To the south of these is a rocky hillock, Pagade-salu-gudda,' 
with a rude granite temple, consisting of a garbhagriha and a sukhanasi, in each 
ankana of which are marks on the floor said to be the ' pagade-hasu ' or dice board 
of the Akkatangis or sisters who used to mount the hill and have a game of dice. 
But the look of the marks gives a very different impression. The garbhagriha 
marks appear to show a standing human figure with head to the north. Near its 
right hand is a mark looking very much like the Brahmi letter " A " The marks 
in the sukhanasi are different and look like a linga with y6ni, a crescent with a 
star in the middle, etc. To its east, however, are some marks resembling ' pagade- 
salu ' or a dice board. 


To the west are the ruins of an old fortwall of rough large stones (Plate VI-3), 
On the way to the Siddapur inscription, behind Kadu-Siddhana matha, near a- 

fig-tree, is a Kannada inscription of six lines with a relievo Nandi nearhy. It seems- 

to be of the Vijayanagar period. 


Bamadurga is situated on a low hill about 150 feet high south of Nayakana- 
hatti, in the Chellakere taluk and has a fort (Plate VII-3) 

Fortifications. nearly square in shape, each of its sides being about 200 

yards long, Obanayak of Bamadurga village stated that 

the durga was said to have been built in the Palegar days for Bamesvara linga.. 
The original gate appears to have been on the east. Here a flight of about 10 
steps leads to a breach where stood the old entrance. Thirty feet higher up there 
is an inner fortress (200' x 200'). The fortwalls (about 15' high) are built of rough 
uncemented stones with parapets formed of smaller stones. At the top of the hill, 
i.e., in the centre of the upper fort, there are foundations of stones representing 
former buildings, perhaps forming the chief's quarters. To their west there are several 
rock-cut ponds 40' x 40' X 20' two of which even now contain rain water. The fort- 
resses are provided with round bastions at the corners but there are also square 
bastions, one or two of them having slab made openings <2' x2') which appear to 
be only outlets for water. No evidence of cannon platforms or musket holes was 
found. The walls are 10 feet thick. On the west between the two fort walls the 
rock slopes down. Here there appears to have been a shallow cave which gave the- 
suggestion for a regular cave temple. (Plate VII-4.) 

At first the face of the rock was cut by the architects until a vertical wall 
(25' x 12') was made. Then out of the darkish stone a. 

Cave Temple. regular hall was carved with eight pilasters and four free 

pillars, all of the Dravidian style, with mango fruit capitals 

and images carved on the lower mouldings. The pillars are 8' high and above them 
is a rock ceiling about 3' thick. On the pillar mouldings are Purushamriga, Varaha- 
vatara, Narasimha, Karmappa Nayanar and lions seated on Bakshasas. The 
ceilings are specially interesting as they are in imitation of the Hoysala work to' 
some extent. The front outer ceiling has a fine padma with a central pendant and 
hole for the bell. Above the padma are parrots. The whole group is set in a square 
which is itself set in another, while the panels on both of them are carved all over 
with four Yidyadharas, two Grandabherundas and a yali-headed bird, i.e., Sarabha.. 
Among the figures on the beams are Bama and Sita seated, with Lakshmana. 
standing ; ^iva seated ; Siva and Parvati with Kumara by their side ; Mahishasura- 
inardin! ; Nandi ; and stories from the Saiva puranas. Many designs have been drawn 


\ w^-u-fv 







^ - 












in red ochre, but the work appears to have been stopped before completion. The 
drawings and half- worked relievos show very strong Virasaiva influence of the 
middle of the 18th century A.D. The inner navaranga ceiling has a shallow 
Bhuvanesvari with a large padma and pendant. The roof is supported by highly 
ornate projections of beams and on the large beams there are the eight Dikpalas. 
The navaranga mantapa is 30' X 20'. The garbhagriha doorway is a well-worked 
piece (5'x2i') with the jambs and lintel ornamented with rows of creepers, flowers 
and lions supported by niches containing dvarapalas. The central panel of the 
lintel is unworked. The pilasters supporting the jambs have kalasas and double- 
lion faces. The sanctum, the ceiling of which is unfinished, has a blackstone liriga 
on a seat (2j' high) which appears to have been brought from outside. Behind it 
are three arched niches, the central one having a relief linga engraved under a 
seven-hooded cobra. The group is inset in a projecting ' torana ' on which are 
chowri bearers and dvarapalas. The Basava before the cave is tine (4') and well 
ornamented in imitation of Hoysala work. The temple is one of the best pieces of 
work of the Nayaks like the Karivarti temple at Chitaldrug and possibly belongs to 
the middle of the 18th century. The temple is unique, as none other of the kind is 
known in the Mysore State. 



Halebid is famous as one of the most important places of archaeological interest 
in the Mysore State- Its temples were briefly note by Fergusson and other 
writers on Indian architecture and a brief note was published by Mr. B. 
Narasimhachar in the Annual Eoport of this department for the year 1911. 

A detailed study of the ancient site and its temples has now been made and it 
is proposed to take a large number of drawings and photographs. The materials 
available are so numerous and of such high quality that the publication of a separate 
monograph on Halebid is under contemplation. 

In the following notes an attempt is made to give an idea of the archaeological 
value of the place, though for want of space detailed studies of many aspects have 
had to be omitted. 

A rough sketch map of the place has now been published for the use of intending 
visitors. (See Plate VIII.) 

In studying the temples, the fact has always been kept in mind that most of 
these structures have histories of their own, their parts having been often construct- 
ed by different generations and sometimes by different dynasties. All available 
information has been used for analysing the structural parts according to age and 



Hoysalesvara Temple. 

About 18 miles to west-south-west of Banavar Bail way Station and 9 miles 
by road east-north-east of Belur is situated the small village of Halebid in and around 
which are the ruins of the great city of Dorasamudra which was for three centuries 
the capital of the Hoysala Empire. The largest monument of the place, perhaps 
the greatest ever constructed in that ancient city, is the temple of Hoysalesvara 
which stands intact to-day. It is a veritable museum of sculpture containing 
thousands of carved figures, large and small, which reveal to us the conditions of 
art and life in the Hoysala Empire. (Plates I and XII.) 

It is a large temple built entirely of greyish soap-stone which yields softly to 
the chisel and gets hardened with exposure to the 

General Description. atmosphere. The temple is raised on a high platform 

which, as usual, follows, more or less faithfully, the main 

contour of the temple and is nearly 15' wide. The temple has two large cells contain- 
ing the Hoysalesvara and Santalesvara lingas, respectively. (See plan on Plate X.) 
Both of them have star-shaped outer walls and. appear to have had similarly 
shaped large towers which have now disappeared. To the south, west and north of 
each garbhagriha on the inside, are large niches corresponding to which there are 
on the outside tall two-storeyed towered niches. Each cell has a sukhanasi and 
a large indented square shaped navaranga, the two navarangas being connected by a 
corridor. The back wall of the navaranga is thick and heavy and has two 
indented square shaped projections at each corner. The corridor has a tower-like 
projection at the back of its centre and a slightly larger one in front. Four door- 
ways lead from the platform into the navaranga two from the east, one from the 
north and one from the south. Towered niches flank each flight of steps both of 
the platform and of the basement. Outside the building and opposite to each shrine 
on the east is a niantapa containing a large stone bull. Behind the south bull and 
to the east is a shrine for the sun god, Surya, which faces west. 

The temple is the largest existing building of the Hoysala style, but its 
hugeness is easily forgotten owing to the fact that it is elaborately sculptured On its 
enter walls especially, almost every square foot of space and, in many places every 
inch is covered with sculptures of gods, animals, men and ornamental designs The 
elaborateness of their ornamentation may be compared to jewellery more than to 
known architectural buildings. (See frontispiece to the Annual Eeport for 1929 ) 
The sculptures are also of a high class and possess beauty of ideas and art The 
technical skill displayed is of a very high order and the sculptor has revelled in the 
neld available for the exhibition of his talents. 

But at the same time though the sculpture of the Hoysalesvara temple is 
marvellous, it is never obtrusive. Though each individual figure is a work of art, 


(p. 33, 50.) 

Mysore Archaeological Survey.] 


sculpture is definitely used by the designer as a subordinate element embellishing 
the beauty of the structure's architectural design. A view from the distance* 
especially on the west, would bring conviction on this point. (See Plate I, frontis- 
piece.) The temple with its intricately broken contour and harmonised sculpture and 
architecture must have, when its high towers stood in their position, produced , the 
impression of majesty and beauty worthy of the greatest monument of the imperial 

The temple appears to have had, if not a compound wall, at least a gateway 
on the south. This ran between the Ganesa image and the Hoysala group as can 
be seen from their basements. 

It was usual for the Hoysala rulers to inscribe on the navarariga walls or on a 

slab set up to the south-east of a temple, an inscription 

History. recording the erection of the structure. Since no such 

record has yet been found, it may be surmised that the 

concerned inscription has been lost. But at Grbattadahalli, about three miles east of 
Halebid, near the Kallesvara temple lies a slab, about 7J' high, which is inscribed 
with a record mentioning the construction of a temple for Vishnurardhana 
Hoysalsvara and the grant of some lands for its support. 1 The place of construc- 
tion is mentioned to be definitely Dvarasamudra and the person who built it was 
Ketamalla, an officer of the king. Though the date on which the temple was 
constructed is not mentioned, the record states that the grant of lands was made in 
s"aka 1043 or A.D. 1121. This definitely establishes that the Hoysalesvara temple 
was constructed in or just before the year mentioned. 

A close study of the structural details of the temple shows that tbis 
original structure consisted of two temples each of which was planned very 
much like the Kesava temple at Belur, the dimensions also being nearly the 
same. Each garbhagriha was star-shaped, the back walls of the navarariga 
straight and meeting the side walls at right angles; and the navarariga halls with the 
sukhanasis were indented square in shape. Possibly the only doorways were those 
which guarded the garbhagnhas. The eastern half of the building above the base- 
ment and railings was supported by pillars, between which there were no screens. 
The whole building was thus well illuminated by day light and the design was 
simple, yet beautiful. 

But changes began to be made very soon after. The large brick towers perhaps 
caused a heavy stress on the outer walls of the garbhagriha. To counteract this side- 
thrust and to give a better protection to the inner niches of the garbhagriha 
buttresses had to be given. On the south, west and north of each garbhagriha there 
stood originally, in all probability, small niches which were now superseded, large 
two-storeyed towered niches being put up in their places. These sometimes covered 

1 Bp. Cam. V, Belur 147, lines Ql-ff. 



the original wall sculptures of the temple, though their basements were carved, 
along with the corresponding friezes of the temple. It may be concluded that these 
niches were put up after the large wall images had been carved and before the 
friezes were completed. The projections which have also towerlike tops have led 
Fergusson to think (see his wood-cut restoration of the temple 1 ) that smaller 
towers stood over these portions of the roof. This is unusual in Hoysala temples. 
The projection at the back of the corridor also appears to have been there before 
the large images were carved out. 

There is more definite evidence that considerable changes were made in the 
temple a generation after it was built, since an unpublished inscription on the lintel 
of the southern doorway mentions that the sculptor Kalidasi made the lintel for 
K&dar&ja, the master architect of Narasimha I. Another inscription on a basement 
cornice to the east of the Surya temple mentions that the Eastern doorway, that is 
the south doorway on the east, was made by Demoja. Since Narasimha came to 
the throne in 1141 A.D., more than 20 years after the temple was constructed, it 
appears that the four doorways and the series of perforated screens were all put up 
in Narasimha's reign, probahly very soon after his accession. A similar surmise 
would also probably apply to the corresponding parts of the Belur temple. 

Since there is considerable difference in the design of these new doorways and 
the sukhanasi doorways on the one side and the garbhagriha doorways on the other* 
there is good reason to think that the sukhanasi doorways, too, were added in the 
reign of Narasimha. 

About this time or later appear to have been built the central towerlike projec- 
tion on the east, the Surya shrine and possibly the original bull mantapas. 
That these latter have undergone considerable change in subsequent times is proved 
by the fact that stray Hoysala viragals and other sculptures have been used for 
their ceilings and on the platform of the north hull rnantapa appear sculptured friezes 
which evidently belonged to some other temple, 

The Hoysalesvara temple has now been studied in detail under the following 
heads : 

I- Platform and lower niches. 

II. Elephant frieze. 

III. Lion frieze. 

IV. Creeper scroll. 
V. Horsemen frieze. 

VI- Creeper scroll. 

VII. Mythological frieze. 

VIII. Makara frieze. 

IX. Hamsa (swan) frieze. 

X. Small figures below tora$as in front. 

XL Basement eaves below railing. 

XII. Turrets and Lions. 

XIII. Bailing with sculptured panels. 

XIV. Pierced windows. 

XV. Central bracket images. 

XVI. East middle projection. 

XVII. Additional garbhagriha niches. 

XVIII. Base of larger images. 

XIX. Toranas over larger images. 

XX. Larger images behind the temple. 

1 Fergusson : History of Indian and Eastern Architecture, Vol. I. p. 44 5, fig. 262. 




Mysore Archaeological Survey,] 


XXI. Upper panels of back walls- 

XXII. Eaves. 

XXIII, Eoof and towers. 

XXIV. Platform niches. 
XXV- Four outer doors. 

XXVI. Navaranga. 

XXVII. Navaranga niches. 

XXVIII- Pillars. 

XXIX. Ceilings. 

XXX. Sukhanasi doorways. 
XXXI. South sukbanasi, garbhagriha and 

XXXII. North sukhanfisi, garbhagriha and 


XXXIII- South Nandi mantapa. 
XXXIV. North Nandi mantapa. 
XXXV. Surrounding structures. 

Since the information collected under each of these headings would form a 
section and the 35 sections, when put together, would form a volume, only two of 
the headings are dealt with here, namely, No. VII, mythological frieze and 
No. XXY, the outer doorways. 


This is the most interesting frieze in the whole temple. It is on a band 
about nine inches in breadth running quite round the temple except where the 
other garbhagriha niches have been added at the back. It contains various episodes 
from the Baraayana, the Mahabharata, the Bhagavata, and the Saiva and Yaishnava 
Puranas, sculptured relief in a series of panels running along the frieze. But it is 
puzzling to note that there is not always the continuity of the story : sometimes there 
is, at other times there is not ; and it is difficult to understand why the sculptors 
were allowed to mix up the stories and the episodes. Though the carvings are 
mostly in miniature owing to the height being not more than about nine inches, 
yet the work is executed with a fine imagination and artistic sense. These friezes are 
characteristic of the Hoysala temples and a comparative study ought to be made 
-of them with similar friezes occurring in the Java temples belonging to the llth 
century A.D. It is possible that the Hoysalas got the idea from the Javanese or, 
more probably, both got it from a common source. Only three scenes from this frieze 
are now illustrated in this report. A large number of photographs are, however, 
being taken for publication in a separate monograph. 

While some of the panels are independent of the others, sometimes several of 
them have to be grouped to form one subject. To facilitate reference, the exterior 
of the temple has been divided into 76 sections and the number of each section 
is indicated in brackets (See Plate XI). Where the episode runs over a number of 
panels the length of the frieze is mentioned roughly in feet. The series, as described 
here, commences just to the east of the north doorway and runs clockwise around 
the temple. 

North-east. , 

I (a) Five feet long The durbar of some officer without umbrella. He has 
only two hands. Perhaps Ketamayya, the builder of the temple, sits in 


durbar with officers seated and attendants standing. On one side is 
a man dancing with accompaniments consisting of a singer with 
cymbals, two flute players and two drummers. 

1. (b) Bhairava with attendants and goblin musicians. 

2. (a) Bhairavi with attendants. 

2. (b) (Six ft.) Kshirasagara-mathana, the gods (to the left) and the demons 

(to the right) churn the milky ocean with the Mandara mountain as 
the rod and the long-bodied cobra, Vasuki, as the rope. Vishnu 
as the tortoise supports the Mandara and a demon who is too near the 
poisonous mouth. of the snake has fallen down. The piece is well 
executed but most of the figures have lost their heads. This story is. 
found again on another panel around the smaller Naridi shrine. 

2 and 3. Nine feet long Four groups consisting of dancers and musicians 
with accompaniments. Two men and two women dance ; their dress 
is interesting. The dancing men wear 011 each leg five or seven sets of 
anklets, perhaps hollow. The'mstruments need are cymbals, flutes and 
two varieties of drums. 

3. Sukracharya faces a pot of toddy (surd) near which are a cobra and an 

ant-hill below three toddy palms called popularly kadamba-vriksha. A 
parrot drinks from the pot and another rishi is taking the drink as an 
offering to Bhairava and Bhairavi who stand behind with attendants^ 
The story of how Sukra consumed Kacha when drunk and forbade the 
use of intoxicants is well-known in the puranic story of Kacha and 

3. Lady seated under canopy with attendants and body-guards, perhaps 


4. Nine feet long Durbar of Umamahesvara Umamahesvara (Siva with Uma. 

on the left thigh) is seated in state with Nandi, Ganesa, mouse, 
attendants, hamsa and three-faced Brahma to his right and Kumara 
on peacock, attendants, dancers and musicians, Garuda and Vishnu to 
the left. To the right of Brahma are the eight Dikpalas or guardians 
of the directions arriving on their vehicles with their consorts and 
attendants Indra on the elephant, Agni on the ram, Yama on the 
buffalo, Niruti on the demon, Varuna on the makara, Vayu on the 
antelope, Kub&ra on the horse and Isana on the bull. 

5. Nine feet long The story of Bali. 

(a) Bali, the demon emperor (his fangs are seen) sits in durbar with 

ministers, attendants and soldiers. 

(b) Vamana, the dwarf Brahmin student begs for a gift. 




(p. 34. 

Mysore Arch&ological Survey.] 


(0) The gift is made with, pouring of water while Sukracharya, Bali's 
preceptor, protests. 

(d) Sukra walks out, but is appeased by Garuda. 

(e) Vamana as Trivikrarna with four hands measures the three worlds in 

three paces, while the assembly stand with joined hands. 
6. (a) Five feet long Indra in the Pushpaka vimana (palanquin) with female 

carriers and attendants and male body-guards. 
6. (b) Yirabhadra with fangs and a third eye, in durbar. 

6, (G) Siva seated in state. 

(d) Durbar of some deity with a lady and drummers dancing to the righfc 
and ministers and attendants to the left ; (Unfinished ; identification 


7, (a) Male and female dancers with accompaniments. 
(b} Bhairava with dancers and attendants. 

8, (a) Bhairavi. 

(b) Five feet A lady and Siva dancing with accompaniments. 
8. (c) 9, 10 and 11 ITmamah6svara in durbar. Near corner of 9 and 10 
with Nandi to his left, Shanmukha, Vishnu, Yakshas and goblins 
dancing (one dwarf is drumming on his belly) with attendants and 
musicians, Bhairava and Bhairavi and the last 6 of the 8 Dikpalakas. 
To his right are Ganesa, Brahma, ladies, dancers, musicians and 
accompaniments, Bhairava, dancers, Uinamahesvara again, and Saiva 
door-keepers. To further right horsemen, Indra on the elephant and 
soldiers are proceeding to Kailasa. 

(b) Dancers and musicians. 

12. (a) Men dancing with accompaniments. 

(b) Bhairava and Bhairavi with goblin musicians and attendants. 

13, 14, 15, 16 and 17 Bhagavata: The story of Krishna beginning from 17 and 

running on to 13. The figures are described in order from left to 


18, (a) Vasudeva'm prison with the guardsman asleep while standing, 
1 7. (a) Vasudeva carries baby Krishna who is protected by Adis^sha across the 

Yamunti and hands him over to Gopidevi with whom is Balarama. 
(b) Krishna slays Putani, Bakasura and Sakatasura, destroys the twin-trees, 

loots butter and milk pails, plays on his flute, with the cowherd and 

cowherdesses singing (mouth opened) and even cobras dancing. 
16. He is worshipped and lifts up the Govardhana hill, while he appears to his 

friends in the divine form as Sri Krishna with the four arms holding 


padma, sankha, chakra and gada. Indra begs pardon. Krishna slays 
a demon and Dhenukasura. 

15. He is taken in a chariot with Balararna across the Yamuna by Akrura ; and 
he is met near Madhura by the dwarf hunchbacked woman whom he 
cures. He breaks a bow at a festival, slays Kaiiasa's elephant and 
with Balarama's help overcomes Mushtika and Chanura in a hand to- 
hand fight. This last scene is shown with a circle around it as in 
modern caricatures, perhaps to indicate that the combatants were' 
revolving round each other. 

14. (a) Dancers and musicians celebrating Krishna's victory. 

(b} Krishna as Pradyumna holding gada, chakra, padma and sankha and, 
supported by Indra on his elephant, fights Narakasura and his demons 
and slays them ; the victory is celebrated with dance and music. 

13. (a) Unworked. 

13. (5) Parijata-harana : Krishna and Satyabharna carried by Garuda, fight 
Indra and Isana (i.e., all the Dikpalas) and win the Parijata tree and 
flowers. The accoutrements of the elephant are interesting. Indra< 
sits on the elephant's neck while behind him is a platform (with 
dhvaja) from which two bowmen are shooting. 

13. (c) Dancers with accompaniments. 

18. (b) Broken or partly worked only. 

(c) Two kings at dice : Yudhishthira and Slakuni, 

(d) Partly worked : a battle. 

19. (a) From the right a battle. Kan. letter s*>, perhaps the initial of Maba. 

or Mabala, the sculptor. 
(6) Kichaka molests Draupadi who appeals to Bhima. The latter dresses 

himself like a lady and meets Kichaka. 
(c) Dancers. 


Here the Mahabharaca war commences and runs on to face 28 across the south 

door but only vigorous battle scenes (of a length of about 5 or 6 feet) from the- 

Bhishma parva to the Salya parva appear to be shown. Other scenes are shown here 

and there at the back of the temple. Even in these four parvas, there are mostly 

carved chariots, each with a hero archer shooting arrows from it the horses being 

driven by a charioteer. He has soldiers fighting around him while between the 

chariots in the middle of the group is usually one soldier slaying another. The 

chariots consist of wooden platforms on four wheels, with or without spokes, and 

have the hero's banner and emblem on a pillar behind him. Since most of these 


t^L Lndex to Us 

(p. 37.) 

Mysore Archaeological Survey.] 


dhvajas are damaged and there is little variation in the faces of the combatants or 
in the events, it is not possihle to identify definitely single episodes. The parvas, 
however, can be differentiated. 

22, 21, 20. From right to left Bhlshma parva. 

22. (a) Duryodhana's durbar the aged Bhishma (bearded) is anointed as 

generalissimo of the Kauravas. 
22 and 21. Bhishma and Arjuna meet in combat on several occasions 

(actually eight groups). 
20. Dancers celebrate Arjuna's victory. 
24 and 23. Dr6na parva Dr6na (with beard) and Arjuna fight (five groups). 

Some panels are unworked. 

25. (a) Dancers celebrate Arjuna's victory over Drona. 
(b) Vishnu standing (partly worked). 


27 and 26. Karna with his Pakshidhvaja and Arjuna with his Kapidhvaja 
meet thrice and fight Each group is like the other and there is 
nothing to show where the battle started or where it ended. 
Arjuna's chariot has springs. The work is generally fine. 

27. (b) Salya and Arjuna fight and behind Salya is the Kaurava army march- 

ing forth here and in one or two other places Arjuna has no 
1 yajn6pavita ', making the identity doubtful. 

28, (a) Dancers celebrate the victory of the Pandavas. The Mahabharata 

story stops here. 

28. (b) The myth of Mohini: Mohini at toilet, M6hini's naked dance with 
Bhasmasura admiring, Mohini with flute, Mohini and parrot with 
Dakshinamurti and monkey, Mohini dancing (two postures, with 
hand over head). 

28. (c) UrnainahSs'vara in durbar with Bhairava and goblins and dancers. 
29* (a) Tandavesvara with Bhairava, Vishnu and attendants. 

29. (b) Arjuna proceeds to the forest, meets the sages (sculptor Balana), sees 

their ladies (who wear leaves) pound wild rice, and performs penance 
on the Indraldla hill in the company of other sages, standing on one 
leg, A boar dashes towards him and Arjuna fights Siva who is dressed 
as a hunter and is followed by Parvati as a huntress. (Plate XIII, 1.) 

30. Aranya-parva : Saindhava episode. A bearded figure appears on the scene 

and is probably Saindhava. Saindhava abducts Draupadi whom he 
tries to slay but is prevented by another man, perhaps Bhima. 
Bhima and Draupadi embrace each other. Chitrasena and his- 



Gandharvas march forth to the battle. The scene reminds us of the 
Bacchanalians inarching in Gandhara art. t See V. A. Smith, History 
of Fine Art in India and Ceylon, P. 123). 

31. (a) Arjuna sallies forth and Chitrasena surrenders and stands on his chariot 
with folded hands. 

31. (I) 1 feet Bhagadatta on his elephant attacks Bhima while Krishna in 

his divine four-handed form protects Arjuna from the tusk of the 
divine boar. Bhima fights the elephant and slays it. 

32, 33 and 34. These belong to the south additional niche of the south shrine 

which cuts off the continuity of the original frieze. 

32. Tandavesvara dancing with Ganesa, musicians and attendants. In a 

corner is a half worked Trivikrama. 

33. Similar to No. 32. Tandavesvara, Ganesa, Mohini, Bhairava, goblins, etc. 

34. Vishnu as Vamana in sukhasana (sankha, chakra, gada and padma) 
with consorts, Garuda and attendants. 

Main wall : 

35. Co,) Dancers and musicians. 

(b) Siva and Parvati in Girijakalyana (marriage of Parvati). 

Himalaya gives away in marriage by dhdrdlais daughter to Siva. Umama- 
hesvara in durbar with Vishnu to the left and Brahma with consorts 
to the right. To further right, lady dances with musicians. - 

(c) Tandavesvara. 

36. (rt) Shamnukha, who has six faces and the Mayura-dhvaja, is followed by the 

eight Dikpalakas and fights the demon Tarakasura or Sura Padmasura, 
whose chariot is drawn by lions. An elephant tramples on a man. 
Kan. letter 3 ( =^^za ?;. 

36. (b) Tandavesvara with group of attendants. 

36. (c) Parijataharana same as before. 

36. (d) Three-faced Brahma on the swan. 

West additional niche of south shrine: 

37. () Siva, Ganesa, Kumara and others dancing. 

(b) Yoganarasimha. . . 

38. Umamahesvara, dvarapalas, Mahishasuramardinf, Bhairava and musicians. 

39. Bhairava with dancing attendants, Mohini, etc. Mohini dances with an 

upper cloth over her head while next to her is a lady pouring water 
(or wine ?) into the mouth of a seated child (or dancer ?). 
Main wall : 

40. (a) Anantasayana Padmanabha, with the devas in reverential attitude. 
(5) Prahlada episode (from the Bhagavata). Hiranyakasipu in durbar. 




2-rtss. -^-".'.rf^SS^^^ii^7. !7.'^-feik5^*M^/v.v,.1^^ 

j ~-j'T,:- * iii-i 

:".-" ";< -"' u - 1 *: ' '^ - 1 ? ';"; V *<* *ift| V>. k'-^^'a/S!^^^/^''.*^^'**^" '.':":?"'**' 

Mysore Archceoloyical Survey. ,] 


(<?} Prahlada and executioners. 

(d) Prahlada among cobras. 

(e] Prahlada between the elephants. (Plate No. XIII-3.) 

4L (a) Mrityudevi (skeleton body) with 16 hands springs out of fire and slays* 

the demons. 
(b*) Prahlada meets his father. 

(c) Left to right Narasimha appears in a pillar, battles with Hiranya- 

kasipu B.nd slays him as Ugra- Narasimha, while Prahlada stands with 
joined hands. 

(d) Mohini (Bhairavl) and Bhairava. 

(e) Eamayana-: Battle between Kama and Eavana. Between them Hanu- 

man fights the demons whom he seizes in the coils of his taiL 
Bama's chariot is drawn by horses, while Havana's is drawn by 
donkeys whose long ears are unmistakable. Sculptor: Tanagundte* 
North additional niche of south shrine : 

42. Indra seated with attendants and elephant below. 

43. Brahma, Sarasvatf, dancers, etc. 

44. Dancers and musicians and Dharanlvaraha. 

45. (a) Ten feet long Mahabh&rata Battle between Karna and Arjuna ; the 

sculptures are in very good condition and the dhvajas can be well 
identified. Bhmia slays Dussasana whose intestines he draws out. 
while Draupadi dresses her hair with them. (Plate XIII-2.) 

(b) Karna and Arjuna in battle. 

(c) Umamahesvara with G-anapati, etc., and dancers, 

(d) Man and woman kissing. 

46. (a) Mohini dancing, admiring ear-ring in mirror, etc. 
(&) A battle. Sculptor Eevoja. 

(c) Mohini and Dak shin arnurti ; Grandharva and Kinnari kissing, 

(d) A hero in a vimana. 

(e) Fight between elephant riders and foresters. 

(/) The story of a human sacrifice among hunters : Husband and wife. 
(g) Father and mother take a child to Kali and slay it as an offering. 

47. (a) Distribution of human flesh and blood. 

(b) Kali worshippers ; the parents have their child restored to them. 

(c) Eamayana Kishkindha Kanda Earaa receives Sugrlva and Banurnan. 

(d) Sapta-tala-chhMana and the death of Vali. 

(e) Mohini in various poses. 

48. (a) Mohini, musicians and admirers. 
(b) Lover soliciting and winning lady. 



(c) Dancers and musicians. 

49. Battle between a human hero, possibly (Arjuna), and the gods, among 

whom are Surya and five of the Dikpalakas ; perhaps refers to the 
KhSndava-dahana episode. The Gods are shown above the clouds, 
while wavy lines represent either the sea or the fire which consumed 
the Khandava forest. 

50. (a) The gods, resting in their clouds, give boons to Arjuna. 
(b) Yictory is celebrated by musicians and dancers. 

5L (a) Umarnahesvara seated in state with dancers and musicians. 

(b) Yishnu, Siva and Brahma standing with attendants. Kannada inscrip- 

tion, sculptor 23^3 oaJ Lakkappa of Belur. 

(c) Durga and Brahma standing. 
52. (a) Sarada seated, enjoying dance. 

(b) Siva standing with 12 ladies in attendance. 

(c) Manniatha and Eati with attendants, a deer-headed being (Vasanta?) 

holding inakaradhvaja. 

53 and 54. (a) Bight feet long Indrakila story Arjuna takes leave of Kuntl, 
his brothers and Draupadi, passes by the rishi ladies pounding rice, 
visits the rishis who worship linga under canopy, performs, penance on 
one leg on the Indrakila mountain, while the gods dance with joy. 
Siva and Arjuna both hit a wild boar together, and fight each other, 
x^i-juna floors Siva, but Parvati interferes. lima and Mahe"sa grant 
the boon of Pasupatastra to Arjuna. Sculptor ^3ea, Ketana. 
(&) Dancers celebrate the event with accompaniments. 

(c) Siva is enamoured of Mohini. 

(d) Parvati is seated in state. 

55. Bam^yaiia 

(a) Rama and Sita see the golden deer from their hut. 

(b) Rama and Lakshrnana receive Hanuman and Sugrlva and their monkey 

hosts who bring presents. 

(c) Rama shoots through the seven palms and slays Vali. 

(d) Rama proclaims Sugriva as king of the monkeys. 

(e) Rama gives Hanuman his signet ring for Sita. 

56. (a) Dancers with accompaniments. 

(b) Rama, Lakshrnana and Sita ; the canopy over their heads is missing. 

(c) Mohini, Bhasmasura, Dakshinamurti, musicians and attendants. 

(d) Dancing party and Mohini. 

57. (a) Bhairava with attendants and dancers. 

(b) Anantasayana. 

(c) Bali seated under canopy with Sukra walking out. 





Mysore Archaological Survey.] 


South additional niche of north shrine. 

58. The twelve forms of Vishnu, standing, with intervening turrets. 

59. Siva and G-anapati dancing with accompaniments. 

60. The 12 Adityas standing with a shooting Chhay& and Chamara bearer on 

either side. 
61. (a) Vishnu seated in state with entourage. 

(b) Dhritarashtra and Bhishma in durbar before the great war. 

(c) Battle between Bhishnaa and Arjuna ; four-handed Krishna is the latter's 


62. (a) Battle between Bhishma and Arjuna. 
(b) Half- worked and not clear. 

(G) Battle between Drona and Arjuna. 
West additional niche of north shrine. 

63. (a) Siva and Mohini dancing. 

(b) Ugra-Narasimha seated in state. 

(c) Siva dancing with Gfanesa, etc. 

64. Tandavfisvara, musicians, etc. 

$5. Main wall : The seven holy mothers with Durg& and Virabhadra to right. 

66. Mahabharafca continued 'This interruption of the Mahabharata story 

creates a suspicion that the large niches are additional. 

(a) Abhimanyu attacks the chakra-vyuha which is defended by Kalasa- 

dhvaja Drona. Abhimanyu enters the vyttlia in the right place, 
storms its centre and is shot by all the Kaurava heroes together and 
is killed. The picture shows his body riddled with arrows and he is 
still fighting. Around him lie the slain Kaurava battalions. Outside, 
Bhima is fighting to rescue his nephew. 

(b) Krishna tells Arjuna of his son's death when the two are bathing in the 

VaiSampayana lake, while a two-wheeled chariot waits by. 

(c) Bhirna slays Dussasana with whose intestines DraupadI adorns her 

hair. Inscription below : ^^ **$ and in Nagari &0 ^ K&sS^tf aS^wo*. 
($) Drdna and others rush to Dus"sasana's rescue in two-wheeled 

67. (a) Bhima fights Bhagadatta's elephant while Arjuna shoots from behind 

Bhima; Krishaa with four hands saves Arjuna from the divine 
boar's tusk which is hurled at him. 

(b) Bhima slays the elephant. 

(c) War with elephant battalion ; men and elephants lie about in a heap. 

(d) Arjuna fights the Sama-saptakas whose hands are pinned to their faces 

with arrows. Behind Arjuna is a man blowing a horn and this instru- 
ment is often popularly called a telescope. The existence of telescopes, 


however, is proved elsewhere in many sculptures. Sculptor : Haripa. 
Kan-inscription : ^ ( w ?) sSatofteoJo aS^afci s3Ojs3 rfc8oJ8 ^cto^ 

North additional niche of north shrine : 

68. Siva and entourage dancing. 

69. Varied forms of Vishnu standing; some spaces blank. 

70. (a) Eudras standing There are only eight figures out of the proper 11. 

Three are unworked on the main wall. 

71. (a) Mohini dancing; in the middle a woman is pouring water or wine into- 

another's mouth. 
(b) Monkey molests Mohini. More dancers. 

72. Bhairavi group Sculptor, Maba. Dakshinamurti is seated and has a 

coat and a cap with button pattern on it. 

(b) Ladies in three panels. One of them is a mother with a child on her 


(c) Umanaahesvara holding full court with dancers to the left and 

Kumara, Vishnu and Brahma to the right. Sculptors : 



(d) Ladies : more poses. 

73. (a) Tandava-Sarasvatl. 

(b) Tandavesvara with dancing Ganesa. 

(c) Ugra-Narasimha. 

(d) Vishnu standing three forms. 

74. (a) Gajasuramardana and dancing Ganesa. 

(b) Parvati, with mangoose at her foot, holds court in Kailasa. 

(c) Dancers; Kumara and Lakshminarayana. 

(d) Dancers and M6hinl as Kapalika. 

75. (a) Dohala a fair lady kicking the As6ka tree and plucking its fruit (?). 
(6) Dancers with accompaniments ; Siva in the corner. 

76. Siva, (two-handed) and Parvati in durbar with dancers and musicians ; 

the G-anas wearing kullavi caps and coats to the right, rishis bring- 
ing fruit, Vishnu and Ganesa to the left. This Vishnu holds sankha,. 
goad, padma and gada. 


There are four doorways of almost similar design. They may be numbered 
thus; (1) North, (2) North-east, f'3) South-east, (4) South. The excellence of their 
work is in the reverse order so that it would be convenient to describe them in that 


(4) South door : When the original temple was built, the navaraiigas were 
open pavilions with no doorways. In the days of Narasiniha I, they were enclosed 
-and the four entrances were provided with doorways as seen from an inscription on 
the lintel of the south doorwa} 7 . 1 

This doorway is supported on each side by a dvarapala, about six feet high, 
with the third eye and fangs and wearing all possible ornaments, the latter being 
worked in the most elaborate fashion to the minutest detail. They wear jatamakuta, 
stand in tribhanga and have four hands each. The one to the right of the doorway 
holds a darnaruga and cobra in the back hands while the front ones held originally 
the trisula and gada, which are now broken. The one on the left holds a blazing fire 
and clamaruga. His front hands also are broken. Their damaged faces have been 
recently trimmed, so that they now appear ugly and flat. They are carved on 
stones separate, from the slabs which serve as jambs, unlike as in the sukhanasi 
doorway at Belur. A technical point to be noted is the use of the small drill 
especially, for separating the small beads, tens of thousands of which go to form the 
ornaments of each dvarapala. The lintel is a large heavy slab about 12 feet long, 
three feet high and one and half feet thick, on which is elaborately carved a design 
with TandavSsvara in the centre. The god dances on the body of Andhakasura and 
has his eight hands in the usual poses. He has a jatamakuta and a third eye and 
is fully ornamented, His figure is fine and the face wears a benign smile. Andha- 
kasura looks up at the lord ; so also Nandi, the bull, . and the crowd of musicians 
who accompany the lord with drums and cymbals. Above the god's head is a five- 
hooded snake with a towering canopy. To the right and left of the group are 
panels formed by tower- crested pilasters between which, to the right, stands Brahma 
and, to the left, Vishnu. Above the god is a Iata-t6rana surrounded by a serpentine 
makara-torana in the convolutions of both of which are swans, musicians and 
flowers. On each side is a makara with a warrior in its mouth, Varuna and consort 
on its back and soldiers in virasana near its feet ; behind it are more soldiers. At each 
end, there is a lion with a cobra in its mouth, the one on the right fighting an 
elephant, the one on the left fighting the hero Sala. Above the makara-torana and 
partly hidden by it are friezes of seated Saptamafcrikas, Gandharva musicians and 
the eight Dikpalas. At each end, 011 the top, above the lions is the figure of a 
soldier, perhaps Ylrabhadra, with fangs, jabamakuta, oblong shield and sword. (No 
third eye is seen.) 

The sculptor was Kalidasi as already stated. His work as a whole is an 
elaborately carved piece unequalled for its elegance and beauty. All these slabs 
composing the doorway, whether sculptured or not, are. of soft potatone, easily 

1 The inscription is unpublished and reads thus : 

S? ^Dd^c^cS^drf doa-so ^crad/Do&o 

ctosrao SF-stfErs^ rte.3osrd /3$dea ! sfcoritfo 


yielding to the chisel. This is one of the finest doorways of the temple, and through, 
it the Hoysala king used fco visit the linga every morning, coining from his palace 
which was a furlong away to the south-west. At the back of the Hotel stone inside 
the doorway an attempt has heen made to carve another panel of Tandave"svara. 
But it appears to have been abandoned at an early stage. 

(3) South-east Doorway. (Plate XII- 1). This is perhaps the hest of the 
outer doorways. In design, quality and execution, it is very similar to the south 
doorway and is the work of Demoja. 1 Only the chief differences will be noted here. 
The ten hands of Tandavesvara are intact, except one, and they are thus disposed : 
rosary, lanaba-hasta, sword, trident, arrow, svarga-hasta, drum, bow, buckler and 
bowl. Inside the lata-torana is a pushpa-torana with an inner frieze containing 
fourteen small figures in the Hying posture. They consist of musicians with varied 
instruments. Above the makara-torana there are only two friezes : the lower one 
containing the eight Dikpalas and the upper one consisting of 14 figures standing in 
samabhanga. These are in order, to the right : Narasimha, Saras vati, Brahma, 
Ganesa, Parvati, (doubtful), Siva; to the lef t : Siva, Parvati, Bhairava, Indrani, 
Kesa^a, Suryanarayana, Parvati. Above the lata-torana at each upper comer is a 
small figure under an arch ; of these the one on the left holds padma and gada and must- 
be a form of Vishnu. On the back of this lintel also is a half carved Tandavesvara 
group as on doorway No. 4. 

(2) North-east Doorway. This also, on the whole, resembles the other two- 
with these differences : The figures have shortish limbs and are less finely carved. 
The musicians around Siva's head are larger than those on the other doorways and 
look crowded. Behind the makara-tdrana and above the clouds are only two friezes 
of the Gandharvas, holding garlands, and the Dikpalakas. Behind the tail of the 
makaras there are no lions, since the sculptures end there. The main figure,, 
especially, does not appear to have been finished and polished. The two dvarapalas 
who originally stood against the jambs are missing, leaving the bare slabs open to 

(1) North doorway. This doorway very closely resembles doorway No. 2, 
and is even less elaborate. The figure of dancing Siva is inferior to the other 
three, the right leg being too far lifted. Near the god there are only two- 
drummers and no other musicians. The toranas are poorer in execution while 
above them over the clouds is only one row of figures consisting of the eight Dikpala- 
kas. The lions and soldiers at the top ends are absent. This is perhaps the poorest 
of the four lintels. The original dvarapalas of this doorway are lost and tbe two now 
standing against the jambs have been brought recently from elsewhere and placed 

The Kannada inscription on a basement cornice, behind the Surya shrine, reads : 


here. They are also mispaired. Doorways 2 and 1 have no design on the inner 
faces of the lintel and appear to be the work of the same sculptor. 

Kedaresvara Temple. 

The KMaresVara temple has been studied under. the following heads: 

I. History. 

II. General description. 

III. Platform. 

IV. Elephant frieze. 
V. Horsemen frieze. 

VI. Creeper scroll. 

VII. Lions frieze. 

VIII. Creeper scroll. 

IX. Mythological frieze. 

X. Makaras. 

XI. Swans. 

XII. Yakshas. 

XIII. Turrets and lions. 

XIV. Front railing. 

XV. Pierced windows. 

XVI. Large wall images. 

XVII. Upper wall panels. 

XVIII. Eaves. 

XIX. Roof and tower. 

XX. Navaranga. 

XXI Pillars. 

XXII. Ceilings. 

XXIII. Niches. 

XXIV. South Cell. 
XXV. North Cell. 

XXVI. West Sukbanasi. 

XXVII. West Garbagriha and Linga. 

In this Eeport only some points from the note under II are published. 


If we make allowances for the mistakes made by the renovators of the last 
generation, the Kedaresvara temple is a homogeneous structure, most typical of 
Hoysala architecture. It has no accretional buildings and additional structures to 
mar its design. In this respect, it is valuable, like the Kesava temple at Somanatha- 
pur, for the purity of its type unlike the Belur or even the Hoysalesva,ra temples 
which have accretional later buildings. 

Though it had three shrines, its general plan was that of atypical single-celled 
Hoysala temple with a star-shaped garbhagriha, an open sukhan&si and an indented 
square shaped navaranga. The latter was open on the east, where there is a slight 
extension to accommodate the platform and doorway ankana. The west extension 
of the navaranga was provided with a doorway which converted it into a 
sukhanasi, while similar doorways for the south and north extensions converted 
them into smaller cells, though the building was really planned like a single-celled 

Its size is about equal to the Kappechennigaraya temple in Belur but it differs 
from that temple in having its outside walls covered elaborately with sculptures of 
a quality not in any way inferior to those of the Belur and HoysaUsvara temples. 



The ceilings are many of them dome-shaped, interestingly designed and taste.fully 
carved. In nearly all respects the Kedaresvara temple can be studied as a typical 
structure of the Hoy sala style. Fergusson considered it the finest huilding of the style. 
There is an interesting point to be noted in the plan of the temple. It does not 
appear to face directly east, nor is it inclined 18 north of east as the Belur 
and Hoysalesvara temples are. Its centre line appears to be about 15 south of 
east. Why this difference has arisen is difficult to explain. Could it be that the 
old architects were not quite sure of the correct east to west line ? 


See the map on Plate VIII. 

In the old Hoysala fort, there is the eastern gateway leading from the 
Hoysalesvara temple by a winding road through the fort wall on to the tank bund. 
On the outside, the gate is defended by two buttresses having walls of huge rough 
stones. It is a wonder how these heavy masses of stone were moved and placed 
in position. 

About a hundred yards to the west of the traveller's bungalow, there is a group 
of five ruined temples (Number 16) with the Nagaresvara 

Panchalingesvara Temple, in the centre and the four others arranged in ' T ' form : two 

directly to its east, one to its north and one to its south. 

They are mostly structures of darkish stone of the typical Hoysala type with beautifully 
worked turrets, Bhuvanesvari domes, large wall images and running friezes of swans, 
makaras, mythology and elephants visible here and there among the mounds. The 
central one which is of very darkish hard stone appears to have been a large structure 
of very great beauty. Its fallen ceiling dome pieces, wall friezes and beautiful large 
wall images bear testimony to its artistic greatness. The wall images are much 
larger than those of the Kedaresvara temple, though smaller than those of the 
Hoysalesvara temple. Several fine pieces like Krishna, Garuda, Indra on his 
elephant, two monkeys fighting for a fruit, etc., are lying about. They are sculp- 
tures of much beauty, not inferior to those of the other temples at Halebid. The 
doorway of the garbhagriha which is said to have been standing a generation ago 
is stated to have been removed to the Kedaresvara temple. On the pedestal of the 
wall images is a running creeper-scroll, about nine inches wide. This characteristic 
helps us to identify many wall images now in the Kdaresvara temple as having 
been brought from the ruins of the Nagaresvara temple. 

To the north of the central temple is the fifth mound on which the B&mayana 
frieze (the Saptatala story), two friezes of makaras and harhsas and a row of 
elephants and a large linga pedestal are seen. The basement of the garbhagriha of 
the south temple can also be seen. It is observed that between the outer wall which 


is composed of large square slabs placed one above the other and the inner wall is 
a core of large bricks showing the nature of the filling in of some of the old temples. 
These temples are built on the top of the slope to the north of the Benne-gudda which 
commands a good view towards the east, north and west. The area will fully repay 
excavation as sculptures of great value are sure to be found. The existence of .the 
five temples together, with the central one of Nagaresvara, suggests that the area 
was almost in the centre of the busiest quarter of the old city. The main road 
must have run by the temples from west to east, i.e., from the Belur gate to the 
Hoysajesvara temple. A furlong to the south is the palace area. 

About a hundred yards to the west of the Nagaresvara temple, beyond a stone 
ridge, there is the Kari-kal Eudresvara temple, a small 

Rudresvara Temple. trikutachala of the early Hoysala type in which are installed 

two lingas and a black stone image of Virabhadra. The, 

plan, though plain, the round pillars of the navarariga, the domed ceilings and the 
ornate doorways with Gajalakshmi lintel, the vimanas of the stepped pyramid 
type, the porch outside the navarariga and its pierced windows and the use of soap 
and pot stone, and finally, the Hoysala crest in front of the tower of this Eudresvara 
shrine declare it as a minor Hoysala building of the early period. The temple faces 
due south and has a mahadvara of the old, though simple type, outside which 
might have run the old road from west to east. 

Directly to the west of the Eudresvara temple by a hundred yards on the north 
slope of the Benne-gudda, there is a large mound of earth on which lies the inscrip- 
tion stone, Belur 342. About 15 yards to the south-west is a pit in the ground 
in which at a depth of about six feet from the surface can be seen a small typically 
rounded pillar of pot stone. This is pointed out as a Nelamalige or underground 
cellar. It is perhaps worthwhile excavating the area. 

About a hundred yards further west, on a lower level, there is a soap-stone figure 
of Durga seated in sukhasana holding, as usual, the trident, 

Nadugeri Maramma. drum, kapala and head. She wears a rundamal& and has 

a beheaded man under her foot , and goblins to the right and 

the left, and a trunkless head under her seat. It is no doubt a Hoysala image. One 
of its right hands is broken and its face is much damaged. It is said to have been 
in the centre of the inhabited quarter of Dorasamudra, called Naduge'ri, and might 
have had for itself in the past a temple which has disappeared. The goddess is 
now called Maramma. About 20 yards to her south-west is a vacant pitha lying 
in the fields. 

About a hundred yards to the west of the Chikka Benne-gudda the ground has 
a sudden fall and traces of an old fort wall of smallish stones are seen here. 
This must have been another fort wall, which protected the central and most 

important portions of the town. . 



About three furlongs directly to the west of the Berme-gudda we meet with a 
strong line of fortifications consisting of a large fort wall with 
Old Fort Wall. a deep moat (total depth ahout 50 feet at present) protected on 

the outside by a small wall with another moat. It is strange 
that a natural high ground faces the wall on the west and thus makes it assailable from 
that quarter. The inner face of the wall is earthen while the outer face has a revet- 
ment of large rough hewn stones placed one upon another so as to form a vertical face* 
The wall has small bastions projecting forward at almost every hundred yards, but is 
otherwise in almost a straight line here. A little to the south-west we come to a 
gateway, the winding road passing between two high walls, the main wall being 
projected westward and turned to the north to give this wind. This is probably the 
old Belur gate. The fortification must have been a formidable one in the old days. 
At present no traces of a door-frame or doors are to be seen ; possibly they were of 
.wood work and have disappeared. About two furlongs to the south-east of this gate 
there is another gate which leads on to the bund of the Kattesomanahalli tank. It is 
now completely covered with lantana and the tank has made a breach into the 
fortwall. The gate- way is now shown in the map as the road to Kogod village, a 
place which cannot be identified by the present natives of Halebid. 

We pass on eastward with several gates to our right and temple mounds to our 
left. On the south-east, there is also a gate now overgrown 
Soladavana. thickly with lantana. Just outside it there stands a small 

recent shrine built out of the materials (like pilasters with 
sculptured figures) collected from the ruins of a neighbouring Hoysala temple. The 
temple has a late Yijayanagar period image of a Devi with two hands holding padma 
and kalasa and seated in sukhasana with the figure of a man in outline on the 
pedestal. On each side of her stands a hero with a sword in one hand, the other hand 
being placed on his belley. These are identified popularly as Lakkanna and Vlranna, 
sons of the sister of Ballala III, who are said to have been unjustly executed. But 
the figures appear to date from many centuries later. A number of Hoysala pillars, 
images etc., are lying around as also two viragals and two sacrificial stones with the 
Devi's sandals in the centre and beheaded bodies and heads and a man cutting off 
his own head, sculptured on the panels. The neighbourhood is called Suladavana 
and appears to have been connected with the necropolis of the great city. 

About a hundred yards to the south of the existing Jain bastis there are 

several small and large mounds formed by the ruins of 

Jain ruins. ancient Jain temples. There are several inscriptions but the 

most interesting object is a colossal Jain image, broken 

into several pieces and lying on the ground. Its original height must have been 

more than 15 feet. Its feet are each about 30 inches long, while the head from 

chin to crown measures 20 inches. 


The chief natural landmark of the old Dorasamudra site is, the Beririe-gudda, 

a hill roughly about 250 feet high and two furlongs long, 

Benne Giadda. lying north to south, with a broad high earthen ridge 

tapering towards the west and ending in the Chikka Benne- 

gudda. A pathway leads by an easy climb from the Nagar6svara shrine past the 
Budresvara temple up the main hill. On the hill near its northern end is a platform 
about 30 feet square, called Pirangi Bateri. This was probably used as an observa- 
tion point by the Hoysalas and as a common battery in the Palegar period. It 
commands a good view of the surrounding country. To the west, beyond the Chikka 
Benne-gudda the old line of fortifications which is cut across by the new Belur 
road is visible. To the north-west at a distance of more than two miles there is 
Narasimhapura with a temple of Yoganarasiriiha, a Hoysala structure with a main 
building and a pillared pavilion. The tower, however, is a brink structure built 
many centuries later. Beyond Narasimhapura is the Grhattaha]li-gudda stretching 
towards the Belur road. To the north beyond the Budresvara temple and the 
Panchalingesvara mound are the new village of Halebid and the Bidarakere tank 
between which is the old fortification line. Away to the north, at a distance of 
about five miles, Belavadi with its temple and tank is visible. As a background to 
Belavadi is the Kalasapurada gudda, a low range, beyond which are to be seen the 
high peaks of Bababudangiri. 

To the north-east of the hill the Hoysalesvara temple presents a beautiful 
view. This is perhaps the finest view that could be taken of the temple whose 
indented outlines must have presented a grand and beautiful appearance when the 
towers were intact. Beyond it are the tank and its fields and the jungle towards 
Chatchathalli with the hill Onte-rnaradi rising a little more to the east. Beyond 
Onte-maradi hill is the Arasikere range with the Malekal Tirupati Peak. 

Directly to the east there is first the moat with the fort wall of the palace 
enclosing a large field of ploughed land now known as the Aramane-hola where the old 
palace of the Hoysalas is said to have stood ; portions of it are still called Tankasale 
hola (mint) to the north, Hajarada gundlu (front court) to the east, Layada salige 
(stables) to the south, and Anegundi (elephant stall) towards the low ground. The 
main palace must have stood on the terraced fields to the west, facing east. This 
fort has a gateway in the middle of its eastern wall which looks on directly towards 
the Kedare&vara temple. At the west centre, where the old palace must have stood, 
large stones still lie about in the fields and are clearly visible from the hill. 
Beyond the palace, is Bastihalji with its Jain temples, and further on at the end 
of the peninsula there is the fort wall, beyond which is situated the broad lake, 
Bdrasamudra, which gave its name to the old city. Further away the sun rises on 
the top of the Arasikere range. To the south-east extends a gulf of the tank 'at the 
mouth of which is an island. On the latter the pleasure palace of Ballalarya is 


said to have stood. More directly to the south-east is the Suladavana and across 
the gulf is visible Hulikere which has a beautiful stone-built Hoysala pond. Further 
away are Easigudda and Stge-gudda with their wild game. A little more to the 
south is Bhairavana gudda on which a temple of Bhairava is situated. It faces 
south, has a stepped pyramid tower and wears an ancient look. To its west on the 
top of that hill can be seen a stone inscription set up upright. Directly to the 
south of the Benne-gudda beyond thefortwall and ploughed fields is the Pushpagiri 
hill with its two temples of Mallikarjunesvara and BudresVara. 1 

To the north-west there is a fortwall with the Katte Somanahalli tank 
beyond which is seen Tirfchamallesvara with its famous well hidden by gardens. 
Ketalapura and its heights intercept the view of Belur, which is to west south- 
west. The seven large trees appearing silhouetted against the sky in this direction 
are perhaps about a mile and a half to the north-east of Belur. 

The top of Benne-gudda rises to the south and is only about 80 yards long. 
The southern end, where the peak is, has also an old platform, the stone revetment 
of which is seen here and there. The only building existing is a small temple of 
about the 17th century in which a few pillars and beams of the Hoysala period 
brought up from below have been used. The building is about five and half feet 
square and seven feet high and has a single room only. In this chamber, which 
has no door, stands an Anjaneya or Hanuman relievo, about five feet high, dating from 
about the 17th century. The shrine faces east and has nothing remarkable about 
it. On the face of the rock which forms the east side of the platform is an old four- 
line Nagari inscription of Ballala by the side of a natural cave recording arrange- 
ments for the supply of water to Belur from the Yagachi. 

To the south of the peak there is again a high cultivated ridge, at the south 
end of which some rocks mark the end of the hill. 

About forty years ago, it is said that some unknown person excavated a pit in 

an unknown part of the old palace area and that brick 

Palace. structures were found about six feet below the 

ground. From west to east it has three terraces 

of which the westernmost was perhaps the palace. Diagonal trenches in the 
north-east corner of the western terrace and south-east corner of the middle terrace 
would be fruitful in disclosing the old walls of the palace. The whole area is a 
government land cultivated by tenants, except the north-east field which is a gift 
to the Banganatha temple. 

1 Eev. H. Heras of Bombay has tried to indentify this neighbourhood with the Triparvata of the 
Kadambas. There are many more hills than three and it is difficult to accept his conclusion. 



About two furlongs to the south of the Hoysalsvara temple and directly to 
the west of the Kedaresvara and east of the palace are three Jain bastis, all of which 
are Hoysala buildings having their own points of interest. 

When Vishnuvardhana Hoysala was celebrating his victory at Bankapura in 
Dharwar District in the year 1133 A. D. news was 

1 History. brought to him of the birth of his son. Since, at that 

time, the Parsvanatha Basti was consecrated, he gave the 

deity the name of Vijaya Parsvanatha. Boppa-deva erected the temple and set up 
the god as a memorial of his father G-anga Raja, a famous minister and general of 
Vishnuvardhana. 1 

The eastern temple of Santinatha was constructed about the year 1196 A. D. 
in the time of Ballala IF but its mukhamantapa is a granite structure definitely 
of the Yijayanagar period. 

The middle temple of Adinatha is a purely Hoysala building, though very 


This temple had originally a garbhagriha, an open sukhanasi (later on 
provided with a doorway) and a square navaranga. In 

Mukhamantapa. front of the last and not structurally connected with it, 

is the mukhamantapa. A small insignificant mahadvara 

leads into the compound in which is first seen a star-shaped balipltha (lotus-plan, 
with about 32 petals) . 

The mukhamantapa (Plate IX I) is a square structure, 17 J feet high, with 
the ceiling supported by 32 rounded lathe-turned pillars beautifully ornamented. 
All round runs a stone bench, outside which is a slanting railed parapet with 
sculptures on the panels. Two large potstone elephants support the entrance 
of the mukhamantapa. 3 

Sculptured figures are now found on the railing which now exists only to the 
s'outh of the mukhamantapa, the rest being lost. The eastern panels show a king 
in durbar with dancers and drummers. A servant goes to the queen, salutes her 
and she dresses herself and is brought by force (like Draupadl) by the king's 
guards to the court. The other panels show two ladies conversing with a man 
holding a sword, a lady with a parrot, and a husband and his wife conversing. 
These are evidently in the wrong place. 

1 Bp. Cam. Yol. V. Bl. 124. 2 Ibid. Bl. 129. 

3 The ugly structure behind them should be immediately removed. 


.The western slab also shows a king in durbar enjoying a dance, a soldier and 
his lady with a parrot, and a lady at toilet. These appear to be fragments 
referring to the early lives of the Tirthankaras. 

The central square of the mukhamantapa is supported by four thick and eight 
thin pillars, which are all finely ornamented with beaded work. The central ceiling 
has a flab slab in the middle supported on three octagons and a square. On the frieze of 
the central slab are in addition rows of elephants, horses and footmen, and dancers. 
On the north, there are two Jain scenes : (1) a king and a queen seated ; (2) five 
persons meeting together and all of them standing in water half merged. (Not 
identified.) Another panel shows a Jaina seated with hands raised, a kingly 
personage, (perhaps an Arhant), and a herd of deer looking on. (Story to be identi- 
fied.) In the centre, however, is a divine personage described locally as 
Bhuvanendra Yaksha. He is probably Parsvanatha as a Prince. His left hand is 
raised and the right hand damaged. He has a seven-hooded cobra over his head 
and a princely person sits in sukhasana at each of his feet, while the gods and 
Yakshas fly about near his head. This group is identical with the one in the 
navaranga where it is better preserved. 

The outer wall of the Parasvanatha Basti is plain with only plain, narrow 
pilasters, except at the base and the parapets. The base 

Main Temple : Outer is ornamented with a row of makara faces interrupted, 
walls. here and there, by a lion or a sculptured group. Among 

the latter, particularly near the garbhagriha, are the 
following : 

Face 3. A bearded shpinx fighting Sala. 

Face 4. Sala and lion, dancer and drummer, elephants fighting and makaras 

swallowing gryphons, and elephant-faced lions, 

" 6. Dancing Mohini, Dakshinamurti and another sage a divine lady 
(Durga ?) dancing, makaras swallowing Yakshas, elephants fighting 
lions, two pairs of wrestlers, etc. 

On the outside the parapet is mostly destroyed, the stones being now stored 
in the compound of the KMaresvara temple. It is how- 
Parapet, ever standing around the garbhagriha where clockwise 

the following and other figures can be identified : 

Yakshas ; seated Jinas (four on each face), fine figures very similar to each other 
except the central one which is seated on a lion pedestal ; squatting goddesses 
among which may be seen Sarada, Durga, and Padmavati (rosary, goad, pasa, 
phala, etc.). The south and west faces are similar to the east face ; but one of the 
goddesses is seated with chakras in both the back hands and padma and phala in 
the two front hands. It is possibly Chakre"svara. 


The navaranga doorway is a large one, about 12 -feet- high, -with a Jina figure 

on a simhasana on the lintel. The navaranga hall has six 
Navaranga. small and two large wall niches which are very similar to 

those in the Hoysalesvara temple. Bach of them, originally, 

had images of the Tirthankaras. 1 There are now 24 pedestals, but the images 
are all missing. What they were can be guessed from the vehicles carved on 
the respective pedestals. The main interest in the navaranga is in its pillars and 
the central ceiling. The latter is borne by four thick and eight thin pillars of hard 
soapstone, rounded, lathe-turned and so finely polished that visitors can see their 
own reflections. These are perhaps the best known Hoysala pillars of this kind. 
Each pillar has its usual cubical, wheel, disc, bell, pot and umbrella-shaped mould- 
ings and squarish capitals. 

The central ceiling is a beautiful structure with three octagons and a square 

and flat top slab. Though the lower surfaces have only 
Navaranga Ceiling. lion faces and the general plan is similar to that of the 

nmkhamantapa, yet it is very much finer and more 

elaborate. On the vertical faces over the lower octagon are the eight Dikpalas, each 
with dancers and musicians in front and soldiers behind. In the next higher 
octagon and the one above it and also on the inner faces of the slabs of the squares 
there are the 24 Jain Tirthankaras, each seated in the characteristic yogasana with a 
Yaksha to the right and the corresponding goddess to the left, and with worshippers 
on each side. The top slab is designed and carved identically with the one 
in the mukhamantapa but is, in fact, more worthy of detailed study. The central 
deity holds a bow in the left hand and a sankha in the right hand. In the south- 
east corner of the navaranga, there is a large image of a Yaksha with fat belly and 
dangling curved lips. His build is like that of a Ganesa with a human head. His 
right hand holds a lotus and the left the matanga-phala. He appears to be 

The sukhanasi is entered between two large pillars and has an image in the 

south-west corner of a Jain goddess holding flower buds in 
Parsvanatha Image. the right hand and fruit in the left. She is probably 

Kushmandini. A large plain doorway with a Jain image 

on the lintel leads between diverging walls and two plain round pillars to the 
garbhagriha. Here stands a colossal image, about 14 feet high, of the last 
Tirthankara, Parsvanatha, with a seven-hooded cobra over his head. The absolutely 
naked body of the deity is perfect according to the Indian ideal of a Yogi. The 
hair is short and curly and beautiful in its ringlets. The face has a benign 

*. Kan. inscription on 2 pilasters : 
(_ 2 ) 


sympathetic smile, The neck has three folds. The shoulders are broad, the waist 
small and the limhs well proportioned, rounded and tapering. On the right side of 
the god there is a male deity standing with a three-hooded cobra above his head. 
On the left is a goddess similarly standing with a similar cobra. Of her four hands 
one is broken (broken, goad, pasa and phala). Both the gods wear the sacred thread, 
Mritas, makara-kundalas and other ornaments- The makaratorana with serpentine 
arch has the eight Dikpalas to the right and left with drummers and musicians in 
other convolutions. Behind the god is the serpentine body of the seven-hooded 
cobra supporting the image. The garbhagriha ceiling has a simple large padma. 1 

The middle temple of Adinatha is a small one with a garbhagriha, an open 

sukhanasi and a porch. The porch is typically Hoysala 

Adinatha Temple. with its elephants, two round pillars, ornamented pot- 

stone ceiling and a stone bench. The railings are missing. 

The navaranga doorway which has the usual ornamental bands and pilasters has 
Jain figures on the lintel with a lion on the pedestal. The navaranga has four 
square pillars with sixteen-sided fluted shafts. There are two canopies against the 
south wall, both of which have rounded Hoysala pillars and sikharas of the 
Hoysala type. Under the east canopy on a base having a crescent moon is a 
beautiful Hoysala image of Sarada with rosary, goad, pasa and pustaka. It has a 
smiling face and is not correctly Padma vati. The image under the west canopy 
has disappeared. In its place is now kept on a padmapitha a round panel containing 
the footprints of some Tirthankara. The prints are of natural size, incuse and 
very natural looking. 

The garbhagriha doorway has a plain but well designed lintel of pure black 
stone (rarely used) with an inscription upon it. The garbhagriha has a fine 
pedestal with a lion seated in front and other lions in the panels. Against the back 
wall there is a fine double torana with the eight Dikpalas in its convolutions. 
On each side of the pedestal is placed a beautiful small potstone elephant brought 
in from elsewhere and kept here. On the pedestal itself is engraved an inscription. 
The original image of Adinatha which was seated here is now kept in the Santi- 
natha Basti, since it is mutilated. A small standing image is now worshipped in 
its place. The temple was built in the days of Vishnuvardhana (Belur 
inscription 335). 


This is a plain structure equal in size to the Parsvanatha Basti, but it has 
instead of the mukharnantapa a very large porch of the Vijayanagar period con- 
structed out of roughly shaped old materials. 

1 An inscription (B. 0- Y. Bl. 127) on the outer wall of this Basti states that within 15 cubits to 
the north-east of the temple lies in the ground an image of the god Santinatha, 6 cubits high. The 
image, however, has not yet been discovered. 






(p. 61.) 

2/ysore Arclueological Surveu.] 


The navaraaga pillars are similar to those in the Parsvanatha Basti but are 
not ornamented, several portions being unworked. The ceiling consists of six plain 
octagons placed over one another cornerwise with a square flat slab on top. 

The open sukhanasi entrance has two plain round pillars and here is seated 
the image of Adinatha with its head broken. 

The garbhagriha is a plain structure with two flights of steps leading up to 
the back of the god ; it has a plain octagonal ceiling placed cornerwise. The torana 
is of stone and is comparatively plain and coated with lime. The image which is 
about 14 feet high is -similar to that of Parsvanatha. On either side of it are the 
usual male and female gods. 

On the pedestal of the image is an inscription (Belur 334). In the navaranga 
against the east wall are two turrets with inscriptions consisting epitaphs of Jain 

In front of the temple there is a large pillar, about 20 feet high, with a rounded 
shaft and a Yaksha in a shrine on the top. 

To the north-east of Bastihalli can be seen the remnants of an ornate Saiva temple 

of the Hoysala period of which only the open sukhanasi 

Virakta Matha. and garbhagriha are standing. The old sukhanasi doorway 

has disappeared. The garbhagriha has three inner niches 

and in the ceiling on the octagon are the eigbt Dikpalas. The sukhanasi ceiling 
has Andhakasuramardana with the eight Dikpalas. In front of the temple appears 
the basement of the old navaranga and to its north-east there is an old draw-well 
with its square sides finely revetted with dressed slabs. Behind the temple can be 
seen the remains of an outer niche with its Ramayana frieze, a row of large images, 
etc., which show comparatively inferior workmanship. 

On the bund of the Dorasamudra tank and in its waste weir are the wreckages 
of old images. To the south of the bund stands a large Nandi, narrow and long, of, 
probably, the fourteenth century workmanship. It must have belonged to a temple 
which faced eastward. Its two Saiva dvarapalas are still standing half buried in 
the earth. 

At the north-east end of Halebld, close by the fort walls, stand two temples 

one of which is that of Yirabhadra. (Plate IX 2.) Its 

Virabhadra Temple. outer navaranga is a structure of the Vijayanagar period, 

but the inner navaranga, sukhanasi and garbhagriha are 

of the Hoysala period. Around the latter portion run narrow elephant and floral 
friezes, above which on the walls are large images, each about 30" high. They are 
of the usual type and consist of Lakshminarayana, Nandi- Vahana, Kali, dancing 
Sarasvati, Mohini, Mahishasuramardini, Brahma, Taiidavesvara, Narasimha, Yaraha, 
Venugop&la and Uma~mah6svara with attendants, etc. The tower is of the stepped 
pyramid kind with a Sala group on the projection in front. 



The outer navaranga appears to be a complete navaranga of some other small 
temple transferred bodily with its round pillars and Tandavesivara ceiling. 

The inner navaranga is a very low one with only five feet between the floor 
and the beams. It has two side niches. In the north one, stands a female image 
with sword, arrow, bow and shield. It has an inscription on the pedestal. In the 
south niche is a seated image of a Vlrasaiva svarni in the yogamudra with male and 
female ydgis seated on the sides; Bhringi is dancing. Tandavesvara is on top with 
Kandi below, Yirabhadra to the right and two-handed goddesses, four-handed and 
bull-headed Xandisorna to the left. Jt has an inscription on the top edge in late 
Hoysala characters. 1 

The main image of the temple is a standing Virabhadra, about six feet high, 
of late Hoysala workmanship, with sword, trident, drum and shield. It wears 
moustaches twirled up. The torana, which is of the same stone as the image, is a 
mixed one with pushpa torana and mallara torana. In place of the simhalalata is 
found a kirtiinukha with a skull. It is doubtful if this is the original image 
of the temple at all. The Nandi in the outer navaranga is of the late Viiayanagar 

The Kurnblesvara temple is another ruined shrine rebuilt with Hoysala wall 
and pillar pieces collected from ruins. Of the original temple there are' only the 
remains of the inner walls of the sukhanasi and garbhagriha. 

Parallel to the Vlrabhadra temple stands the temple of 'Gudlesvara' whose 
front portion is also of recent construction with old material. The western part 
is a plain structure of the Hoysala type whose vimana has been lost. 


Tf , ft ^ I" " r^ f the H ysala P eiiod ^ * stepped pyramid tower 
Is garbhagriha and open sukhan^si and low-roofed inner navai^ga with 




Mysore Arch&ological Survey.] 


his feet and Bhu seated near his head and a chanaara-bearing lady behind the 

The original name of the temple was Bochesvara or Bobbesvara (Belur 325? 

The mahadvara has been reconstructed out of the stones of some ruined temple 
and has rows of elephants, horsemen, scrolled mythological frieze and large images 
ncluding Brahma, Vishnu, Ganesa and Tandavesvara who grace the porch. 


The Isvara temple at Arsikere, is a structure of exquisite beauty, though 
comparatively small in dimensions (see plate XVI). It is 

General Description. almost entirely made of soap-stone and possesses the 

typical characteristics of Hoysala architecture. It has 

a small garbhagriha, an open sukhanasi, an open navaranga, a porch and a unique 
mukhamantapa (see plan : plate XIV). The garbhagriha and the mukhamantapa 
are both star-shaped, while the navaranga is squarish in plan. The entrances are 
to the north and south of the porch which opens into the mukhamantapa on the 
east and the na.varariga on the west. 

Arsikere, named perhaps after the tank which was constructed in the name of a 

Chalukya princess 1 , was already a well known place in the 

History. days of Tribhuvanamalla Vikramaditya VI Chalukya. An 

inscription of his time on a conduit of the tank and 

subsequent inscriptions on other conduits by various Ploysala rulers show that the 
town and its tank were well known long before 1220 A.D. About that date in the 
reign of Narasimha II, son of Ballala II, the temple was constructed and conse- 
crated probably by the Ballala II. There are very few subsequent references to the 
temple. The much plainer double temple on the north which is situated close to 
the navaranga of the Isvara temple obstructs to some extent the north view of the 
latter. The Isvara temple is now in the occupation of the Lingayats who have 
subscribed a large fund and propose to improve the condition of the temple. 

There is no indication at present of a platform existing below the level of the 

temple. The structure appears to be raised on a floating 

Foundation and foundation of fiat slabs placed upon a hardened bed of 



On this foundation rises a basement, about 3' high, having several cornices, the 
lowest one being bell-shaped. The others which are separated by deep horizontal 

1 Ep. Cam. V. Ak. 87. 


lines of shadows are ornamented with variedly shaped geometrical mouldings whose 
carving work has not been finished. 

The outer wall which avoids monotony by being cut up by numerous vertical 
incuse angles has, on each of its outer angles, a fine star- 
Wall Decorations. shaped or ' pond-shaped ' pilaster. The tops of such 

pilasters expand into finely shaped capitals bearing parts 

of a frieze of Fakshas with one of swans and turrets above. Between these pilasters 
are smaller ones bearing elegantly shaped turrets of varied design standing often 
under toranas or arches of different shapes. 

Against the larger pilasters and between the smaller turreted ones are numerous 
finely carved images of the gods and their followers. The 

Wall Images. chief images are as follows, commencing from the south 

of the navaranga entrance : 

1, 2, 3, 4. Lakshmi and Vishnu with a lady attendant on each side. 

5. God standing broken. 

6. Three-headed goddess (Brahmi) standing, holding pasa the other three 

hands broken. 

7. 8. G-oddess (Mahesvari) standing, and lady attendant symbols broken. 

9, 10. Kaumari with three visible heads holding rosary, goad, sakti, and 

phala. Lady attendant to the right. 
11, 12. Vaishnavi (padma, sankha, chakra and phala) with a lady attendant 

to the right. 
13, 14. Varahl standing (gada, chakra, sankha and phala). Attendant to the 


15, 16. South niche, now empty. A lady attendant on either side. 
17, 18. Indrani (vajra, goad,,pasa and phala.). Attendant to the left. 
19, 20. Chamunda (sword, trident, pasa and bowl). Attendant to the right. 
21, 22. Parvatl standing (rosary, goad, sakti, phala). Attendant to the 

23, 24. Siva standing (rosary, trident, drum, phala). Attendant to the 


25. Lakshmi. 

26. Kdsava arms broken. Inscription in Kannada : *?3sJ. 

27. 28, 29, 30. Narayana standing with Lakshmi to the right and a Garuda 

on each flank. Inscription in Kannada : sfcras. 

31, 32, 33. Madhava standing with a lady on each side. Inscription : *>0s3. 

34, 35. Govinda with a lady to the right. Inscription: ftoc>oGJ. 

36, 37, 38, 39, 40. Vishnu with a lady and a Garuda on each side. Inscrip- 
tion : 



41, 42. Madhusudana with a lady to the left. Inscription 

43, 44. Trivikrama with a lady attendant to the right. 

45, 46, 47, 48, 49. Yamana (one of 24 forms) with a consort and a Garuda on 

each side. Inscription : ra^3- 

50, 51. Sridhara with Lakshmi to the left. Inscription: 
52, 53. Hrishikesa with Lakshnii to the right. Inscription : 
54, 55, 56, 57, 58. Padmanabha with a consort and Garuda on each side. 

Name not inscribed. 

59, 60. Damodara with a lady attendant to the left. Inscription : 
61, 62. Sankarshana with a lady attendant to the right. Inscription: 
63, 64, 65, 66, 67. Yasudeva with a consort and a Garuda on each side. No 


68, 69. Pradyumna with a lady to the left. Inscription : ^^^ 
70, 71. Aniruddha with a consort to the right. Inscription : W^K&GJ,. 
72, 73, 74, 75, 76. Purushottania with a consort and a Garuda on each side. 

Inscription : ^cfcaljja^So. 

77, 78. Adhokshaja with a lady to the left. Inscription: 
79, 80. Narashiiha with a lady to the right. Inscription : 
81, 82, 83, 84, 85. Achyuta with a consort and a Garuda on each side. 

Inscription : &^. 

86, 87. Janardana with a lady to the left. Inscription : fc^GSFd. 
88, 89, 90. Upendra with a lady attendant on each side. Inscription : erases,. 
91, 92, 93. Hari with a consort and a Garuda to the left. Inscription: ^- 
94, 95. Krishna with a Garuda to the left. Inscription : ^ a j B - 
96, 97, 98. Parvatl and Siva with a devotee in the middle. 
99, 100. God standing with consort to the right. 
101, 102. Sarasvati standing (rosary, broken, sugarcane (?), pustaka) with a lady 


103, 104. God standing (goad and pasa) with an attendant to the right. 
105, 106. North niche with a male attendant on each side. 
107, 108. Goddess standing (abhaya, goad (?), pasa, phala) with a lady 

attendant to the left, 

109, 110. Goddess (ankuSa, pasa, two arms broken). Male attendant to the right 
111, 112. Goddess standing in 'tribhanga ' with a male attendant to the left. 

113. God standing (broken, goad, pasa (?), phala). 

114, 115. Siva standing holding trident and cobra. Other two hands broken. 

Male devotee to the right. 
116, 117. Siva standing. Trident visible. Other symbols broken. Devotee to 

the right. 
118. Kesava. 


119, 120. Lakshmt standing (abhay a, sankha, sankha, padma). Lady attendant 

to the right. 

The row of eaves which projects about a foot from the main building is finely 
made with the imitation of rafters on the under surface 

and beaded hangings on the edge. 

Above the eaves is the parapet formed of a aeries of turrets bearing a cornice 
p . of makara faces and a row of kirtimukhas on the 


The tower (Plate XY) which is on the whole shaped like a sixteen-pointed star 
has each alternate point flat with an intervening angular 

Tower. projection ; that is, a flat projection flanked on one side 

like a right-angled projection and on the other by a star- 
shaped one. Thus considerable variety of detail is introduced. The tower is 
composed of five tiers of turrets rising one above the other, the figure sculptures 
being comparatively less prominent. A star-shaped sikhara with a stone kalasa 
surmounts the top. The eastern projection of the tower has now an ugly stucco bull 
in place of the original Sala group, while its front panel has the usual Tandavesvara 


(a) .Basement. The basement of the mantapa is similar to that of the main temple 
and is characterised by its comparative plainness and projecting broad-based bottom. 
Near the top of the basement is a row of Yakshas seated under turreted conopies. 
The slanting railing above the turrets is plain except at the north-western corner. 

(b) Eaves and Roof. The eaves of the inantapa which are less ornate than 
those of the main temple and are wider appear originally to have had a stone 
parapet wall above them, This is now substituted by a row of rough masonry 
turrets, above which rises the beautiful dome. The latter has a large vaulted lower 
part with the central dome rising higher up above it. The outline is very pleasing. 

(c) Inner View. The mantapa is planned like a sixfceen-pointed star and is a 
large structure with a diameter of about 25'. In the centre is a large low circular 
stone platform around which is an octagonal low terrace with a bell-shaped pillar at 
each corner. Behind these is a stone bench, star-shaped, with a row of 24 fine 
elephants forming pairs and facing each other. The trunks of most of these have 
now been broken, but their elegantly shaped heads, bodies and limbs are admirable. 
Behind the stone bench is the slanting railing. 

(d) Pillars. The outer row of 13 pillars is made up of lathe-turned pieces with 
cylindrical shafts and wheel-shaped neck mouldings. But the eight inner pillars 
which are of the bell-shaped round floysala type are finely ornamented with beaded 
hangings and scroll designs. 






(e) Beams. The beams above the inner set of pillars form an octagon, on the 
inner face of each side of which are carved seven interesting images making in all 
56 images. Some of the central figures are Naridisvara, Kub&ra, Isana, Narasimha. 
On either side of these figures on each beam are three standing images among which 
can be recognised the varied forms of Vishnu, Siva and Devi. 

Above the beams is a gallery of lions with a turreted niche between each pair 
of tbem. Only one of these, viz., that on the north, has a figure of seated Durga 
with sword and bowl in her hands. 

(/) Dome. Above the row of turrets rises the dome. Each outer angle of 
the dome is formed by one slab whose inner surface is scooped out into a large 
obtuse angle with rafters and pendants, while the outer surface is smooth and 
rounded. The upper portion of the dome is formed by quite another set of slabsj 
while from their midst is a large heavy stone lotus pendant which hangs down and 
is more than 3|' long. The effect produced is more like that of a metallic dome 
than anything of stone and the design which consists of three concentric octagons 
connected by ribs is comparatively plain. 

Between the mantapa and the navaranga entrance is a small porch supported 
Porch. on four ornate bell-shaped pillars. 

The ceiling of thelporch has two sculptured friezes, the lower one containing 
the eight Dikpalakas and their consorts seated in state with their symbols, their 
attendants standing to the left. The upper [one has groups of dancers and 
musicians. The flat ceiling has Tandavesvara in the centre surrounded by nine 

The navaranga which is now provided with a doorway was originally open 

unlike in most other temples. It is a small hall about 

Navaranga. 20' x 20' with 9 squares. Its walls on the three sides 

contain a fine towered niche for each ankana. These 

niches originally contained images which have all disappeared. (See Plates XVIII 
and XIX). 

(a] Pillars. The outer pillars of the navaranga are indented-square shaped 
and the four inner ones are of the polished bell-shaped kind. On low bases orna- 
mented with Yakshas rise the lower cubical mouldings which contain under 
toranas interesting images of Vishnu, Siva and Sakti. The shafts are ornamented 
with floral and creeper scrolls and beaded work, while the capitals are supported by 
lions at the corners (Plate XVII). 

(b) Ceilings. 1. The central ceiling rises on four beams which contain standing 

images of gods in this order West : the Eleven Eudras ; 
East : the twelve Adityas ; North and South : the twenty- 
four forms of Vishnu. 



The gallery has eight niches with seated Yakshas and the dome is a miniature 
of the naantapa dome. The other domes commencing from the east clockwise are 
thus designed : 

2. Concentric circles. 

3. Concentric squares. 

4. Concentric circles. 

5. Concentric circles. 

6. Concentric squares. 

7. Three concentric squares. 

8. Concentric squares. 

In the navaranga is now kept a relievo image of Mahishasuramardinl, perhaps 
of the 14th century, and in the navaranga and the sukhanasi are two Nandis of 
Vijayanagar workmanship. 

The sukhanasi which is open on the east has an interesting ceiling with two 
Sakhanasi. friezes of sculptures : 

1. Lower frieze : East and North-East : an old Eishi, perhaps Durvasa or 
Vy&sa explaining to a Eoyal family, perhaps the Pandavas, a text read from a book 
placed on a book-stand; while Krishna pays them a visit. 

South and South- West .... Lady dancing with musicians. 
West .. Dr6na teaching the Pandavas (?) 

North-west .... Pandavas and Kauravas at dice. 

North - Bhirna pulling out Dussasana's intestines 

with which Draupadi dresses her hair. 
i\ orth-East .... An anthropoid leader of a herd of deer fights 

a man and then performs hdma 

2. The second frieze. .... East : Samudramathana or churning of the 

milky ocean with the gods drinking nectar. 
South : Siva dancing. 

" West : Siva standing with following. 

North : God seated holding vajrayudha and 

Dikpftlakaf eilinS ab Ve haS Ta ^ ave ^ vara in the middle surrounded by the eight 
The garbhagriha doorway is beautifully carved. Bach jamb has a dvtoapala 

r u. -t bel W ' With V6rtioal bands of flower s, creeper scrolls 

Garbiagrd*. ^ern^ pilasters and lions-all deeply carved The' 

- mtel haa a Ga ]' al akshmi with a damaged head 

a ^ *** ana 

_ The garbhagriha ceiUng has a low dome well sculptured with a frie.e of 

of musicians ' whiie - '- * f 


,.<! of 

Mysore Archaological Survey.} 


The linga is a comparatively small one, being about 2' high from the ground. 
The double-temple OD the north appears to have been constructed about the 

year gaka 1141 (1219 A. Dj. This building has two 

tk N tlT m ^ garbhagrihas whose sukhanasis open into a large mantapa. 

The latter is really made up of two ranga mantapas each 

of 9 ankanas, between which is a covered space forming the whole into one large 
pavilion. At the west end of the corridor is a small niche which has now no image. 
The whole structure is plain except for the two garbhagriha doorways which are 
moderately ornamented and bear on each jamb a dvarapala with a female chamara 
bearer on the outer side and a Manmatha (?) holding a sugar-cane staff on the 
inner side. The back wall of the building is much damaged. 



(PLATE XX 1). 
KEISHNADEVAElYA, 1509-1530. 

Type A :- Venkatesa. 

Ai (gold.) '75 inch ; wt. 117 grains ; Yenkatesa Medal. 2 

Obverse : Gfod Venkatesa standing to front wearing tall kirita and the usual upper 
and lower clofch and ornaments. He has four arms and holds in the 
right back hand the discus and in the left back hand a conch. The 
right front hand is in the dana-mudra or attitude of bestowal 
(of salvation or other boons) and the left front hand rests on his hip and 
points to his feet (popularly explained as the refuge for devotees). 
Above the image is an ornamental torana or arch with a lion face at the 
keystone supported by two makaras or acquatic animals. The arch is 
borne by two ornamented star-shaped pillars, the lower parts of which 
are covered by plants. Below is a lotus supporting the ground on 
which the god stands. 
Eeverse In double lined circle three line Nagari legend with intervening rules : 


Kr shna Ea 


This specimen is very probably one of the thirty thousand corns in which G-od 
Venkatesa of Tirupati is said to have been bathed by Krishnaraya on the latter's 
victorious return from his conquest of Kondavidu and Orissa about 1516 A.D. 3 It 
is doubtful whether it is an ordinary coin at all as it weighs about two and a 
quarter varahas. It may more probably be a commemorative medal meant to be 
two and a half pagodas, minted for the occasion and distributed among Brahmans 
and charities. The later Yenkatesvara type of Venkatapati Eaya and others 
appears to have had this as a model. The coin is finely made and shows that the 

1 Among the coins examined during the year, a large number were the issues of the Taluva 
Eulers of Yijayanagar. The coins of two of the rulers which occur so commonly in South India are 
here described. 

2 Elliot: Coins of Southern India (E. C. S. I.), No. 112. 

3 Archaeological Survey of India (A. S. I); Ann. Kept. 1908-9. p. 176. 


*^'^^^'f^^^f- "'' ' 

. .! . . .J . 

-.! I -. I I..:'! V. ! '.' ! 


Mysore Archaeological Survey. 


standard of the art of the die-cutter at that time was high , though some other types 
indicate that coinage was not considered worthy of the attention of the great artists. 

The reverse of the coin does not offer any special problem. The second letter is 
often "Kra" instead of the correct form 'Kr.' Hultzsch 1 thinks that the 
attribution to Krishnaraya of coins without the title ' Pratapa ' is doubtful. 
There is also a varaha of the Balakrishna type with merely ' Sri Krishna Eaya ' on 
it. The deities and the name Krishna Baya, especially the form ' Eaya ' instead of 
'Baja,' and the fact that Deva Baya also issued coins with and without the title 
'Pratapa,' dispel the doubt about the coins being those of Krishnaraya of 
Vijayanagar. : 

The pose of the right hand requires notice. On the coin in the British Museum, 
it is not clear whether it is in the dana-mudra or in the abhaya-mudra. On the 
reproduction by Elliot, it is in the abhaya-mudra, which is correctly the pose of the 
original Venkatesa of Tirupati 2 . The flatness of the feet shows that the artist 
eared more for ornamentation and conventional representation of the figure than 
for making a study of living objects. 

The real character of Venkatdsa is a matter of great interest since he has been 
perhaps the most popular of the Vaishnava gods of South India from about the 
sixteenth century A.D. The jata-rnakuta and the cobra across the shoulders, which 
are said to be present in the original Tirupati image are definitely Saiva features while 
the figure of Lakshmi engraved on the chest is clearly Vaishnava. The Tirupati 
image has no conch or discus in stone and there appears to have been some reason 
for the Saiva opponents of Sri Bamanujacharya to have claimed it as Siva. But 
about 1110 A.D, or earlier, even during the life time of this teacher, the Oholas 
carved the figure of Venkatesa at the back of the temple of Mukti-nafchesvara at 
Binnamangala in the Bangalore District. The figure has jata-makuta and phalaksha 
or the third eye and holds discus and conch in stone. Since it stands between Siva 
and Brahma, it is certainly Vishnu among the Trimurtis. Thus Bam&nuj4charya 
was justified in claiming Venkatesa as Vishnu. At the same time, the jata and the 
third eye give it a Saiva leaning. 

Type B : Umamahesvara. 
2. Ai. Varaha. 
Obverse : Siva and Parvati as on Harihara I's Varaha 8 but the figures ruder, 

and trident in the right hand of Siva. 
Ee verse : Three-line Nagari legend as on Type A. 

1 Ind. Ant., Vol. XX, p. 305 

2 E. G. S. I. ISTo. 112. 

. 3 Ind. Ant, Vol. XX., p. 305. 


Hultzsch describes this type, a specimen of which appears to be in the Madras 
Museum. The British Museum and the Mysore Government Museum have 
none. The fact that the Umamahesvara type was continued by Krishnaraya, a 
vaishnava king, throws much light on the catholic nature of the king's religion. 
Though hiDnseif a devotee of Vishnu, Krishnaraya worshipped all deities just like 
the present-day kings of Mysore. The State adopted a more extreme form of 
V aishnavism three generations later. 

Type C (a) : Balakrishna. 
3. Ai. %5 Varaha, wt. '51. 'Durgi' Varaha. 1 

Obverse .The divine baby Balakrishna seated on seat, with one knee bent and 
resting on seat and the other raised up and supporting the left arm 
which is stretched out at ease. The right hand holds a lump of butter. 
ine child wears large ear-rings, a girdle of gingles, gingled or beaded 
bracelets, armlets and anklets on his fat little body and limbs ; and on 
his head is a crown of peacock feathers with a string of flowers above 
In neld to right a conch, to left a discus. On some specimens, the child 
wears a kind of tight fitting dress which bulges out at the shoulders 

Eeverse - ST i .^^ the ? late * *s of the Middle Ages. ' 
Reverse .-Three-line Nagari legend with interlinear rules :- 

Sri Pra 
t pa kra 
shna Ba ya 

4. Ai *5 Varaha. Wt. '51 

Eeverse Similar to 3 but with ' Sri Krishna/ 

5. Ai. 55 Varaha. Wt. '51 

in various positions near ' pa ' bo ^times, there are two dots 

6. Ai -5 Varaha. 

A rude forgery of No. 4 in a baser metal. 

- - 


Type (5). 

7. Ai Varaha. 

Similar to the above but legend reads only Sri Krishna B&ya. The specimen 
is in the Mysore collection. 

Type (c). 

8. Ai '4 Half Varaha wt. 25'7. 

Obverse : Similar to 3 but the figure is more elaborately ornamented. The child 
sits with both thighs resting on seat and wears shoulder ornaments, 
necklace and sacred thread. The hair falls in curls around the head and 
there is a creeper in place of the string of flowers. The conch and discus 
are large. 

Eeverse : Similar to 4. 

On this specimen, the figure is elaborately worked and ornamented. It shows 

better technique than 3, though the figure of the child is more like a grown up person 

and less pleasing in spite of its curly hair and better proportions of the limbs. 

Obverse : Similar to 3 with smaller conch and discus, a ball of butter in each 

hand and two-arched lines representing hair and crown. 

Obverse : Similar to 3 and figure almost like it but for two convergent lines which 
indicate a crown on the head. 

Eeverse : Similar to 3 but ' ka ' instead of ' Era.' 

11. Ai '35 Half Varaha corresponding to Varaha No. 3. 

Very similar to No. 3 with the same pleasing figure of a fat little baby and a 
string of flowers (or hair ?). 

12. Half Varaha corresponding to Varaha 4 but more like 3. 

Obverse: Similar to 11 but with breasts parted as on 4 and smaller conch 
and discus. 

Eeverse : Similar to 4. 

13. Ai '4 

Obverse : Similar to 11 and 12 but figure ruder and conch and discus con- 

Eeverse : Similar to 3 ; legend occupies very small space. 

14. Ai Poorer metal. Half Varaha. 

Similar to 5. Half Varaha corresponding to the rude Varaha type 5. 

15. Ai '45 Half Varaha Wt. 26.5. 

Similar to 9 but Obverse fainter. Some of these specimens come from 
Bassein, Akola District, Central Provinces. 

Type C (d). 

16. Ai. Quarter Varaha. 

A quarter varaha of the Balakrishna type is described by Marsden. l 
The type which is here designated as the 'Balakrishna type ' is very common 
and is known as the 'Durgi' Varaha and is by some 

Diirgi Varaha. people associated with the figure of Durga and the legend 

of Krishna Eaya \ According to Elliot, it was issued by 

the local chiefs who arose from the ruins of the Vijayanagar Empire. Bidie says 
that they were called Durg& Varahas probably because they come from 
Chitradurga 3 , and he identifies the figure as a boar. 4 Thomas gives a correct 
reading of the legend but describes the figure as Durg& 5 and attributes the coin 
to one of the Palegars of the ceded districts. Elliot suggests that the type known as 
Lakshmi Mada to the Sarafs has some connection with the series of Krishna coins 
of Ghikkadevaraya of Mysore. Hultzsch attributes the type to Krishna Eaya but 
describes the figure as Lakshmi. 6 H eras identifies it as the figure of ' Vyasaraya' 7 
while Srinivasa Eaghava lyengar of the Madras Museum says that it is the figure 
of * Durga.' 8 

A careful study of a large number of coins of this type strongly suggests the 
fact that the figure on the obverse is that of Balakrisbna. The type was orglnally 
issued by Krishnaraya, Emperor of Vijayanagar, as proved by the legend. When 
the empire declined, it is highly probable that various local chiefs, like those 
of Chitradurga, reissued the type for which reason it may have become known as 
the ( Durga ' type more than because there was any figure of Durga on it. 

It is possible to classify this type into three groups : 

(1) Those on which the figure is fine ; the conch and discus are large and 
clear and the metal is of the good quality common to the Vijayanagar series. These 
may be attributed to Krisbnaraya himself. 

(2) Specimens whereon the conch and discus are small and conventionalised. 
The figure is ruder and the legend, which is neat, reads 'Krishna.' These issues are 
probably those of the chiefs of Chitradurga and Eayadurga and other up-country 

1 Numismata Orientalia: Part II. 5 E. C. S. L, p. 98, .Footnote No. 7. 

2 E. C. S. }., p. 99. 6 Ind. Ant. XX p. 306. 

3 Bidie J. A. S. B. 1883, p. 44. " Jour, of Ind. Hist. VII, pp. 34-35 (1 PI.) 

4 Ibid. p. 46. * Jour, of the Andhra Hist. Ees. Society. 


(3) There are many rude large specimens on which the string of flowers 
assumes the form of a semicircle of large disconnected dots, the breasts and belly 
being represented by circular pellets suggesting feminine characteristics. The 
obverse is very often minutely granulated and the legend on the reverse is fragmen- 
tary and in large characters reading ' Krishna.' Sometimes there are two 
meaningless dots in different positions near 'pa.' These are possibly the issues of 
the local dynasties ruling near Chandragiri and to its north, as they appear to be 
connected with the later granulated issues of the l Carnatic.' Coins of this third 
variety have, generally, a great deal of alloy and indicate that fchey are the issues of 
impecunious and not very conscientious rulers. 

The original issues of Krishna Raya like the ' Lakshml Mada ' show elegant 

design and the art is not of a very low order. The general 
Imitations. opinion against the type is due to the imitations and 

forgeries being more prolific than the genuine issues of 

the Emperor. Some of the coins, specially those coming from Bassein, show one or 
both sides only in very low relief and the fissures on the edges and the centrifugal 
lines on the surfaces indicate that the imitators and forgerers did not have a good 
knowledge of the technique of die-cutting and striking, particularly heating the 
metal to the right temperature and perhaps using the right material for making the 

Of the Balakrishna type half Varahas, some are smaller in diameter (which is 
i I p. , about '35 or less than '4) and thicker and show only a part 

of the legend on the reverse. These can be safely attri- 
buted to the Emperor. The other varieties are wider ('45 and even '5) and thinner, 
contain more of alloy and some of them show very inferior workmanship. These 
would be later imitations. No. 14 appears to come from the same area as Varaha 
No. 9 perhaps from around Chandragiri and Vellore. No. 15 is a northern imitation. 
Many of such specimens, some in the British Museum and some in the Mysore 
Museum, come from Bassein in the Akola district of the Central Provinces. This 
information about the provenance need not lead to the conclusion that Krishna 
Raya's direct sway extended even for a temporary period to Bassein, because coins 
of other rulers like Harihara II also come from the same area and show the same 
characteristics. Many of these specimens show that one of the dies or both might 
have been shallow, giving a rather low relief to the figures. The good metal they 
contain does not support the view that they were only forgeries. It is possible 
that they were the issues of some regular mint situated in the north and acknowledg- 
ing the leadership of Vijayanagar. About this time, there was the small Hindu 
state of Kherla in this locality which had the Bahamani and Shahi Kingdoms as 
its enemies just as Vijayanagar had. 1 In all probability this state acknowledged the 

1 Imperial Gazetteer Vol. IT, P. 383. 



leadership of Yijayanagar and played an important part in its foreign aSairs. This 
appears to be a suitable explanation for the Akola finds, which range form Hari- 
hara II to Achyutaraya. 

The existence of forgeries in baser metals is also a point of considerable 
interest. It is probably the rudeness of the imitations and forgeries and the 
name Durga Varaha ' which perhaps led to the identification of the obverse 
effigy with Durg or the Boar incarnation. There cannot be much doubt that 
the figure on some of the best made coins is that of Balakrishna. An image of 
this deity was brought by Krishna Baya from Udayagiri and installed at Krisbna- 
pura in Vijayanagar in the year 1514-15 A. D. It was subsequently destroyed, 
perhaps by the Moslem iconoclasts, so that, to-day, in the great tottering ruined 
temple at Hampi, no image remains and there is only a figure of the Mount Graruda 
on the pedestal to indicate that Krishna stood above it. To Krishna Baya, who 
was a devotee of Vishnu, the figure of Krishna had a great appeal, one special reason 
being perhaps that he bore that very god's name. Thus it would appear that 
Krishna Baya was minting only the Umamahesvara type during the first five years 
of his reign and after the installation of Balakrishna in the new temple he pro- 
bably made it his ' Ishtadevata ' or chosen deity, and put the effigy of that god on 
his gold coins. It must, bowever, be confessed that on the ruder specimens the 
figure has a distinctly feminine form. 

The image of Krishna was revived by some later dynasties. Muralidhara or 
Krishna with the flute appears on late Yijayanagar coins ; Kalingamardana, the 
snake killer, on the issues of Chikkadevaraja of Mysore ; and Krishna with the 
butter re-appears on the coins of Krishnaraja III of Mysore as the Navanltanritta 
Mtirti in the dancing posture. 

Type D. Bull. 


17. Ae '6 

Obverse : In circle of dots, fine bull standing to left with ornamented cover- 
ing cloth on its back secured by girdle or girthbelt. Folds of fat 
show on its neck and a gingle on its throat. Sun and Moon in field 

Beverse : In the middle a conventionalised sword looking almost like an arrow 
flanked by discus and conch, with two line Kannada legend above and 

Sri Kri shna 
B& ya 

18. Similar to 17. but ruder bull to right. 



19. Ae Smaller. 

Similar to 17 but of half value. 

Krishna Eaya's bull type is similar to Deva Eaya I's bull type and shows that the 
bull and sword type which persisted in Vijayanagar for 

Ball and Gamda. nearly a century and a half is the most important copper 

type of Vijayanagar. It was probably revived by the 

Tuluva dynasty and continued down to 1514 A. D. when, as stated above, the emperor 
became a pronounced devotee of Vishnu owing to his success in his great campaign 
and also perhaps due to the influence of his guru Tolappalacharya whose descen- 
dants even to-day own the village of Krishnapur situated amidst the ruins of the old 
city. When on gold coins Krishna took the place of Uinamahes'vara, on the copper 
issues Siva's mount, the bull, gave place to Vishnu's mount Garuda. Tbis change 
is only indicative of the personal devotion of the emperor, for there is clear 
evidence in epigraphy to show that the state continued to patronise the worship of 
btber deities also. As a declared adherent of the Srlvaishnava faith and 
under the influence of his advisers of that sect, the emperor perhaps found it 
necessary to substitute Vishnu for Umarnahesvara, the patron deity of the Empire 
in its earlier days. 

Type E. Garuda. 


20. Ae '8 . Unusually large, thick and heavy. 

Obverse : In circle of closely lined dots, anthropoid white-headed kite or G-aruda to 
left with beaked face wearing tall kirita or crown with two fillets, hands 
joined on breast in the attitude of devotion. He kneels on his left knee 
with the right foot on the ground in the vlrasana or heroic posture. 
Small wings are spread out behind the arms and the fillets and waist 
cloth are flying in the air. 

Eeverse : Three line Nagari legend in large characters with interlinear rules : 

^rt pra 

ta pa ka shna 
Ea ya 


21. Ae "6 Smaller coin of the usual size. 
Obverse : Similar to No. 20 with linear circle. 

Reverse :- Similar to No. 20, letters proportionately smaller. On some specimens 
the circle is absent and the legend is fragmentary. 



22. Similar to 21, but with conch and discus on obverse in field near head. 

23. Similar to 22, but figure ruder and represented by a large number of dots. 

No border. Perhaps the issue of a local or southern mint showing poor 
art. The dotted figure which appears also on later local Madura coins 
suggests that No. 23 came from the same place. 

The large and thick Garuda variety appears to be a substitute for the silver 
'Tar' which was perhaps given up for want of the supply of that metal. It is 
followed by similar issues of Achuta Baya, Venkatapati Eaya and the Madura 
Nayaks, has large legend in Nagari characters on the reverse and shows that 
Sivaji's Chatrapati type follows the model of Vijayanagar. The figure of Garuda 
is fairly good, though some of the lines are too straight and the waist is small to 

The effigy of Garuda appears in various forms on the coins of the Guptas, the 
crest of the Yadavas, the coins the Silaharas, the Pandyas and the Kalachurya 
Sivabhata. Krishriaraya's Graruda which kneels clearly and wears a crown is more 
likely to have been copied from the later Pandya types of Madura than from any 

Eangachari and Desikachari * ascribe a Eecumbent Bull type to Krishna Eaya, 

and they read the middle line on the reverse of the coin 

Recumbent Bull. they have figured as 'Krishna.' This reading may not 

be correct as the only letter that appears clearly is 'Pa' 

which cannot be connected with anybody except Achyuta Eaya. The existence of 
a Eecumbent Bull type of Krishna Eaya is, however, not impossible as EamesVaram 
and Kondavldu, the- areas where the Eecumbent Bull appeared previously, were both 
included in the Emperor's dominions. 

24. Half Jital. 

ACHYUTA EAYA 1530-1542. 
Type A. Gandabherunda. 


25. Ai '45 Varaha Wt. 52. 

Obverse : 'Back view of Gandabhe'runda or double-headed eagle flying upward 
wearing ornaments. The wings and feathers are ornamented and the 
head has a crest. The huge bird is flying upward carrying in each of 
its two beaks and two claws a full grown tusker elephant, evidently for 
feeding upon. The bird wears necklets and rings on its necks and the 
elephants trumpet in desperate terror with uplifted tail and trunk. 
. Ant. XXIII, p. 24. ' ~ 


Eeverse : Three line Nagari legend with interlinear rules : 

Sri pra 

ta pa chyu ta 

ra ya 
The standard of art is good. 

26. Ai . 4 Varaha Wt. 52'7. 
Obverse : Similar to 25. 

Eeverse : Indefinite Nagari legend with ' pa ' and ' ta ' visible 

standing for Sri Pratapachyuta Eaya as on 25. But across them is a 

large boat-shaped pellet caused perhaps unintentionally by a depression 

in the die. 

Two specimens of this kind exist in the British Museum and one of them 

which has faint figures is definitely stated to have come from the Akola district. 

The peculiarities of the Bassein Vijayanagar finds are noticed elsewhere. 


27. Ai .4 Wt. 26'4. 
Half Varaha similar to No. 25. 

28. Ai . 35 Wt. 26. 

Similar to 27 but the impression is fainter on both faces. 
The coin comes from the Akola District. 

29. Ai . 4 Wt. 24'2 Under weight. 
Obverse : Similar to 25 with bird moving to left. 

Beverse : Similar to 25 with characters clear, especially ' chyu ' 

The die cutter of this coin was a good workman. But he observed convention 
more than propriety as his elephants had still their girth ropes and the'bird flew in 
air without opening even its very short wings. The group is well executed but the 
artist has failed to visualise a flying bird. Some specimens show the bird and the 
elephants beautifully shaped. 1 

B. Copper Coin. Gandabherunda. 

30. Ae . 7. 

Obverse : In linear circle, two-headed eagle similar to 25. 

Reverse : Worn three-line Nagari legend of large size. Perhaps standing for Sri 
Pratapachyuta Eaya.' It is doubtful if the third letter from the end is 
' shna.' If so, the Gandabherunda type would begin with Krishna Eaya. 

__ 1 See Mysore Catalogue Draft No. 44. The specimen was received from the Treasury Officer, 
Shimoga, on 3rd November 1915. 


31. Ae '5 

Obverse : In linear circle, rude Grandabherunda moving to left, with lifted tail and 

showing both wings and holding an elephant in each beak. 
Reverse : Similar to 29. 

This rude variety offers a great contrast to the fine gold coins and it is difficult 
to believe that they came from the same metropolitan mint. There is a G-anda- 
bheranda type from Madura with the names of the Nayaks on the reverse ; and 
Ikkeri, which had the Grandabherunda crest, miejht also have imitated this type. 
At Bangalore there is one worn specimen with the bird on the obverse and the boar 
on the reverse. This coin belongs perhaps to the days of Tirumala Raya. 

The double-headed eagle is a very ancient and well known symbol of royalty 
throughout the world. It might have taken its birth in 

Gandabheranda. the Indus valley of the Copper Age or in early Mesopotamia 

along with the Sphinx and the Gryphon and spread 

westward to Europe and even Central America and south eastward to South India. 
Numerous Indian dynasties have had it as their crest or banner. It appears to 
have descended through the Chalukyas and the Hoysalas to the Vijayanagar kings 
from whom Madura and Ikkeri and, later on, Mysore inherited it. In contempo- 
rary India it is the banner and crest of the kings of Mysore. 

The inferior artists unable to show its two heads and wings in any other posture 
have mostly depicted it as seen from abo^e. But a well known sculptured represen- 
tation is on a pillar at Belgami, an old Chalukya city in the Shimoga District 
where it is seen in a beautiful anthropoid form fighting a lion. 

32. Elephant. 
Obverse : Elephant to left. 
Reverse: Sri Pratapachyuta Raya. 

Rangachari and Desikachari l describe and figure a Prancing Horse type and 

attribute it to Achyuta Raya, whose name they read on the 

. Prancing Horse. reverse. The legend is different in character from the 

usual Vijayanagar legends and on the reproduction given 

by them only one letter is readable and it may be ' Pa ' which would make it a part 
of Sri Pratapachyuta Raya. There are about ten doubtful specimens in the British 
Museum and on the clearest of them the legend is * Sripratapa Ra (or Sa) Raya. 
The coins themselves have more of the later Vijayanagar character and maybe local 
issues of the days of Sadasiva or Rama deva, if not of Achyuta Raya. But Ranga- 
chari and Desikacbari also describe another coin of the Prancing Horse type on 
which they read CJttama Raya. The latter appears to read Raja Raja, in which 
case the Prancing Horse type would reach back to the later Chdlas. The type 
needs further study. 

1 Ind. Ant. XXIII, p. 24. 




On page 47 of the report for the year 1929, it was proposed to gather further 
information about Kumara Rama from other manuscripts and publish it here. 
Since then, detailed information has been gathered from the manuscript in the 
Madras Oriental Library and published in the Quarterly Journal of the Mythic 
Society for January 1930 (Vol. XX. No. 3, page 201 ff.). This has rendered it 
unnecessary to publish a further note here. 


(A man a script inKannada) 
Plate XX 2. 

The sources for the history of Hyder Ali's reign are numerous and in various 

languages English, French, Persian, etc. To them may 

Hyder Nama. now be added the ' Hyder-Nama,' a Kannada work by a 

contemporary writer. It runs over 103 numbered leaves 

(206 pages) of the old type of indigenous paper (See plate XX 2) and was obtained 
from Mr. Karnlk Lakshminarasiah, Inamdar, Tumkur, who is descended from 
Nallappa, a well known officer of the Mysore Court in the days of Krishnaraja 
Wodeyar III. His ancestors are said to have been in the service of Hyder Ali and 
Tippu Sultan and it is stated that his grand-father, also Nallappa by name, was 
Hyder's contemporary. Hence the present manuscript maybe called the ' Nallappa 
Manuscript ' for identification purposes. It appears to have been copied from some 
original from which also another copy appears to have been made and retained in 
the Mysore Palace. The latter contains the date of the work, which is not found 
in the manuscript now examined. 

The date of the manuscript acccording to the version of the Hyder-Nama 

found in the Palace Library is " Krddhi samvatsara 

Tha date of the Ashadha suddha fikada^i, Tuesday." The mixture of 

Manuscript. Hindustani words is an indication that the manuscript 

was written during the period of strong Moslem influence, 

The manuscript also stops short at the death of Hyder without even alluding to 
any of the events of Tippu's reign except his accession. Besides, the author 
describes a host of minor details pertaining to the reign of Hyder Ali, thus proving 
that he must have been, very probably, a Hindu officer who was quite familiar with 


Hyder and intimately connected with his government. There can be no doubt 
about the abovementioned date which is verifiable and corresponds to Tuesday the 
29th June 1784 A. D. Since Hyder died on 7th December 1782 A. D., the interval 
of eighteen months might have been taken for the preparation of his biography. 
The work is a chronicle describing, as the author himself has said, the t Durbar ' 

of Hyder All Khan Bahadur who ruled at Seringapataffl. 
Historical importance. It gives in detail an account of the events in the life of 

this hero year after year and, naturally, ends with his death. 

Though much of Hyder's history has already been known, the chief value of the 
manuscript consists in giving confirmatory evidence, while, here and there, some 
new materials are also supplied to the historian. The author writes, with 
a healthy independence and a judicious frankness which could not be expected from 
a court chronicler. He admires Hyder and the way in which the usurper 
saved the independence of Mysore by his diplomacy and generalship and raised the 
kingdom to the position of the strongest contemporary power in South India, while 
at the same time he condemns the blemishes in his hero's character and points out 
his follies. Though he gives the Mysorean version of many events like Hyder's 
decisive victory at the battle of Arm, he frankly admits also his defeats on many 
occasions. Thus he is a true historian and not, in any sense, an apologist or eulo- 
gist. His work is welcome as a corrective to the existing accounts of Hyder's life 
which are to a considerable extent based on the records of his enemies or of his own 
Moslem secretaries. 

A summary of the information supplied by the work is given below, important 
points of interest or divergence from known authorities being mentioned in the 


The ancestors of Hyder were natives of Arabia, who had been serving under 

Bijapur 2 . After some time, some members of this family 

Fateh A3i, of whom Hyder's father was one came to Kolar 3 . Stay- 

ing there for a few days, he entered into the service of 
Diler Khan, 4 the Governor of Sira and remained with his family at Gummanahalli, 

1 Wilks bases his account of the ancestry of Hyder on a memoir at the tomb of Fatteh 
Mohammed in Kolar and states that he has checked it ' by a variety of records and oral information,' 
The account here is, however, fuller than that given in the Hyder Narna. 

Mohammed Bhelole was the first known person among Hyder's ancestors. He came with 
his two sons from the Punjab to the south and settled at Alund in ' Oalburga.' Wilks' History of 
Mysore Vol. I. p. 149. 

3 The two sons, after their marriage, proceeded to Sira direct at first and then came to Kolar after 
the birth of Hyder's father. ibid. 

4 The name given by Wilks is ' Derga Kooli Khan ' who was attracted by Fatteh Mohammed 
while the latter was serving under a ftTayak during the siege of ' Ganje cottah.' ibid. p. 150. 


.which subsequently became hisjahglr 1 . A brother of his by name Ghulam Hyder 
ISaheb remained under Mallikarjuniah of Maddagiri and his uncle Ali Saheb was 
employed under the killedar of Doddaballapur 2 . But Fateh Ali did not remain 
long fco see the improvement of the fortunes of his family, for he died soon after in 
a battle with the Poleyagar of (Jhitrakal 3 . 


The gradual stages in the rise of Hyder Ali to power are traced very well 

in this work. The death of his father only left him a 

Mysore Service. legacy of a debt of 10,000 vardhas 4 . The Navab of Slra 

who was the auditor, began to press for the repayment of 

the loan. Being unable to pay the loan, the two sons of Fateh Ali left the women 
and children as surety 5 for the amount and tried to get some help from their uncles. 
Through the help of their uncle at Maddagiri 6 they got the required amount from 
the Dalvoy Devaraja of Seringapatam 7 . In return for this both Hyder and his 
brother entered Mysore service 8 . After the death of Grhulam Hyder, his office 
was conferred upon Shah Saheb, the brotber of Hyder Ali 9 . 

Hyder Ali came to prominence for the first time during the siege of Devanahalli 
in Saka 1668 (1746 A. D.) When Karachuri Nanjaraj Urs 

Siege of Devanahalli. had come for the purpose of taking Devanahalli he instituted 

a tournament 10 in which Hyder alone was successful. And 

on account of his bravery during this siege he earned the favour of Karachuri 
Nanjaraj Urs and was made the commander of 50 horse and 200 foot soldiers 11 . 

1 There is no mention of Gurnmanahalli by Wilks. He states that ' Boodi cota ' was given 
him as jahgir. ibid., p. 152. 

2 These details are not given by Wilks. 

3 He was buried in the Makbara at Kolar. See notes on Makbara under .Kolar, Supra p. 21. 
Wilks gives a different account of bis death ; he states that he lost his life in a battle between Tahir 
Khan and Abdul Kussool, his employer. ibid. 

4 The exact amount of the debt is not mentioned by Wilks ; rather he states that it was a pretext 
for the Governor of Sira to get rid of Hyder's family and misappropriate Hyder's paternal property. 
For this ill treatment Hyder takes revenge 32 years later. ibid. p. 153. 

5 Wilks does not mention all this. According to him, Hyder was only seven years old then 
while the age of his elder brother was nine. Their mother accompanied them to Bangalore. ibid. 

6 According to Wilks it was at Bangalore that Hyder's maternal uncle resided as killedar of 
the place. ibid. 

7 Wilks does not mention this fact. 

8 Hyder, at first, did not join any service according to Wilks. He is stated to have been at 
large, though occasionally he assisted his brother at his pleasure. ibid- 

9 Wilks is silent on this point. 

10 This is not alluded to by Wilks. 

11 A Similar account is given by Wilks ; but he adds that Hyder was also placed in charge of 
one of the gates of that fortress and given orders to recruit and augment his corps- ibid. p. 153-4. 



The next opportunity for Hyder to distinguish himself was in the Carnatic. 

The chaotic condition of the Carnatic had drawn the 
Carnatic Affairs. attention of the Subhadar of the Dakhan, who, after 

capturing Trichinopoly, made over the country to the 

charge of Anwaraddin. But the place was contested by Chanda Saheb, a member 
of the old royal family. Hearing this, Nasir Jung, the Subhadar of the Dakhan, 
came with a large army to Arcot, at which Ohanda Saheb fled to Pondicherry. But 
since it was the rainy season, ITasir Jung had to return to Hyderbad. Hyder, who 
had gone with his elder brother and Barakki Yenkata Eao to help Nasir Jung took 
advantage of the civil war between Nasir Jung and his brothers and obtained fifteen 
camel-loads of Akbar shahi mohurs 1 . 

Another opportunity offered itself to Hyder Ali when Cbanda Saheb besieged 

Trichinopoly 2 . Mohamed Ali, the then Nawab of Arcot 
TricMnopoIy. requested the Eaja of Seringapatam to help him in raising 

the siege, in return for which he offered to hand over 

Trichinopoly to Seringapatam. So in Saka 1673 (1751-2 A. D.) Karachuri Nanjaraj 
went with 10,000 horse, 50,000 infantry and some guns to Trichinopoly to the help 
of Mohamed Ali. When Chanda Saheb was killed and the siege of Trichinopoly 
raised, Nanjaraj justly demanded that the fort of Trichinopoly should be handed 
over to him according to the terms of the treaty. But Mohamed Ali decieved 
Nanjaraj and 'refused to hand over the fort 3 . During the siege of Trichino- 
poly Hyder had played a very important part for which he was given the title of 
Bahadur 4 and asked to increase his forces. With considerable efforts he was able 
to form an army consisting of 2,000 horse, 4,000 armed peons, and 4,000 bar 5 . 

In Saka 1677 (1755-6 A.D.), Salabat Jung, the Subhadar of the Dakhan, 

invaded Mysore with the help of a French force under the 
Tamil Polegars. command of Mons. Bussy. On account of this the army 

of Nanjaraj, which had gone to the help of Trichinopoly, 

had to return to Mysore. But since in the meantime the Raja had made peace 
with Salabat Jung by the payment of 56 lakhs of rupees 6 Hyder was sent to the 

1 Wilks states that two camels laden with gold coins were taken away. ibid. p. 167. 

2 See p. 172 ff. in Wilks' book Vol. I for a fuller account. 

3 Wilks says that the revenues of Srirangam were given up, though formally, by Mohamed 
Ali. Later on the French occupied the place. ibid. p. 214. 

4 According to Wilks this title was "bestowed when Hyder was virtually the master of half of 
the Kingdom and on the occasion of the defeat, by him, of the Mahrattas. ibid. p. 230. 

5 Wilks' number 1,500 horse, 3,000 regular infantry, 2,000 peons and 4 guns with their equip- 
ments. Of the horses 500 were his own ibid. p. 217. When be marched against Dindigul he had 
5,000 regular infantry, 2,500 horse, 2,000 peons and 6 guns- ibid. p. 218. 

6 But only one-third of the amount was paid. 3?or the balance security was given and hostages 
were delivered ; yet nothing was paid. Some of the hostages died in prison, some escaped and the 
rest were released after a time. A similar account is given by Wilks. 


Dindigul area to conquer the Poleyagars 1 After defeating Amininayaka, 
Appinayaka and other Poleyagars of Palni, Virupaksha, 2 Mille-Mirangi, he amassed 
wealth to the extent of 20 lakhs of rupees. Placing Khande Rao as his vakil at 
Seringapatam in order to get necessary orders from that quarter, he went on 
increasing his army and wealth. 

In Saka 1678 (1756 A. D.), due to some misunderstanding in connection with 

the treasury between the two Dalvoy brothers D^varajiah 
Nayars of Calicut. left Seringapatam and remained at Satyamangala. At 

that time Hyder, his brother-in-law Syed Mukhadam and 

Dewan Venkata Rao were sent against the Nayars of Calicut. After defeating the 
Nayars they made peace with them on the understanding that the Nayars should 
pay a tribute of Rs. 12 lakhs. 3 But the Nayar? secretly negotiated with D&varaj- 
iah and promised to pay him the stipulated tribute of Rs. 12 lakhs instead of to 
Hyder in case he would withdraw the army of Hyder from Calicut. When 
D&varajiah asked Hyder to come back, the latter refused DO do so unless he was 
paid Rs. 3 lakhs towards the expenses of his army. This Devarajiah did and 
after withdrawing the army sent Hari Singh 4 to collect the amount of the 

The same year the Mahrattas invaded Mysore with a large army of one lakh of 

horse and one lakh of infantry. The Raja of Seringa- 
Mahratta Levy. patam made peace with them by promising the 

payment of a fixed sum of Rs. 32 lakhs. Since there 

was not enough money in the treasury, only six lakhs of rupees were paid 5 
and thirteen Taluks 6 were handed over to the charge of the Mahrattas till the 
remaining amount was also paid up. The Mahrattas then returned to Poona after 
placing Raghoba, Baji Rao and a body of 6,000 horse in charge of the thirteen 
Taluks. 7 

1 This, according to Wilks, was the epoch when Hyder's ambition began to unfold. The 
designation of his new appointment was 'IToujedar of Dindigul.' ibid. p. 218. 

2 Mentioned as ' Veerapatchy ' by Wilks. But Mille-Mirangi is not mentioned by him, nor 
the amount of wealth amassed by him in this connection. The names of the Poleyagars, too, are not 
mentioned. He states, however, that Hyder practised many deceptions on these people. ibid. 
p. 218. 

3 "Wilks states that this amount was to be paid by instalments. 

4 The rivalry between Hari Singh and Hyder is alluded to by Wilks on several occasions. 

5 Wilks states that of the stipulated amount, only five lakhs was paid in cash. 

6 The following were the thirteen taluks handed over to the Mahrattas : Nagamangala, Kadaba, 
Banavara, Channarayapatna, Kikkeri, Haranahalli, Kadur, Turuvekere, Belur, Chickanayakanahalli, 
Honnavalli, Huliyurdurga and Kandikere. To this list of 13 taluks Wilks adds ' Culloor ' ibid. 
page 222 foot-note. 

' Before long Hyder came and remonstrated with Nanjaraj advising him to expel them on the 
approach of the rains and withhold payment of the balance. ibid. p. 222. 



Hereafter a series of events happened which gave Hyder numerous opportu- 
nities to distinguish himself and come to the forefront 1 . 

Hyder Indispensable. The treasury was empty and the government weak, so that 

it required the strength of a man like Hyder to preserve 

order in the country. It now became absolutely impossible to rule without his help 
and for every little business Hyder's help was requisitioned. Thus his prominence 
in the State increased very much until at last he set aside the nominal ruler and 
himself became the Navab. 

Now, trouble was at hand on all sides. Since the treasury had become empty 
on account of the havoc committed by the Mahrattas, the 

Hyder's opportunity. siege of Trichinopoly etc., the soldiers could not be 

paid their salary. The result was that they sat DJidrna 

at the houses of the Eaja and Dalvoy Nanjaraja Urs. Hyder was therefore 
requested to pub down the rebellion of the army. Now was his opportunity to 
make himself the most prominent person in the kingdom. He undertook the work,, 
though with seeming reluctance, and accomplished it by the use of politeness in 
the case of some and force in the case of others. Money was collected from various 
sources. Even Hari Singh was put to death and his wealth siezed. A jahgir of ten 
taluks 2 worth three lakhs of vardhas was conferred on Karachuri Narljaraj 3 
and Khande Rao was appointed as the Dewan. 

In Saka 1680 (1758-A. D.), the Mahratta leader Mukunda Eao began to 
plunder Bangalore and created considerable trouble. 

Siege of Bangalore, Barakki Srinivasa Eao was sent by the Mysore Eaja 
1758. against him. Eemaining at Bangalore, Srinivasa Eao in 

return began to plunder Hoskote, which was the Mahratta 

stronghold. 4 Now therefore Mukunda Eao appealed to the Mahratta leaders 
Mirchi dopal Hari and Mallar Eao Easta who were touring in Arcot and Mysore 
provinces to collect the chaufch. "With the help of their large army consisting of 
40,000 horse, they besieged Bangalore, Maddur and Ghennapatna. After some time,, 
when the food stuffs in the fort of Bangalore were exhausted, Barakki Srinivasa 
Eao wrote to the Eaja and to his father for help. But none of the sirdars would 

1 On the English and the 3Treneh being again at open war, the latter and Maphuz Khan, the younger 
brother of Mohammed AH, indented on Hyder's aid in the matter of expelling the English. But 
Hyder, who was filled with selfish motives, captured ' Sholavander ' and seized the cattle and move- 
ables of Madura, though near tbis place he sustained a heavy defeat at the hands of Mohammed 
Issoof, the Commandant of the English Sepoys. ibid. p. 223 ff. 

2 The following were the ten taluks granted as Jahgir to Karachuri Naujaraj : ISTamakallu, 
Parannati, Syadamangala, Bettadapura, Arkalgud, Konanur, Anantagiri, Mysore, Kafcfcemalalavadi and 

3 "Wilks says that Nanjaraj was retired from service henceforward. 

4 Wilks does not mention Srenivasa Rao's part though, in other particulars, he gives the same 


undertake this difficult task of supplying provisions to Bangalore. The last resort 
was, therefore, Hyder and Barakki Yenkata Eao requested him to save his son 
from this situation. Accepting this task Hyder went with his army and was able 
to defeat the Mahrattas completely in the battle near Channapatna. So they made 
peace with him and left the country, as Hyder now stood surety for the remaining 
amount to be paid to them. 

Four months later Hyder demanded the amount due' to the Mahrattas. Since 

it was impossible for the Raja to pay the amount, half 

Half the kingdom. the kingdom was transferred to Hyder's administration in 

view of the dues payable to him, 

Due to some misunderstanding between Karaohuri Nanjar4j and the Eaja, in 
Saka 1681 (1759 A. D.),Karachuri left Seringaptam and took his seat at Mysore. 
But owing to the evil advice of Khande Eao, Pradhana Yenkatapatiaya and Lala* 
Saheb, the Eaja sent Hyder against him. Nanjaraj, however, refused to move, but 
after four months of hard fight, made peace by which his jagir was reduced to five 
taluks 1 worth one lakh of rupees and he was made to stay at Konanur. 

After some time Hyder again requested the Eaja to give him some more 

provinces as he had had to spend much during the recent 

KSiande Rao's plot. expedition. In spite of the advice of Khande Eao, the Eaja. 

handed over to the charge of Hyder four of the taluks 2 

Paramati, Namakallu., etc., which bad formerly been given to Nanjaraj. This vexed 
Khande Eao much. So in Saka year 1682 (1760 A. D.) Khandl Eao, Pradhana 
Yenkatapataiya, Venkatapataiya of the treasury, Lala Saheb, Yiranna Setty of 
Kollegal and Anniah Sastri 3 conferred with the Eaja and the Dowager and resolved 
that the over-grown strength of Hyder should be curbed. For this purpose they 
applied for the help of the Mahratta leader Beenee Yisaji Pandit through Bukkanoji 
and had obtained it to the extent of 6,000 horse. 

On the 13th of Sravana suddha of Saka year. 1682 Prain&di (24th August 
1760) when the Kaveri was in full floods, they closed the gates of Sermgapatarn 
and opened fire on the army of Hyder which had encamped between the two 
streams of the river Kaveri. Hyder was surprised at this ; but he was undaunted* 
The very same night he took the help of a boatman and twenty of his trusted 
men, crossed the river and went towards Bangalore 4 . The next morning 
his family and children were captured by Khande Eao and taken prisoners to 

1 TlTe five taluks were: Ka/ttemalalavadi, Periapaina, Konanur, Bettadapura and ArkaJguijl. 

2 None of these taluks is specified by Wilks. 

3 Only Khande Eao's name is mentioned by Wilks. 

4 Although Bangalore was his direct ohject, he suspected treachery there and proceeded, there- 
fore, first to Anekal which was commanded by his brother-in-law, Ismail Ali- ibid, p. 258. 

After taking possession of Bangalore from Xabir .Beg, Hyder began to make 
preparation for war 1 , and ordered the army of Mukhadum 

Hyder gains full Saheb to return immediately from Pondichery 2 . He 

power. then went to Konanur in all humility to beg the pardon 

of Karachuri Narljar&j Urs and get his help as it was 

very valuable in this difficult situation. The Dalvoy was very much pleased with 
Hyder's behaviour and promised his help in spite of the advice of Barakki Srinivasa 
Eao and others not to place any confidence in such a person who had proved 
his ingratitude on various occasions. So with the help of the Dalvoy, Hyder 
brought under control a considerable portion of the country and encamped before 
Seringapatam 3 . 

In Saka 1683 (1761 A. D.) 3 a treaty was entered into by which the Eaja was 
allowed a jahgir worth three lakhs of rupees, while the remaining kingdom was 
handed over to Hyder. As a reward for arranging such a treaty Pradhana 
Venkatapatiaya 4 was rewarded with Kunigal taluk and Khande Rao was put into a 
cage for his ingratitude, exposed in the market place at Bangalore and fed on milk 
and rice like a parrot. In. Saka 1683 Yishu samvat. Ashadha suddha 1 
(3rd July 1761) Hyder took possession of the fort of Seringapatam. 


The first act of Hyder after he became the Navab was to help Basalat Jung 
in his war against the Mahrattas. In return for this, 

Pallegars. Basalat Jung gave him a sannad for the provinces of Sira 

and Hoskote. Next he conquered Doddaballapur and 

Chikballabur (Saka 1683 : A. D. 1761). The next year (1684 ChitrabMnu ; 1762 A.D.) 
he conquered Madakasira, Penugonda and Korakonde. After this he went against 
Ohitrakal and took Sannakki Bagur, Hosadurga and other places 6 . Medakere 
Nayaka, the Poleyagar of Chitrakal, paid eight lakhs of Durgt vardhas 6 to Hyder 
and made peace with him. Hyder also took tribute from the Poleyagars of 
Eayadroog and Harapanahalli. 

1 Wilks details all these events and many more which are not included here. 

2 Hyder had sent him there to assist the French against the English during the siege of 

15 The manuscript includes many more details which Wilks also gives like Hyder's first defeat 
by Khande Eao, the stratagems he practised on him, etc. ; but his descent on Coimbatore at this 
juncture is not mentioned in the manuscript. 

4 Wilks does not mention this. 

5 Wilks does not give these details. 

According to Wilks he made compromise with Hyder for a fine of 2 lakhs of Pagodas, besides 
the regulated payments. 


But perhaps the most important of these early conquests was that of 

Bednore or Nagar. Before the late king of Bednore 
Conquest of Bednore. died, he had made his adopted son, Channabasavappa 

Nayaka, the king. His wife. had some secret intimacy 

with a man by name Nanjiah to whom she had entrusted the entire 
administration. Ghannabasavappa Nayaka who could not tolerate this scandal tried 
to prevent Nanjiah from coming to the palace. The Queen therefore conspired 
the murder of Chennabasavappa and left everything in the hands of her paramour, 
Nanjiah. But Chennabasavappa managed to escape, though he was strangled 
and thrown into a pit, and was now under the protection of the Poleyagar of 
Chitrakal. At the request of Medakere Nayaka, Hyder took up the cause of 
Chennabasavappa and started against Bednore. Due to the influence of the real 
ruler of the state the country was easily conquered and the city was taken 
possession of by Hyder on the 19th January 1763 (Saka 1684 Chitrabh&nu year 
Magha suddha 5) 1 . The Queen Vlramma, however, set fire to the palace and fled 
with her paramour to Ballalarayandurga. After restoring order in the city Hyder sent 
for the queen and imprisoned both the queen and her adopted son at Maddagiri 2 . 
He then changed the name of Bednore into Hydernagar and made it a 
mint-town 3 . 

In Saka 1685, Svabhanu, the Peshva Madhava Bao, invaded Mysore. Hyder 

got together the army of Mir Ali Raja Khan and Fyzulla 

Mahratta Invasion: Khan 4 which amounted to 10,000 horse 5 , 20,000 bar 
1763. and 20,000 armed peons. The Mahrattas were successful 

in the battle and many of the most important persons 

like Barakki Srinivasa Rao, Ohandar Eao and others were taken prisoners, 6 but 
they were allowed to escape when Medakere Nayaka made a rush against them. 
Hyder had however to make peace with the Mahrattas by the cession of Penugonda, 

1 Hyder captures Shimoga with treasure, refuses the Ranee's proposal to purchase him, 
discovers at Kumsi one Linganna who was the prime minister of the late Raja, obtains his valuable 
help, captures Ayyannur and other places, refuses the Ranee's proposals again to purchase him (at 
which she flies away) and finally enters the city in triumph. His booty in this expedition is estimated 
by "Wilks at 12 mil. sterling ibid, p. 278. 

2 They were, however, liberated when the Mahrattas captured the place in 1767 A. D. 
ibid. p. 279. 

3 Sometime later there was a plot against his life, but it was discovered and over 300 
conspirators were put to death. 

4 At about the same time (December 1763 A. IX) this person had accomplished for Hyder the 
conquest of ' SMe ' which brought in enormous wealth. Hyder also forced the Navab of Savanore 
into his alliance while Fyzulla extended his conquests further up to Dharwar and a multitude of 
minor posts, inflicting also a crushing defeat on. Gopal Rao, a Mahratta chief. 

5 Wilks' 20,000 horse. 

6 These names are not mentioned by Wilks in this connection. 


He remained only one day at Nagar and inarched on towards Kodiyala. There 

he defeated an army of the English and took many of 

Hyder's victories. them prisoners. He then fell on the army of Murari Rao 

who had come to help the English. The English army 

separated itself into two divisions and fell on Hyder. When the battle commenced, 
Hyder risked an engagement with the division of Col. Watters and after capturing 
many guns he returned to Bangalore. 

The ISfawab then fell suddenly on the English force encamped between Erode 

and Karur and after dispersing that army, he captured 

Treaty. Karur, Kangya, Salem and other places. Then he again 

returned to Bangalore. By that time news came to him 

that Mohamed Ali returned to Madras on account of some eye trouble. 
Immediately he started with his army and surrounded Tirumale Khedi,' Mutyalapct 
and other places near Madras. Mohamed Ali therefore negotiated for peace with 
Hyder 1 . The terms of the treaty now entered into between them were : (1) tlioro 
should be war between Hyder and Mohamed Ali only in case any of the parties 
provoked the other, (2) the English should not unnecessarily be allowed to involve 
them m war and (3) Mohamed AH had to return all the places taken during 
war. Hyder then returned once again to Bangalore 2 . 

In Saka 1691 Virodhi year Oh aitra (April 1769 A.D.) a Mahratta sirdar by 




then bested Bellary with his woley ^^ alld U><* pl^*. 

^ Pe S h wa Madhav, Eao o bj e ot ed to H,d OT ' S taking tribnt( , , ()m ^ 

Mat r at,al n vasion,1769. w ^T" " ''hT "Tf ^ MUaI mWt M ' ^ 

DIS army he marched against Hvdoi- H v ,j,,, 

" I 


On his way he and his army had to cross the river Tungabhadra -which was in 
full floods. It was not possible for them to encamp there till the flood subsided, 
as the Mahratta army was fast approaching. At this critical moment Hyder did 
a deed of great daring by which he and his army safely crossed the river. He 
sat on an elephant named Irnu Bha and entered the river, but as greater achieve- 
ments were in store for him the flood subsided and he was able to cross the river- 
Behind the elephant the whole army also crossed the river and arrived safe at Hassan. 

The army of the Peshwa was approaching Bangalore through Penugonda and 
Gudibande. At the same time an army of Hyder was going to Cbickballapur. 
The two armies met each other and in the battle which ensued the Mahrattas 
were successful. Now Hyder got the information that the Mahrattas would next 
march towards Krishnagiri. So he sent Sardar Khan to the place. But soon after, 
the Mahratta army approached Bangalore and after encamping there for one day 
turned towards Devarayadurga. 

In Sarvajitu year, Vaisakha and Jyeshfcha (May 1770) Venkatesiah,. 
the brother of Pradhana Venkatapatiaya, started with an army from Seringapatam 
with the intention of taking Maddagiri and Cheiinarayadurga. Since he was 
unable to take them, he was given the Amildari of Tumkur, Devarayanadurga and 
Makalidurga. He had secretly left his family with Chickappa Gowda and was 
living in a fort on the Minchukal hill. The Mahrattas captured his family and 
kept them prisoners at Maddagiri. Now, therefore, both Venkatesiah and Amir 
Saheb went against the Peshva Madhava Eao. After a battle of two or three days 
Venkatesiah himself was taken prisoner and the Peshwa returned with his army to 

According to an order from Hyder, Sardar Khan, Kondala Nayak and 

Jam shed Bhai came to Bangalore; and they were imme- 

BattSe of Nijakal. diately despatched to the help of Venkatesiah. Before, 

however, they were able to reach Devarayadurga, the 

Mahrattas had taken the place and returned to Nijakal. So this army could only 
follow them up to Nijakal, where a terrible battle raged between the two armies 
for thirteen days. Twelve thousand men died on the spot, the Peshwa's brother 
himself being wounded in the hand by a gun shot. Hundreds of Mahratta sirdars 
and from eight to ten thousand others were killed. In spite of these Nijakal was 
taken by -them. They took Sardar Khan and others prisoners, cutting off the noses 
of the common soldiers. As the Peshwa Madhava Eao was suffering from 
consumption, he left an army of 40,000 horses under Triyambaka Visvanatha Eao 
for the purpose of taking Seringapatam and returned to Poona in Vikrita year, 
Vaisakha (May 1770 A.D.) 

In the next month Jyeshtha (June 1770) Triyambaka Visvanatha Bao captured 
Gurrum-Konda, and after conferring the Subhadarship on a Mahratta sirdar, he 



returned to Tumku, Since by that time Appaji Balvanta Eao also came to ^ 
heb with an army of 40,000, they both met and went against Hyder who had 
eped near M^gadi. But as the army of Hyder marched towards Melkote, the 
Mahrattas also followed them and near that place a battle commenced. 

Tnlka 1693 Khara year, Chaitra (April 1771 A.D.) Hyder thought of taking 
In Saka Ji ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ geringapatam> For tlns purpos e 

Makatta victories. he contemplated marching to Patan during that night 

But owing to utter darkness the army lost the way and 

were wandering here and there. The next morning the Mahratta, army saw this 
confusion and surrounded them on all sides. A terrible battle ensued till midday 
durin- which the army of Hyder was thrown into confusion and many soldiers 
were killed Lala Miya, son-in-law of Saba Saheb, the elder brother of Hyder, 
Narayana Kao, the mutsaddy, Toshekhane Srinivasa Jivaji and others died on the 
field. Barakki Srinivasa Rao, Fyzulla Khan and others fled to Sermgapatam. 
Tippoo Sultan, Yenkappiah and others also fled to Seringapatam by changing their 
clothes into rags. Biding on a horse called Hamsaraja (the king of swans), Hyder 
was able to elude the pursuit of four thousand Mahrattas and reached the fort of 
Kadaravalli. He stayed in the fort for some time, came to Sermgapatam and 
made ready for war. Immediately after this the Mahrattas came and besieged 

Seringapatam. For two months the siege continued. 
Hyder recovers. One day a portion of the Mahratta army consisting of 

20,000 horses crossed the river near Karighatta and came 

to the maidan ; but Hyder gave them such a severe battle that they were compelled 
to raise the siege and go away to the conquest of other countries. 

Hearing of a supply of rice, ghee, wheat, cloth and some money being sent from 
Poona to the Mahratta army, Tippoo Sultan and Barakki Srinivasa Eao went with 
an anny of 4,000 horses and captured the whole of it. They then took it to Naga 
where they sold all the provisions, and returned to Seringapatam taking with them 
cash. But since they deceived Hyder in this matter, he was very much enraged at 
the conduct of the Sultan, and took from his Bahadury two lakhs of var Alias 1 . 

In Khara year, Kartika-Margasira (December 1771), the Peshwa Madhava 

Eao died and was succeeded by his brother Narayana 
Peace. Eao. When this news reached Seringapatam, Hyder sent 

Appaji Eao and others as Vakils to arrange a treaty 2 

with the Mahratta Government. As a result of this, Ananda Eao Easta came and 
withdrew the Mahratta army in Saka 1694 Nandana. Jyeshtha Ashadha (June, 
July 1772 A. D.). Hyder then released Mahimaji Sindhia and other Mahratta 

1 Wilks does not mention this. 

2 It would appear from Wilks' account that the treaty was effected during the life-time of 
Madhava Eao who was now dangerously ill. 


sirdars in return for which the Mahrattas also released Mir All Eaja Khan, Sardar 
Khan, Bangappa Nayaka and others 1 . 

- The same year (1771 A. D.) Nanjaraja Wodeyar died 2 at Seringapatam and 
his step-brother Chamaraja Wodeyar was placed on the throne. 

In the Yijaya samvat (1773 A. D.) the Nayars and Moplahs of Calicut 

gave some trouble and Hyder sent Bangappa Nayaka and 
Calicut, Bamagiri Ohamarajiah to suppress them. Since they 

were killed 3 by the Nayars. Barakki Srinivasa Bao was 

seat with an army. He pacified the country and remained there for some time. 
In March 1774. (Jaya year, Ghaitra) the Nawab went against Coorg 4 and 
Madakeri and returned to Seringapatam after conquering Yallarenadu, Balelanadu, 

In &aka 1696 Yaisakha (May 1774 A. D.) the house of Kadim Uddin caught 
fire. As a result of this, many people died and many buildings including the 
temple of Sriranganatha were destroyed. Within a month thereafter, Hyder 
rebuilt the temple 5 . 


It was at the same time that Baghoba, the uncle of Peshwa Narayana Bao 

caused his murder and came to the throne. Due to some 

Raghoba. misunderstanding between the Mahratta G-overnment and 

Hyder Ali, Baghoba invaded Mysore. Hyder sent Pra- 

dhana Yenkappaiah, Harikar Narasappa Nayak and Appaji Bao to treat with him. 
These three men met Baghoba near Sondur. By that time in Poona, the wife of 
Narayana Bao had given birth to a male child and the child was named Savai 
Madhava Bao by Balaji Panth and Nana Fudnavis and others, who began to rule 
in the name of the child. When the sirdars who had come with Baghoba heard of 
this, all of them returned to Poona without even informing Baghoba. So, Baghoba 
entered into a treaty with Hyder Ali by which he gave Hyder Sira, Maddagiri, 
Ohannarayadurga, Hoskote, Doddaballapur and other places up to the river Krishna 
in return for which he demanded the help of Hyder in getting the Peshwaship. 
After this he returned to Bombay. 

1 Wilks says that Hyder had to pay heavily for the treaty and cede several districts to the 
Mahrattas, which reduced considerably his northern frontier -ibid. p. 385. 

2 According to Wilks, Nanjaraja Wodeyar was strangled to death at the instigation of Hyder. 
ibid- p. 386. 

3 This information is not given by Wilks. 

4 Wilks refers to this before his account of Hyder's expedition to Calicut. ibid. p. 389. 

5 Wilks has not mentioned this fact. 


But Shamaji Sindhia, the son of Mahimaji Sindhia, refused to vacate Sira, as 

he did not recognise the sannad of Raghoba. Tippu 
Hyder's successes. Sultan and Sirdar Khan were therefore sent to take the 

place, and after a fighting for three months, they succeeded 

in taking Sira. They then proceeded to Maddagiri and capturing that place 
within two or three days sent Lakshmana Panth back to Poona. They had to light 
for two months more in order to take Channarayadurga. The Sultan then proceed- 
ed to Hoskote. In Jaya year. Jyfishthft Ashadha (A. D. 1774 June and July) 
the Nawab also started from Seringapatam and besieged Hoskote for two months. 
After taking the town, he sent Tippu Sultan to conquer G-urrum-Konda and he 
himself returned to Bangalore. The next act of Hyder that year was to order for 
the repairs of the forfcs of Maddagiri, Channarayadurga and Sira over which Pra- 
dhana Yenkappiah was made the Amildar. By this time, Tippu was able to 
capture Grurrum-Konda. 

In Saka 1697 Manmatba year. (1775 A. D.) the army of Basalat Jung 

besieged Bellary. When this news reached the Nawabj 
Bellary. ho immediately started for Adavani and took possession 

of .the fort. There was in the fort an army of 300 

French soldiers under the command of Mons. Lally. With them Hyder made peace 
and took them into his service 1 . The same night the wife of the Poleyagar of 
Bellary fled 2 from the fort and the next morning Hyder became the master of 
Bellary. He then ordered for the repair of the fortress and placed in it Hyder Bhakshi 
in charge of the fort, returned to Kurugod and within 30 days the place was his. 
The Nawab managed to attack Grutti from all the sides: on one side the 

Nawab himself, on another Tippu Sultan, on still another 

Guttl side the Poleyagars of Chitrakal, Rayadurg, Harapana- 

halli, etc. With this arrangement, they took many of the 

neighbouring taluks. So the people of Ghitti sent " Yakeels " to decide the terms of 
peace. Desai Narasinga Rao and his son Yobala Rao also came to the Nawab. 
But in spite of the fact that 40,000 men were suffering from want of water, they 
could not come to any terms immediately. Within two days, however, the Nawab 
took the place and got a rich booty of thousands of horses, elephants and jewels. 
Balaji Rao was appointed Killedar of G-utti 8 . Medakere Nayaka of Chitrakal 
was ordered to take possession of Madakasira, Penugonda and other places, while 
Hyder himself turned towards Bankapur 4 . In Durmukhi samvat Jyeshtha 

1 But Wilks states that there was a rout in which Bojeraj, the minister of Basalat Jung, -was 
killed and Mons. Lally escaped with difficulty. ibid. p. 393. 

2 No such information has Wilks given. 

3 Wilks has nofe mentioned this. 

4 There is no reference to this conquest in Wilks' book. 

(June 1776 A. D.), he took Bankapur and returned to Seringapatain in Ashadha 
(July of the same year.) 

: In. the month of Bhadrapada of the same year (August 1776) Chamaraja 
Wodeyar died, and another Chamaraja, the son of Karagalli Dyavayya, was placed 
on the throne 1 . 


Medakere Nayaka now thought of creating some trouble for Hyder. He sent 
his Vakil Purushottam Panth to the Mughals and the 

Chitaidrug. Mahrattas inviting them to invade Mysore. As. a result 

of this instigation, Sirdar Ibrahim Khan came from 

Hyderabad with an army of 60,000 horses and 80 guns, and began to plunder some- 
portions of Gutti Taluk. On hearing this news, the Nawab went with a compact 
army and dispersed the forces of Hyderabad. He then besieged Chitradurga (June 
1777 A. D.). After three months of hard fight, peace was made with the Nawab by 
the payment of eight lakhs of Durgi Varahas 2 , the brother of the poleyagar being 
handed over as hostage. 

When the Nawab had been engaged in the conquest of Siratti and other places, 
Medakere Nayaka began plundering Chennagiri, Basavapatna, Santhebidnur and 
other places. 3 This enraged the Nawab, and Tippu Sultan was sent against him. 
When Medakere Nayaka heard of this he returned and took refuge in Chitrakal 
and on the same day Tippu Sultan also came to Chitrakal. Later on the Nawab also, 
arrived and after two or three months of war the fort fell into the hands of Hyder, 
In Saka 1700 (February 1779 A. D.) Medakere Nayaka,, his brother Parasuramappa, 
his sons, wife and others were sent under strict guard to Seringapatam. 

At that time, due to some misunderstanding between father and son, Hyder 
sent Tippu under strict guard to Seringapatam and confiscated his Jahgir of Mala- 

"When Asad Ali khan was the Darogha of Bangalore (in Sarvajitu and Sarva- 
dhari A. D. 1767 and 68), the Kannada mutsuddi of 

Rise of Purniah 5 . Toshekhane Yenkataramaniah, had under him a gum&sta 

by name Purniah. He was well versed in accounts and as 
such, the favourite of Asad Ali Khan. Thus after the death of Venkatararnaniah, 

1 Wilks describes a ceremonial observed by Hyder on this occasion when he found the lineal 
male succession extinct. ibid. p. 391-92. 
.. 2 Thirteen lakhs of Pagodas ibid. p. 403. 

3 Wilks has not mentioned this fact, though he has described the second siege of Chitaidrug 
by Hyder. 

4 Wilks does not mention this. _ 

5 This information is absent from Wilks' book. 


When the English heard this, they sent Col. Mnnro from Madras and Col. 
Bailey from Bombay. Hyder, therefore, detached Tippu 

Bailey and Munro. Sultan with an army to engage the Bombay army and to 

prevent the Madras and the Bombay forces from combin- 
ing. But since Bailey advanced in spifce of this and was trying to join the army of 
Munro, Hyder himself went with the whole of bis army and surrounded him. 
After a terrible battle the English army was completely beaten and Col. Bailey 
himself was sent a prisoner to Seringapafcam. After this brilliant victory Hyder 
turned against the army of Col. Munro, which also fled to Madras. Now Hyder 
once again besieged Arcot. The battle continued here for three months and, finally, 
in the month of Margasira (December 1780) the fort fell into the bands of Hyder. 
He then captured various other places. 1 

About the same time Col. Coote landed at Madras with a huge army. Hyder 
therefore left Arcot and turned towards Vellore. He then 

C ote - went with the whole of his army towards Mohammad- 

bunder. In June or July 1781 a battle was fought between 

the army of Col. Coote and that of Hyder. When the English army was retreating 
under the pressure of the Mahammadans, the army of Hyder followed them in 
haste and since the legs of the horses stuck in the sand on the banks of the 
river, the whole army was thrown into confusion and from the fire of the English 
many died. Yet Col. Coote was unable to attack Hyder and he retreated towards 

Mohamed Ali had by this time lost a considerable portion of his kingdom, so 
that what remained to him after this were the following twelve taluks : ^Madias, 
Trichinopoly, Chengalput, Javahirabanda, Nagaratagada, Tanjore, Vellore, Nellore* 
Machlibundar, Madura, Wandiwash and Mahammadbundar. 

A few months later Col. Maclease came from Madras and gave battle to Hyder 's 

army near Wandiwash, which resulted in the complete 

Maclease. defeat of the English and the imprisonment of the 

commander himself. 

In November 1781 there was a battle between the English army and that of 
Sirdar Khan which was besieging Tellichery. The result 

TeHichery. O f this was the complete defeat of the Mysoreans and the 

imprisonment of the Khan himself. Being ashamed of 

this and unwilling to show his face to the Nawab, Sirdar Khan committed suicide 
by opening his wounds. In order to compensate for this reverse, Hyder sent an 
army against the English who had now encamped near Calicut. But due to th~ 
misbehaviour of this army the Nayars and Moplahs rose against them and killed 
the leader with many others. 

1 The names are detailed in the manuscript. " ~ ~ ~ ' " 



Asad AH requested the Nawab to appoint Mm in the place. Purniah was made the 
nmtsuddi and placed also in charge of the EdrJchAnes or factories. Even after the 
death of Asad Ali Khan Purniah continued to be a very prominent man and was 
given a golden umbrella by the Nawab, 


In Saka 1761 Yikari year, Ghaitra (March 1779 A. D.) there was a quarrel 
between Halim Khan, the Nawab of Kadapa, and Mir Ali Eaja Khan which resulted 
in a war. On hearing this the Nawab started immediately and surrounded the army 
of Kadapa. Abdul Hussain Khan, the son of Abdul Nabhi Khan, his son Abdul Syed 
Khan, Abdul Hakim Khan and others fought bravely and killed many men. But 
of an array of 1,700 which belonged to them some had been killed and some had 
fled ; while at tbe sight of the Nawab the remaining also fled. Kadapa was thus 
conquered and granted as Jahgir to Mir Ali Eaja Khan. 


In S&rvari year, Jyeshtha (June 1788 A.D.) Hyder made preparation 
for a war and started towards Arcot with an army of 13,000 horse, 18,000 savars, 
40,000 foot soldiers, 20,000 armed peons, 6,000 servants, 4,000 other savars and 
4,000 golancla/ja (artillery men). In addition to this he had under him 3,000 soldiers 
under the command of Mons. Lally. At that time the news of a war between the 
English and the French in Europe reached India. So the French began to support 
Hyder, for which purpose they also imported many soldiers. Hyder now negotiated 
with the Mahrattas and the Mughals regarding the war and with their approval 
set out on the expedition. 

In the month of Ashadha (July 1780) he divided the army into two parts. He 

retained the bigger division consisting of the entire force 

Hyder invades the with himself and sent the smaller (consisting of 20,000 horse) 

Carnatic. with orders to divide itself and plunder Arcot, Trichinopoly, 

Madura, Ghengalput, Mahammarabandar, Javahirabandar, 

Machlibandar, Nellore, Sarvavali, Tanjore, Kumbhakonum, Madras, Vellore, 
Tellichery and other places up to Eamesvaram. His idea in making such an 
arrangement was to see that all these places were plundered on the same day and at 
the same moment. For this purpose he sent his army to all these places simulta- 
neously. The Nawab himself besieged Arcot after taking Chengamavu, Tiruvanna- 
malai, Arni, Simari, etc. 

1 See note on the ' First Mysore War.' p. 89 Supra. 


An interesting discussion given in the manuscript} brings out the views of Hyder 

regarding the best method of putting the English down. 

Hyder's Views on One day Hyder assembled all the important officers of the 
English Power. army and consulted them about this problem. At this 

meeting, Tippu Sultan said that it was Hyder himself 

who was responsible for making the English so very powerful. Hyder was very 
much displeased and retorted immediately. He told them that it was impossible to 
put down the British Power in India by defeating them in one place, for they had 
various places to draw upon Madras, Bombay, Calcutta and above all England and 
that it was not possible to put them down by any ordinary means. His idea was 
that in order to create trouble for the English in India the only effective method 
was to bring about a war between the English and the French in Europe ; then to 
set up the people of Iran and Kandahar against Calcutta and Bengal ; then to set 
up the Mahrattas against Bombay ; and finally, taking the help of the French, the 
ISIawab himself to attack Madras. By thus instituting wars in all the places at 
the same time so as to make it impossible for the people of one place to help those 
of another, the enemy would be destroyed and the country would become his. 
After stating his views in this manner he scolded his son for his foolishness 1 
and began to make preparations for destroying the English. 

In 1782 the Nawab took Peramakallu, and Nagaratagada. While he was 

at Peramakallu two French Generals came with an 
Battle of Arni. army of 2,000 soldiers and joined him, informing him 

that a still bigger one was coming under the command 

of Mons. Bussy. Hyder was very much pleased with this intelligence and 
welcomed them cordially. In May 1782, the English army started from Madras 
dividing itself into two parts, the smaller going to Yellore while the bigger 
encamped at Arni. When Hyder was near Peramakallu, a messenger brought 
this information to him. Immediately he wrote encouraging letters to the 
Killedar of Arni for defending the fort without fear. Dividing then his army into four 
parts, namely (1) the army of the Poleyagars, (2) the army under the command of 
Mons. Lally and Mohamed AH, (3) another division under the command of Tippu and 
(4) the biggest division under the Nawab himself, he arranged in such a way as to 
attack the English from all the sides, while he himself marched swiftly towards Arni. 
The same day the English army encamped near Arni and after building a 

battery before the fort, they began the attack on the 

Hyder's Victory. fortress. By that time the Killedar had received the letter 

of Hyder. He went on defending bravely. At about day 

1 Though Wilts has not referred to this incident, it would be well to compare the view of Hyder 
expressed here with that which, he says, was stated to Purniah one day with regard to the Bnglish : 
'The defeat of many Baillies and Brathwaites will not destroy them. I can ruin their resources 
by land, but I cannot dry up the sea '. ibid. Vol. II, p. 10- 


break, Tippu's army advanced against the British who now separated their forces 
into two divisions and fought with him. Meanwhile, another regiment under 
Mons. Lally appeared and the English had to fight with these unexpected enemies. 
No sooner did they begin this than the army of the Poleyagars appeared. This 
made it necessary for the English to form four divisions. But the arrival, an hour 
later, of the army of Hyder threw them into great confusion and in spite of all 
their attempts it was impossible for them to combine. The result was a good 
deal of confusion and they began a retreat towards Veil ore. Hyder followed them, 
killed many men and captured nearly 2,000 soldiers. 1 

In June 1788, two ambassadors were sent from Madras to negotiate for a peace 

.... with Hyder. 2 The terms, as proposed by them, were 

Negotiates for peace. ^ following ._ 

(1) Kamatakagada, Satagada and other districts worth 10 lakhs were to be coded 
to Hyder. 

(2) Three crores of rupees were to be paid towards the expenses of his army. 

(3) In future, if there arose any occasion in which the English would be in danger, 
Hydev should go to their help when the expenses of his army would be met by the English. 

(4) Similarly, if on any occasion Hyder was in trouble, the British were to help him 
during his needs. 

(5) The English and Hyder were to be on mutual peaceful terms. 

(6) Hereafter there would be no need to take the help of the French. 

A treaty was to be signed between Hyder, the English, Mohamed All and 
Nizam Ali on the above terms. To this Hyder replied that when Karachuri 
Nanjaraj had gone to the help of Mohamed Ali, he had promised to cede to Mysore 
the fort of Trichinopoly ; but in spite of his help both in men and money 
Mohamed Ali had deceived him and so, if any treaty were to be arranged now, the 
following terms had to be included : 

(1) According to the terms of the old treaty the fort of Trichinopoly had to be 
ceded to Mysore. 

(2) The expenses incurred in this connection were to be paid immediately and the 
amount borrowed from Karachuri Nanjaraj was to be refunded with interest up-to-date. 

(3) Vellore had to be ceded to Mysore and the places taken by Hyder had to be left 
to him. 

If the English and Mohamed Ali agreed to these terms then only could there 
be peace ; otherwise the war was to continue. Such was the answer that Hyder 
sent with the ambassadors to Madras. 3 

In August 1782, Hyder got scent of a rebellion of the Moplahs and the 
Nayars. In addition to this local rebellion an English army had arrived in the 

1 Wilts attributes the victory in the battle of Ami to the English. 

2 Not a word is said by Wilks about this negotiation. 

3 This is instructive information which, but for the manuscript, would have been lost. 


neighbourhood. To put down this rebellion and restore order, Tippu Sultan was 
sent by the Nawab. The Sultan fought with the army of the enemies and 
compelled them to retreat, while he himself conquered all the places on the way to 

In November 1782, Hyder was suffering from a carbuncle. Having; caught 

J t> J <__ O 

scent of this news, some people had created a rebellion in the army which was 
ultimately put down. On the afternoon of the 7th December 1782 Hyder called 
his five important Officers : (1) Abu Mohamad Mirde, (2) Mir Moharned Sadak, (3) 
Toshikhane Krishna Eao, (4) Purniahand (5) Anchegurikar Shamiah and told them 
that he could not survive and requested that after his death they should serve under 
his son as they did under him. 1 Oo the same day, he passed away. 2 Immediately 
after his death the five persons mentioned above placed the body in a box and sent 
it under strict guard to Kolar with orders for its preservation. His death was kept 
a secret and Tippu was brought from Malabar and placed on the throne. 

The extent of his dominions 3 at his death has been given here in a detailed 

manner even including the names of all the villages and 

Extent of Hyder's fortresses. The author of the Hyder Nama has made two 

Kingdom. divisions wherein he gives detailed lists of places which 

belonged to Mysore before and after the Mohammadan 

1. The State included fche following taluks before the usurpation of Hyder AH : the taluk of 

Seringapatam consisting of 11 villages ; 77 other villages, 29 villages in the country below 
fche ghats and some other forts. The territory included the major parts of the modem 
Districts of Mysore, Hassan, Kadur, Tumkur, Bangalore, Salem, Coimbatore and Madura 
as far as Dindigal. 

2. To these Hyder added 21 forts in Doddaballapur taluk, the kingdom of Nagara (Bednore), 

Chitrakal, Arcot, Gurrum-Konda, Gutti taluk and various other places. Added to these, 
Hyder received tribute from Karnul, Kaniyarmr, Savanur, Adavani and 50 other places. 4 

1 No mention is made by Wilks of these facts. 

2 The author of the manuscript has given, the following two Oharama-Slokas composed by him 
in respect of Hyder's death : 


3 See Appendix (A). 

4 For details, see Appendix A. 


From this vast kingdom extending up to the banks of the river Krishna, Hyder 
was getting an income of one crore and ten lakhs of 

Revenue. varahas. During the time of the Wodeyars the revenue 

of the province of Mysore amounted only to forty lakhs 

of varahas. Thus the remaining country which yielded an income of seventy lakhs 
was the addition made by Hyder Ali. The places he had captured during the Second 
Mysore War contributed a crore of varahas, and Calicut, Kodiyala, Nellore, Mylapur, 
the neighbourhood of Madras and other places up to Eamesvaram yielded an 
income of two crores and ten lakhs of varahas. Thus ruling from Seringapatam 
.a kingdom extending over a circumference of about 480 miles (40 g^vudas), he 
got the title of " MaJidmandalddhipati " (i.e., a king or emperor ruling over a 

Factories had been established by Hyder in Muscat and other places to trade 
in all possible goods. Ambassadors had been sent to 

Trade and Commerce, various places up to Borne. In the district of Seringa- 
patam he retained the old system of weights and measures 

which prevailed from the time of Chickadevaraja Wodeyar. Ifc was only in the 
district of Nagara that he introduced a new scheme and the Hydari varahas, retain- 
ing the Saiva figure on the obverse which appeared on the gold pieces of Sivappa- 
naik. A grand bazaar was opened up near Seringapatam and named the Granjam 

Various departments which were working under Hyder are enumerated, for 
which see Appendix B. Names of important personages, 

Administration. though in respect only of the Military Department, are 

given for which also see Appendix C. The details 

furnished regarding Hyder's procession are both varied and interesting, while they 
supply valuable information incidentally regarding the different tents, the distri- 
bution of work therein while pitched up in foreign lands, the arrangements pertain- 
ing to infantry and cavalry, details of dress and other equipments in respect of 
these, adornment of horses, pay to cavalry, etc. Certain taxes like the ' Iralu- 
tappina terige ' and the ' Baladerige ' which gave the revenue officers ample 
opportunities to tease the subjects and also cheat government were abolished. 
The mam lands, villages and ' agrahars ' were allowed to continue in peace as in 
former times. A regular pay system was instituted in the case of the Ursu families 
according to their rank, and their status was zealously guarded during the life-time 
of Hyder. 

Manifold building activities were undertaken in Seringapatam, Bangalore, 
G-utti, Chitaldrug, Bellary, Maddagiri, Chennarayadurga, 

Building activities. Penugonda, Nagar and other places, while royal retreats, 

like the Lal-bagh and Darya-daulat, were constructed both 


afc Seringapatam and Bangalore. These latter gardens were beautified with plants 
imported from several far-off places like Delhi, Lahore, Multan, etc. 

It is not possible to dilate on matters connected with Hyder's harem which 

consisted of women of many countries and descriptions. 

Private life. Nor can we state here anything pertaining to his private 

life, enjoyments and sports. Suffice it to say, however, 

that out of the many female children born to him only three were allowed to 
survive, the rest being purposely killed by him. 

The author of the Hyder Nama gives us glimpses into the character of Hyder 

here and there. But a few of the noteworthy points 

Character of Hyder. which have been stated at the end of the work may be 

given here : 

" As an administrator Hyder displayed the qualities of skill, courage, mercy, 
charity, discipline, impartiality and wisdom as none other ever has or will show. 
A man equal to him in all the qualities there never was, nor is, nor will be. In 
short, it is not far from truth to say that he is a man perfect in all the qualities 
(Sakalagun^bhirama). But with all that he had some bad qualities which were 
like poison mixed up with milk. One such bad quality is noteworthy, namely, 
the capture by force of beautiful women wherever they might be found. A second 
defect in him was that he was treacherous and a breaker of promises and finally 
the teaser of a man summarily (without proper enquiry). If only he had avoided 
these defects, there is no doubt that he would have been considered the best man 
in the world. But just as a thousand paintings are destroyed by a blot of ink 
(Sdvirachitfdra oridu masi nungidante), the reign of Hyder did not last long." 




11 Villages (departments) in Seringapatam Kasaba. Seringapatam chavadi; 
Seringapatam Hobli Ashtagrarna ; Mysore Hobli Ashtagrama; Sunkada-chavadi ; 
Pommana-chavadi ; chavadi of the temple ; Todaya-baduku ; Hullu-mede chavadi ; 
Hogesoppina-chavadi ; Mari-katte-baduku ; Panyada angadi; 

78 Q-adis (towns and villages). Uminatturu ; Hull alii ; Mangala; 
Yalavanduru ; Kottagala; Sosale ; Nanjangud; Haradanahalli; Heggadadevanakdte; 
Huliyur-durga; Bettadapura ; Naraslpura ; Sindhughatta ; Kabbinada-chavadi ; 
Kanike-chavadi ; Baladerige-chavadi ; Benne-chavadi; Gtandhada-karkhane ; Udda- 
buru; Honganuru; Muguru; Kollegala; Talakadu; Tayuru; Jiajale ; Terakanambi; 
Hutari-durga ; Arakalagudu ; Konanuru ; Hosaholalu ; Periapatna ; Salagiama ; 
Katfcemalalavadi ; Kikkeri; Yedatore-tippuru; Garndanagiri; Kere-godu; Honnavalli; 
Chiganayakanahalli ; Kaduru ; Vast are ; Maharajandurga ; Haranahalli ; Hosuru ; 
Harohalli ; Kaiiikaranahalli ; Madduru ; Bengaluru; Bhairavana-durga ; Nijagallu- 
suragiri ; Chennarayadurga ; Devarayadurga ; Hebburu ; N^gamangala ; Midigesi ; 
Siriyuru; Melagote ; Ghennarayapatna ; Sakkare-patna; Banavara; Turuvekere; 
Kandikere; Beluru; ChikkamagaMru ; Hasana ; Nnggehalli ; Denkanikote ; 
Eamagiri; Malavalli; Chennapattaria; Nelavangala ; Makali-durga ; Maddagiri; 
Kadaba ; Tnmakuru ; Kunigalu ; Belluru ; Dyavaiidanahalli. 

29 in the South. Danayakana-kote ; Perandore; Karfrra; Paramafci; Koya- 
mattiiru; Tangya ; Vijayainangala ; Sankhagiri; ^alya ; Erode; Chakragiri ; 
Syadainangala ; Ghevuru; Votaguli; Kaveripnra; Anantagiri; Dharmapuri; 
Kengere-kote; Karamuru-chitrachavadi ; Dharapura ; Namakallu; Landuru; 
Chenj^ri ; Satyamangala ; Kaveri-pattna ; Pennagara ; Virabhadradurga ; MiTracha- 
vadi ; Dindugallu. 

102 { abhaya-gadis ' 

Sulagiri; Eatnagiri; Magadi ; SinganallHru ; Atikusagiri ; Vamaluru ; 


Doddaballapura ; Anekallu ; Mula-bagalu ; Hoskote ; 12 in Bararoahalu ; 
Javadipalya; Kallavi; Matturu; Kathora-gad; Jagadevu; Vanambadi; Tirupatturu; 
Singara-pete ; Gagana-gad ; Sudarsana-gad ; Maharaja-gad ; Krishna- giri ; Pavavana- 
gad ; 21 in Gutti Taluk ; Haveli ; Kadamari ; Yadaki ; Vernala-padu ; Singanamale ; 
Maddikere ; Munimadagu ; Konakondla ; Perainali ; Uyalavadi-gangapatla ; Hampe ; 
Yara-Timmanayana-charru ; Chikaballapura ; Bagaluru ; Kolara ; Bayakote ; Doda- 

; Madaka-siiya ; Penagonde ; Korikonde ; Eatnagiri; Nidigallu ; Pagondu ; 


Hanchati-durga ; Hunde-durga ; Hande-Anantapura ; Amaku ; Banaganapalli ; 
Timmanayana-pyate Perasamala; Hanumaiita-gad ; Kalasavadi-Narasapura ; 
Kenchana-gudda ; Nosanchala-Chalamala ; Podatibandu ; Ramesvara; Sonduru; 
Hirihalu ; Hagalavadi ; Pamadi ; Tadaparli ; Nitturu-bogasandra ; Yellantira ; 
Nadima-doddi ; Pyavalli ; Kartoi; Kudatani ; Channapalli. 

Nagara-kasaba ; Ikerisagara ; Kavulidurga ; Sivamoggi ; Bankipura ; Hole- 
honnuru; MahadSvapura-Sikaripura ; Udagani ; Kurna^i; Ayanuru ; Turugara- 
honnaji; Ajjampura ; Araga ; Martdagadde ; Lakkuvalli ; Danivasa; Anepattu; 
Jadiyali ; Chandragutti ; Chennagiri ; Koratagere ; Harihara ; Basavapatna ; 
Mattodu ; Gubbi-Hosahalli ; Palghat-cheri ; Nemmala-kote ; Yellappanayakana- 
Hoskote; Tarikere ; Bijiga; Chavutara-bangala ; Dharayada ; Koppala; 
Bahadara-bandu ; Gajendra-gad ; Badami ; Jali-halu ; Amina-gad ; Siratti- 
Lakshesvara; Kodagapafcakinadu balele-nadu, etc.; Ank61e Kasabe; Sive^vara; 
Bada ; Kadivara ; Dure. 

Anantapnra ; Mavinahole; Koppa; Tavanandi ; Soraba ; Yedahalli ; Ballala- 

Below ghafcs Barakdru ; Kundapura-Kusalapura ; Karakala ; Batakala ; 
Honnavara; Mangalura-kodiyala ; Muda-bidire ; Basavaraja-durga ; Dariyabaha- 
daragada ; Kollura ; Kotesvara ; Vuduma ; Sankaranarayana ; Ookarna ; 
Subramhanya ; Tangondi ; Salugonda ; Lala-gadi ; Nadimidddi ; Amarapura ; 
Kalyana-durga ; Kotfca-ciiaravu-Bukkapatfcna ; Cbangama-k6te ; Sante-Bidanuru. 
Bellari-kasabe ; Kuragodu ; Hotiiru ; Idavanakallu ; Dammuru ; Havaligi ; Urava- 
konde ; Tekkala-kote ; Gadiganura (9). 

Sude-kasaba ; Hertoi ; Karftru ; Baluru ; Tsaluru ; Hnttakhanda ; Bharatana- 
halli; Si?alli ; Santapura ; Maligi ; Betala; Mirji; Badanagddu ; Mundagodu ; 
Nandi-katte ; Yellapura ; Totada- siine ; Manjuguni ; Binnapura ; Menasi ; Sirasi; 
Banavasi ; Naganura ; Sambrani ; Ulive ; Kulenadu. 

Sadasivagada ; Sufe ; Hajlihalu ; Chitradurga-kasaba ; Nayakanahatti ; Hosa- 

durga; Monakalumuri ; Hiriytou; Sannakki-bagum ; Davanagere; Bamagiri; 

Bilajddu; Taluta ; Dodari ; Mayikonde ; Ayyamangala ; Kadape; 8idbavati| 

Baddavela ; Parama-mila ; Chennuru ; Kamalapura ; Paidikalava ; Duvoru ; 

Kamkaiii ; Dupada ; Maralna ; Donnipada ; Kottakota ; IdamakaJa ; G-anji-k6ta; 

Chamalamadagu ; Koyilakotla ; Vempali-nandimandala ; Sintakunta; Malyala 

K6takola ; Anaji ; 3 

G-uramkonda; Haveli; Pileragotukalava; G-undlura-racliote ; Komarukalava ;. 

Madanapalli ; Malivendala ; Peddap%am ; Kofctalapedavali ; Kalikote ; Darinayana-- 

palya : 


Arcofc-Kasaba ; Arani; Timari: Chengamavu; Tiranamale; Tindivana; 
Kftveripata; Mahimandala; Dh6bigada ; Chambaragada ; Kailasa-gada ; Gudiyafca; 


Satagada ; Janji ; Cbetapatu ; Peramakallu ; Tirapasura ; Tinrvakiiru ; Tiratini ; 
Tirakatamatura ; Madbyarjuna; Mannaragudi; Kumbba-k6na ; Chidambara ; 
Kanchi ; Pulacberi ; Toreyura ; Kalara ; Kamataka-gada ; Poluru ; Gbittiiru ; 


Karnftlu; Kaniyanura; Savanura; Adavani; Punganuru; Chittevelu- 
matlevara; Kanakagiri; Balla-ayyanuru-manjirabada ; Bayadurga; Talacheri; 
Kituru; Kapatarala; Vandikone; Mogaralu; Eamara-Venkatagiri ; 
Narigunda; Ammanayakana-palya; Gr6lappanayaka; Palani; G-opinayaka; Appaji- 
gauda ; Mille-Marangi ; Dambala ; Kochchi ; Gaddayala ; Sunnakallu ; Havanuru ? 
: Anegondi; Charakalu; Hulikallu; Haravanahalli; G-unimanayana-palya; Sarajapura ; 
Dudikonde; Narani-vana ; Kalahasfci; Mekala-nayakana-palya ; Dodda-Vada- 
Hebballi ; Appenayaka ; Maduru ; Virupaksha; GhantamanayakaJ; Kannaraedi. 



Mahalata-kacheri-^ime ; Bara-kacheri ; Baragira-kacheri ; Kamaratosha-khane ; 
Khasa-posbaku ; Sbutara-kbane ; Khabarachi-khane ; Iinarata-kliana-Garehatti ; 
Anohe-kaohfiri; Hasuvina-karobatti ; Modi-kbane; Kftravana-kaoheri ; Aliasbaiii 
kacheri; Vardi-etfcu;Dodda-ngrana; Hullu-mede; Kandacbara-kacheri ; 2 Savara- 
kacliSri; Tosbi4diane ; Kapade-kbane ; Ma-kbane ; Gadi-kbane ; Topu-khane ; 
Javahira-khane; Bennecbavadi ; Yemine-karobatti ; Dodda-bajaru ; Ohikka-bajara ; 
K&mati-kaoberi; Baiia-dara ; Lambane ; Chikka-ngrana ; Sbagirdu-pesba, etc.; 
Brabmana-barakare; Kalla-bbantaru ; Belli-bhale ; Cb6padara; Jileba-dara; 
Khalasem; Obati-dara; Kalagada-kSna; Bitte ; NapMri; Lalagoja; Bboya; Bbatangi , 
Sastris; Saiantri;Tapbe;Bagayata;Nankbata;Db6bi; Bocbe; Kbijamata-gta; 
Obeli Jakhambande; Jodedavaru; Dhalayita; Jabasuda; Hasarabbale ; Kempnbale- 
kha- Sabara-dto; Mabalu-dara ; Pakalern ; Golandaja; Habasbl ; Tagaru ; Kutte ; 
TntM; Mas^laji; Sarapba; Joisaru; Yaidyam; Nakalern ; Jetti ; Hamamu-khana ; 
aadiyara-kbana; Hajama; Obuvara-baradara ; Gulama; Eana-vaidya; Ta 3 imulla; 
Munasbi; Yiriekarn; Sangitagaru; N^taka-sale; Gollara-bobali ; Yura-bobali- 
mandi; Darjij'jinagara; Cbitragara; Nala-banda; Halala-kora ; Julayi ; Stoayana; 
Gadi-kara; Bagayana-maiika ; Sarariga-vale ; Iti-vuliga; Hale-paika; Barapha; 
L6hara; Bodayi; Sunnara; Sikalavanda; Bandi; Cbalnka-savara ; Charavedara; 
Mavata ; Pbulari ; Mutaf arakata. 





Hisdlddrs. Subba Eao Ghorpada; Subba Eao GMtaki; Sayid Vagil Idarus; 
Sayyaji ; Salanki ; Nabi Beg ; Tasi Barn ; Surat Singh ; Balavanfca Eao ; Ghandar 
Eao Barakki; Dalel Dil Khan; >Tasm Khavant. 

Jamaclars. Sripati Eao; Maddu Khan; Gazi Khan; Sayyad Yakuf; 
^Hirudh^ngala ; Hiro Triphada ; Mann^ Chaudhri ; Hiro Chaudhri ; Bhatanga 
Khatara; Subba Eao Mohatya; Pir Shah; Eaje Shah; Mohammad Hussein! 
Chatra Singh ; Chatroji Mando ; Eanjit Singh ; Sekha Bhonde ; Mohammed Jaffar ; 
Sivaji Ghorpade; Yummaji; Eamachandra; Bajid Khan; Bolloja; Ajmat Khan; 
Mayani ( ? Mayan na) ; Mohammud Malik; Sayyad Yasin; Gaiigaram; Nurula 
Pyara Khan ; Bhujanga Eao Yagmude ; Mallarji Holkar ; Ghimanaji Parabho and 
many others. 




On a slab lying buried in the ground to the north of the town of Arasikere. 

Si*e5'-9"xl' 6". 
Kannada language and characters. 













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45, S^ f\o^r? n F3oo 



48. ^o^oio S375CJ aJA^^asz^arttfaSjdActJj ^e6cdo 


50. >scGoodd^a3o^eeD c&tfc&Mfc rfjartocosijiaa KrfcJ^orlo sJarftSc II SsA d 



52. dosS 

1. Om namah Sivaya ff namas tunga-sira- 

2. ^-chumbi-chandra-chAmara-cliarav^ trailokya- 

3. nagararambha-mula-stambliaya Sambhave H. 

4. Yadu-vamsa-Kalpavrikshadol odavida nijasakhe 

5. tanenalk udayisidam sad-amala-kirtti-vilasam mu- 

6. dadim bhuvanaikavira Vinayadityam " a Vinaya- 

7. dityana sati Bhavodbhava-mantradevata-sannibhe sa- 

8. dubhave yene Keleyabarasiyan i-yasudbeyol oludu banni- 

9. kum budha-nikaram !l Yadava-vamsa-kk am are mabodayav Ereyanga- 

10. nripati Vinayadityang adain tanayam vinayam s6dararnene ta- 

11. nage negarda dhirodattam Maiava-rajya-mulam enip aggada . Dhteyan 


12. tma-s&neyim chalisi chakravarttige jayam mige tamnabbuja-pratapamam 


13. lisi digujaya-prakata-kirtti-patakeyati uttaraseyol kllisidam 

14. Dinesan agid ikshisuvant Ereyanga-bbubbiijarn ' Mirage m6kbale bahu- 

15. kale Variruba-bbavange ptirna-kale cbandrang a dbirang Ecbaladevi 


16. g Ereyanga-nripatig oppam badegum II ubhaya-kula-^uddhe-yenipa 

17. ubba-lakshanegam subha-cbarita-bbaritanenip-a-prabhugain muvar 


18 ssubagar Eallala-VisbnuY Uday&dityar II Perdore S6tu pascbirDa-pa.y6- 

19. nidbi purbba-payodhi inereyagirdda dharifcriyam nereye t6- 

20. Ibaladimdame inadi dusbtaram marddisi tusbtiyam padedu sisbta-jana- 

21. prakarakke Bamanant isbtan apara-paurusbame tamnol odambade Yisbnu- 

22. varddbanam D yettada mumnav etti nade-gollada munnav adurttu k6padim 

23. muttada mumnav artfcbamane tettiri ittiriin atuma-darggamam mattena- 

veda nirgga- 

24. mam idendu virodbige vira-Lakshmi sayuttire Yisbnu-vikramad upakra- 

mav akra- 

25. misittu lokamam 11 Laksbma-devi Kbagadbipa-laksbmamg esedirdda 

Yisbnug en- 

26. tante valam Lakshma-d^vi lasan-rnrigalaksbmanane Visbnug agra-satiyene 

negaldalu I! 

27. a-dampatige tanubbavan adani sucbaritra- mitra g6tra- pavitram Yadava- 


28. la-tilakaro in^diniyolu koluvam geluvam kali Narasimham II adatara 

govan an- 

29. jadarau anjisuvam subbata-trinetran alukada cbaladankaraman ativira 


30. n atyudaran 6vade kali vira-vairi-bbata-Bbarggavan i Narasimbanendu 

mediniyol moba- 

31. di saranendu band ahita-varggarne pelade virad elgeyarn |! nittaidetanam 

tanag alavatt Ecba- 

32. lad^vi nrupam-Narasimbamg adalu pattia-iuahad^vi yenalu nett^ne tafcu- 


33. nontarum olare II avaribbarigam nandanan avayava-sampftrnna-rnurtti- 

manuja- Man6jam 

34. bbuvana-stuta-nidbi yesedam sayinayadim vira-Ballu-nripa-kula-tilakam It 

Obola- Kalim- 

35. ganam tulidu Malava-seneyan okkalikki N^palana dandan andaledu 

daliyanitt a- 



36. reyatti Pandyanam ehalisi yettal etti munisim nadetandapa vira-Ballu- 

bhupalakan einba sambhrainame 

37. vairi-nripalara rQandalanigalolu I! svasti samadhigata-panoha-niaha- 

38. sabuda maha-rnandale"svaram 1 Dvaravatipuravaradhlsvara Yadava- 

kularpbara-dyuma- . . 

39. ni sarbbajna-chudamani atula-bala-jaladhi-badavanalam dayada-davana- 


40. Pandya-kula-kainala-vana-vedanda gandabhe;runda mandalika-bentekara 


41. rekara sangramabhima kali-kala-kama sakala-dandadhisa ? bandi-brinda- 

s antarppana-samartfcha 

42. vira-vitarana-vin6da Vasantika-devi-labdha-vara-prasMa inrigama- 
damoda namadi-prasasti- 

43. sahitaip srlman-maha-mandalesvaram Talakadu-Kongu- 

44. ]Sraiigali-G-angaYadi-NolambaYadi-Vuohb.angi-Baiiavase-Hanumgallu- 

gonda ganda bhnja-bala Vlragangan asahayasura sanivarasi- 

45. ddhi giridurggainalla .nissanka-pratapa Hoysana-srl-vlra-Ballala-devaru 


46. dala-rnandalatnam dnshta- nigraha-sishta-pratipalanam-geydu 

rakshisuttum Do- 

47. rasamudrada nelevldinolu snkha- samkatha-vmodadim rajyam geyyuttire II 

48. tadiya-pada-padmopajrvigalapp Arasiyakereya permmeyam pelvade 

49. balasida purnna-tat&kavaliyim nnliY-ancheyim banamgala sovind 


50. tiyimd Arasiy akeye yeleyolu sogayipudo janada kangain manakam Ilkappura- 

51. mam srigandhaman oppuva kalivattam tanenalu pattavaliyim nerppuvade- 


52. ruva uttania-haradargge danad Arasiyakereyolu 1! 

II 1-21. 

Salutation to Siva. Obeisance to Sambhu, beautiful with the fly-flap that is 
the moon kissing his lofty head and the foundation pillar for the construction of the 
city of the three worlds. As if he were verily a branch sprung from the Kalpa tree of 
the Yadu race was born the sole hero of the universe, Vinayaditya, possessed of pure 
and unblemished fame. An equal of the mantm-dSvate (deity invoked by a mantra 
or charm) of Cupid, and possessed of noble mind thus does the assemblage of 
learned men in this world lovingly praise Keleyabbarasi, the wife of Yinayaditya. 
Causing great prosperity to the" Yadava race, was born to Vinayaditya, a son (named) 
Eing Ereyanga, highly brave and noble, whose good manners seemed to be born 

with him.- Conquering with his army the Igreat " Dhara, said to be the root of the 
Malava kingdom and using the might of his armies for victory to his emperor, king 
Ereyanga established in the northern quarter the standard of his fame publishing 
his victory in all quarters, so that the sun might look at it with fear. As" the 
mountain belt to Mem (mountain), Sarasvati (bahu-kale) to Brahma, fullness 
of digits to the moon, so did Echaladevi add lustre to that profound hero, 
Ereyanga. To that (queen) possessed of auspicious attributes and purifying 
both the families (that in which she was born and that into which she was married) 
and to that lord of noble qualities were born three handsome sons Ballala, Vishnu 
and TJdayaditya. By the might of his arms Vishnu conquered the earth bounded by 
the Great Eiver (Krishna), the Bridge (BamSsvara), the Western Ocean and the 
Eastern ocean, and with his very great valour he punished the wicked and pleased 
the virtuous, and thus became a favourite like Bama. 


" Before he collects troops and before he moves in the field and before 
he attacks and besieges a fortress in a rage, pay up the money (demanded) and 
surrender your strongholds and do not talk to the contrary. This is the way of 
escape." Thus does the goddess of Victory proclaim to the enemies of Vishnu and 
his heroism has spread over the whole world. As is the G-oddess Lakshmi to the 
glorious Vishnu whose crest is G-aruda, so indeed does Lakshmadevi with a face like 
the bright moon shine as the chief wife to king Vishnu. 


To that couple was born a son, the valiant Narasimha, a friend of the 
righteous, purifier of his race, an ornament to the Yadava family of kings, and a 
slayer (of the wicked) and conqueror (of enemies) on earth. Will not the band of 
enemies who take shelter under Narasimha from fear proclaim the greatness of his 
prowess, that he is the protector of the valiant, a terror to those who are not afraid 
of any one else, a Budra to heroes, o a Kama who does not tremble during the 
progress of battle, fierce to great warriors, very generous } a Parasurarna to the brave 
hostile warriors ? When it is said that the highly auspicious Echaladevi became the 
anointed queen of Narasimha, can there, be any. woman who has done pious acts 
(to gain her present status) to the same extent ? That couple got a son, the 
valiant ornament to the royal family, the heroic Ballu, a Cupid among men, perfect 
in features, a treasure eulogised by the universe, and endowed with nobilitv of 

34-37. , . 

""King Vlra Ballu is coming everywhere with an. army in a rage having -trampled 
down the Chola and Kalinga kings, and slain the army of the Malava and chased: 



the troops of the Xepala and having besieged, pursued and defeated the 
Pandja," Thus are they talking excitedly in the territories of the hostile kings. 


Be it well. Obtainer of the five great musical sounds, a mahamandalesvara, 
lord of the excellent city of Dvaravati, a sun to the firmament that is the Yadava race, 
crest-jewel co the all-knowing, a submarine fire to the ocean the matchless troops, 
a wild fire to the forest the rival heirs, an elephant to the lotus grove that is the* 
Pandya family, a gcuidablierunda, hunter of the mandalikas (dependent chiefs) 
plunderer of the enemies' territories, a Bhirna in battle, a Cupid in the Kali age, 
able in satisfying all the groups of generals and bards, delighter in gifts to the 
heroes, obtainer of boons from the goddess Vasantika, delighter in musk, possessor 
of these and other titles, the illustrious mahamandalesvara, the champion who 
captured Talakadu, Kongu, Nangali, Gangavadi, Nolambavadi, Uchchangi, Baua- 
vase, Hanimgal, Bhuja-bala-viraganga (a valiant Ganga in the might of his arms), 
unassisted warrior, Sami'drasiddhi, Giridurgamalla, endowed with undoubted 
valour, Hoysana-sri-vira-Ballala-devar was governing the kingdom in peace and 
wisdom in his capital Dorasainudra, protecting the whole universe, punishing the 
wicked and succoring the righteous : 


f fche greatneSS of ^y*^ (citizens), dependants on his lotus 
Arasiyakere IB pleasing to the eyes and heart of people by the chain of tanks 
e * BWMl8 ****** * them > ^ ^ beauty o 

BWMl8 ***** * tem > ^ beauty oth 

SS^ataS^r / ? r, of bees< Arasiyake?e is the a ^" 

booa merchants TOth their fine display of cam P hor 3 lsandai; and silk cloth (Thm 
stanza is corrupt and hence its meaning is not clear); ( 


in the record. Some of these are found in other inscriptions also ** 

record. ' } ' '* da ^ e * s given in the 



At the village Talalur in the hobali of Araslkere, on a pillar of a ruined 
mantapa in the bed of the tank. 

Kannada language and characters. 



2. 3 gOGJ 3 03J3S3& 3 


8. % 

9. .... ST3PI 



12. .... 


1. Bhava-samvatsarada Srava- 

2. na suddha trayodasi A- 

3. divaradandu svasti 

4. srimada . . . Ajitesva- 

5. ra-devara .... mahajanam . . . 

6. ... vagi 

7 Kesava-devara Bamma- 

8. we tdtadim .... 

9 vagi kamma 2 ... 

19. kondu 

11. . . . y&aulla 


This record is full of lacunae and the meaning cannot be clearly made out. 
It seems to record the gift of some land by the mahajanas of a village for services 
in the temple of Ajitesvara. The land gifted included a plot of two kammas 
(poles), near the garden of Barnmavve, (daughter) of Kesavadevaru. The date is 
given as Sunday the 13th lunar day of the bright half of Sravana in the year 
Bhava. The number of years elapsed in the Saka era is not given. 



Keregalur plates of the Ganga-King Madhava II in the possession of Mr. H. K. 

Mallappa, Economic Superintendent, Hassan. 
PLATES 5 Size 10" X 2" with Elephant seal. 



stoH DC) H c^as*. 3. stoosirfsJd sS^c5bd>sS sssfc, 

I b. 1. fc^aatosSrtsJs'a rtggfcd rtrteratftsJ a^Sos; 6 saaS 

2. sg/^sfcssJ q3"3?3?3 EPDSJ ds ^sosic! ^af sdjS^n so^f & 



5.. .SJJ^,?3y EJ^^S 3jj8?j3T3 

2i ca 

9. SD^S, RSstoJsrajias^ ^ajosgjsS: [ey 
II b. 10. ofcF 1 s3roK 

12. Sototi^. sd.cdJDK) srsc^! rrre.^ sfcodo o3oo3.e&r5F<aq3D;3 

^ ' 


ES ' 

16. ^^ a^^cS^^rrasrao cJSocSnff^^iMaoKrasrao sj&a 

17. ^ 

III b. 18. 


21. srorao aoEtfrrejsJD^fi* tSSagsrasto^iSrtjtf oSoe^oS^ KSOGTS.O 
.IV a. 22 


24. a^^asSJ^^oJrosreo aJo&JrfcdroEdrf e^cxJorf ejp^att" 

25. ^^^s ^sbFzpdzpdsra d^saoj^ a^ucsoJM^storfo^aSo cdo 
IV b. 26. 3^.8 rtsrscd^ ^035o-s 

II a. 6. 32$sfo>C GfctodzpcSj^rt 


III a. 14. ^j%^>^) 

15. ^Fsraosrsocoo^sdg s&^rf ^oS: R3orts33sgid[o] JTO skxosij sn^sresS 33-s, 

27. o^g sjoo^j ^^jsjf/B^srss-Sjg sfaja^d 3jjo3j3^rS?s-D Bra^pB^^rrarfoaj** 

28. ?37>o ^JoJio d j^ SsrsFqSjS-sK^o ^^FSjOs^dS^o dU^epd&s-s 

. a. .30. yy 

31. -WajGJFS.0 ^tp^OF^O S^ SdOsreoSo iD3D<5 S^SJSF^ S^S3FOe)&l 

32. , 




II a 


III a 






(p. 113, No. 3. 

Mysore Aroh&ological Survey.] 


Y b. 33. ^GJ^oaWcJ^osrs cSJt^aStS^sJsSD^cTa s| 
34. *j oja&oaT) jssrtoeEysS^ .aodo II &^ I! 



1. sri jitam bhagavata gata-ghana-gaganabhena srimat Jahnaveya-kulamala- 

2. vyorQayabhasana-bhaskarah. svakhadgaika-prahara-khandita-maharsila- 


3. svasti labdha-bala-parakramah Karivayanasa-gofcrah srimat Komgoni- 

4. mahadhiraj6 bhuv6 vibhutaye bhavat tat-putro Nltisastra-kusalo Dattaka- 

5. sutrasya vritteh praneta sriman Madhava-mahadhirajas tad-aurasah 

II a. 

6. nipuno dhanurabhiydga-sampadita-sampad-viseshah srimadd Harivarma- 

mahadhirajas tad-angajah 

7. srlmad Visbnu-gopa-inahadhirajas tan-nandanah sriman Madhava-maha- 

dbirajasya sva-vamsooliita-guna-gana- 

8. lankritasya svabhuja-vala^viryavapta^rajyena Artha-sasfcra-jnagaMta- 

sam skaropabrihmi- 

9. tatma-sakti-saTnutpatitasesha-ripuma [ndajl&na sva-kalopabhukta-vargga- 

trayen.a satata-paricha- 

II b. 

10. ryarnana-deva-(deya)-dvija-guruna' rthijana-vachitarttlia-pradana-Kalpa- 

padapena aneka -samara- vijaya- 

11. labdha-yasasa vijita-shad-vargena mantrachara-dufca-sandhi-yigraha- 


12. sambhuya-prayana p^ [r] sbni-graha-rnandala-yantra-durga-vidhana 


13. kosa-pauramatya-vibhaga-ku^alah ddva-manusba [na] yapanaya-nipunah 

III a. 

14. pratyaksha-pratyaksha-devah sadyo-rosba-prasadah prajapafcayah variia- 


15. rmmanam palayitarah tasmin Sendraka-vishaye Sangamapura [m] stha- 

payitva prasada-pra- 

16. kara-baddbodyoganam chaturda^ashta-kufcumbanam shatkarma-niratanam 


- 17. Vaisakha-paur&amasyani salabb6gena asbta-sabasra-visbaye kricbcbiira- 

1 Eeadbala. 2 Eead 


III fe. . 

18. Valla vi-visbaya-pancha-grame Keregalur PosavaHi Mldundavalli Kacb- 

appa- . - 

19. Hi Katullainaliyum D^valge-visbaye Kirumunda-nirinam nakarasya 

dasamo bbagab 

20. chaturdasashta-kamsabhajanam vallm dvau tamra-bbajanarn Visbnuh 


21. nanam Manigrama- sreui-cbatuh-samanta-Tegure-Amaniya-Nandyala- 


IV a. 

22. la-desa-prakrityadhyakshanam chaturv^dya sta-panlyam Kasyap Atreya 

G-autama Bba- 

23. radvajasagatraaam Rig-yajurveda-parakanam 1 Bhavasvaminam Naga- 


24. shnu-namad]i6yanamyajana-yaiana-adhyayana-adbyapana-dana-prati- 

25. grahais cha sbadbbih karmabhir abhirata d^va-brahma-pitri-bali-yajna- 

raanusbyeshu ya- 

IV b. 

26. jneshu pravrittah havya-gavyapyayana-kusalah svahakara-svadhakara- 


27. rah mantra-pavitra-puta-yakyah vashatkara-prayogajnah sala-bhoganu- 

sbtba- [na] - 

28. nain Tuviyalsrashtbi-sarYadhyatshanam sarva-paribara-dattam yo- 


29. uktam cba Manuna 

V a. 

30. babubhir vasudba bbuktva 2 rajabhih Sagaradibbih yasya yasya yada 

bbumih tasya tasya tada pbalam 

31. adbbir dattam tribbir bbuktsam sabbyascba 3 paripalanam 6tani na nivar- 

tante purva-raja-kritani cba 

32. svam datum sumabat sakyam duhkbam anyasya palanam dana [m] va 

palanam v4ti danat sry6nupalanani 

33. sva-dattam 4 para dattam 5 va yo bar^ti vasundbara [m] sbasbtim varsba- 

sabasrani narakam pratipadyate 

34. Kodalara Nagamnana 6 kritam idam 

1 Eead par 

2 Eead bhukta. s Read 

3 Eead sadbhis cha. 6 Read Kagann^na. 



IV a 





Mysore Archaological 


LL. (1-5). Translation. 

Good fortune. Victory to the God (Padmanabha) resembling the sky free 
from clouds. 

The illustrious Kongom-mahadhiraja, a sun in illumining the clear firmament 
of the auspicious Jahnaveya family, having obtained strength and valour by means 
of the great stone pillar cut asunder with a single stroke of his sword, and belonging 
to the Kanvayana-gotra, made the earth prosperous. 

His son (was) the illustrious Madhava-mahadhiraja, an adept in the science of 
polity and the author of a commentary on Dattaka's aphorisms. 

LL. (6-11). 

His son (was) the illustrious Harivarma-mahadhiraja, skilled in mounting 
elephants and horses, and possessed of great wealth obtained by the use of his bow. 

His son was the illustrious Vishnugopa-mahadhiraja. 

His son was the illustrious Madhava-mahadhiraja, adorned with numerous 
qualities befitting his race, ohtainer of his kingdom by his prowess and the might 
of his arms, uprooter of all the hosts of enemies by his own energy strengthened by 
his skill (in polity) too deep even for those versed in the Artha^astra, enjoyer of the 
three objects of worldly existence (dharma, artha, kdma), constantly engaged in the 
service of tbe gods, Brahmans and elders (guni), a Kalpa-tree in granting the 
desires of the supplicants, obtainer of glory by victory in numerous "battles, and 
conqueror of the six vargas (kdma, krddha, lollia, moha, inada, and mdtsarya). 

LL (11-28). 

That king Madhavavarma established Sangamapura in Sendraka-vishaya and 
made, on the full moon day of Vaisakha with pouring of water, to be enjoyed as 
sdldbhoga (gift for the use of a prayer hall or congregation), free from imposts, the 
gift of the five villages Keregalur, Posavalli, Midundavalli, Kachappalli and 
Katullamali situated in the province of Vallavi, filled with subjects engaged in 
religious penances and sacrifices (krichchhra-barhishina), a eight-thousand province 
and also of the right to collect a tithe from the corporation (nakara) of Kirumunda- 
niru in the province of Devalge. (The king also presented the donees with) 22 
bronze vessels, a bull (for carrying things), two copper vessels and (an image)? of 
Vishnu and several ornaments. 

The donees were 22 families of Brahmans, versed in the six duties (yajana, 
ydjana, adhyayana, adhydpana, ddna, pratigraha) and the study of the Vedas, and 
employed within the palace enclosure, adepts in counsels and in the determination 
of the usage to be followed, acting as envoys, advising on making alliances or wars, 
determining with whom to ally and when to keep quiet after proclaiming war, 
(vigrihyasana), how to march forth to battle in combination with others, and how 
to attack an enemy in the rear, skilled in the protection of the state (mandala), 



in wielding the implements of war, and in the construction of fortresses, in govern- 
ing the rural areas (janapada), the treasury and the urban areas, in -the supervision of 
ministers employed; skilled in interpreting the pleasure and displeasure (naydpanaya) 
of gods and men ; who are gods both visible and invisible, quick to resent and quick to 
be pacified, lords over men, protectors of the duties of the different castes and dsramas 
(stages of life : bachelor, married, hermit and ascetic), chiefs over Manigrama 
Sreni and chiefs over the citizens of the four subordinate districts of Tegure, 
Arnaniya, Nandyala, and Stmbala l born in Kasyapa, Atreya, Gautama and 
Bha.radvaja-gotras, deeply versed in Big and Yajur Yedas, bearing the names 
Bhavasvami, Nagadeva,, and Yishnu; devoted to the six duties of performing sacri- 
fices, officiating at sacrifices, studying and teaching the Vedas, making and receiving 
gifts ; engaged in making offerings to the gods, in the study of the sastras, perfor- 
mance of ancestral ceremonies, offering of food to animals (dogs, crows, etc., bali- 
yajna), and hospitality to men; adepts in sacrifices for gods and manes; engaged in 
the repetition of the words svdJid and suadhd (in oblations offered to the gods and 
pitris) ; uttering the words purified by the repetition of the sacred formulas, versed 
in the use of the syllable vasJiat (in sacrifices), and engaged in congregational 
services ; and lords over the merchants of the Tuviyal group (Tuviyal-sreshtbl- 

LL 29-33. 

He who protects (this): It is said by Manu The earth is enjoyed by many 
kings beginning with Sagara. To him who is the owner of the land at the time 
accrues the fruit (of the gift of the land). That which is given away with pourings 
of water, and which is enjoyed by three (generations) and which is maintained by 
righteous men and which is given away by former rnonarchs these can never be 
taken away. It is far easier to give away what is one's own but it is very difficult 
tjo protect another's gift. Between making a gift and protecting a previous gift, 
protecting is more meritorious than making the gift. He who takes away the land 
bestowed by oneself or by others will dwell in hell for sixty -thousand years. 

LL 34. 

This is the work of N&ganna of Kodalar (Kodalur). 



The grant consists of five plates 10" x 2" with a ring 3" in diameter bearing the 
seal of an elephant. The plates are written on both sides, except the first and the 

1 cbafcus-s&manta Tegure, etc. might also mean Tegnre-d&sa, etc., which was divided among four 


last. The ring was nofc cut at the time the plates were received. The surface of 
the fourth plate is broken in some places hut no letters are lost. Five lines of 
writing are found in the first plate but the other plates have four lines on each 
surface. Each line contains about 28 letters. 


The grant is engraved in Old Kannada characters. The letters are generally 
well-formed, though slightly cursive. In some places, as in plate II, they are not 
deeply cut. The characters seem to belong to the close of the 5th century A. D. and 
resemble the alphabet of the Penugonda plates in general with a slight incline to 
left. The test letters bha, Jtha, ja, etc., found in the plates (LL 1 and 2 bha, L2 
kha, LI ja) all belong to this period. The anusvara is indicated by a dot over the 
letter and the reduplication of consonants is indicated by a dot to the left of the 
letter, e.g., stambha in line 2, vritteh in line 5. The mistakes in orthography are 
nofc many. It has to be noted that the upadhmdniya is written in this record with- 
out the rSpha which is usual in the grants of several Ganga kings. 


The language is Sanskrit throughout and mostly prose except for the 
imprecatory stanzas in LL 30-33 which are in the Anushtup metre. Though the 
language used is generally correct, the frequent change of vibhakti or case-ending 
in the case of epithets qualifying the same substantive causes considerable confu- 
sion in meaning. Thus for Madhava, son of Yishnugdpa, we have first the 
nominative tan-nandanali in line 7, next the genitive gunaqcindlam'kritasya in line 
8 and the instrumental rdjyena in line 8 and also in LL. 9, 10 and 11. Similarly 
we have the nominative plural used for several epithets qualifying prajdpatayali in 
LL. 11-15. But in line 16 we find the genitive plural used for prdsdda-prdMra,- 
baddhd-dyogdndm cliatiirdasdslita-kutumbdndm. Whether these words refer to 
prajdpatayali in line 1 4 or to a separate set of people cannot be determined. Simi- 
larly the genitive plural is used in LL. 21-24 while the nominative plural is used in 
LL. 25-27 to denote probably the same persons. The phrases Katullamaliyum in 
line 19 and K6dalar& in L. 34 have case endings in Kannada. This is probably 
due to their being proper names denoting certain villages. 

Maker of the grant. 

The grant is stated to have been made by Kodalara Naganna. Whether 
Nagarma was the composer or the engraver of the grant is doubtful. Perhaps 
he belonged to the family or tribe of Kodalar : or KodalarS, may be a mistake for 
Kudalura, meaning the village Kudalur. In the latter case Sangamaputa in 
L. 15 is the Sanskrit equivalent of the name Kudalur. 


Purpose of the inscription. 

The record registers the creation of a new town called Sangarnapura by the 
Ganga king Madhava, son of Vishrtugdpa, in Sendraka-vishaya and the gift by him 
of five villages Keregalur, etc., situated in Vallavi-vishaya, a eight-thousand 
province and also of the right to receive a tithe of the income of merchants in 
Kirarnundanira (?). The donees were twenty-two families of Brahmans who were 
employed probably as ministers to give advice and work for the king chiefly in 
matters connected with the defence of the country and foreign policy. They were 
well-versed in the Yedic studies and Vedic ritual. They belonged to Kasyapa, 
Atreya, Gautama and Bharadvaja-gotras. Only three names are given for the 
donees, Bhavasvami, Nagadeva and Vishnu. These were the more prominent of 
the donees. The donees seem to have been presented also with certain utensils 
of bronze for domestic use and a bullock for carrying purposes and an image of 
Vishnu. But the meaning of this line is not quite free from doubt. 1 We have 
also certain epithets, such as heads of the Manigrarna-sreni and the inhabitants (?) 
of Tegure, Amaniya, Nandyala and Simbala districts in LL. 21-22. Whether these 
apply to the donees as seems to be evident from the context or whether these 
merely indicate the witnesses to the grant as is found in some records, the word 
samakslmin being omitted after chdturvedya in L. 22 in the present record, cannot 
be determined (M. A. E. 1924, PP. 69, 71). The epithet Tuviyal-sreslitU- 
sarvddhyakshdndm (L. 28) may also relate to the witnesses. A merchant of the 
Tuviyal-gdtra is referred to in the Bannahalli plates (E. C. V. Belur 121). 


Sendraka-vishaya containing the villages granted is identified with the north- 
west of the Mysore State roughly corresponding to the Nagarkbanda of later times 
(E. C. V. Irjtr. P. 3 ; M. A. B. 1929, P. 55). It is also referred to in the Bennur plates 
(E. C. V. Belur, 245) of the Kadamba King Vijaya-Siva-Krishnavarma and the Tagare 
plates of the Ganga king Polavira (M. A. E. 1918, P. 41). In the latter record it is 
associated with Vallavi-desa as in the present grant. Vallavi-desa which is 
also referred to in the Bannahalli plates of the Kadamba King Krishna varma (E. 0. V. 
Belur 121) is identified with Ballavi-seventy in the Honnali Taluk, Shirnoga District 
(B. C. V. Intr. P. III). Ballavi is also the name of a village in Tumkur Taluk, 
but the former is more probably the place named here. The villages granted, namely, 
Keregalur, Posavalli, etc., cannot be identified. Devalge province is evidently the 
Devalige-nad of later times and includes parts of Belur and Chickmagalur Taluks. 

1 It is possible that the words used for the donations here might indicate taxes such as Vi4 and 
|- on bronze vessels and vali and Vishnu (coins with fche image of bull and Vishnu) paid on copper 
utensils and jewellery manufactured or sold. 


Of the villages Tegure, Amaniya, Nandyala and Simbala referred to in L. 21, the 
first, third and fourth are met with in the Kodanjeruvu grant of the Ganga king 
Avinita found in Sidlaghatta Taluk, Kolar District. The villages are associated 
with the province of Sendraka (M. A. E. 1924, P. 69). The same villages are also 
referred to in the Nallala grant of the Ganga king Durvinlta found in the same 
village in the Sidlaghatta Taluk (M. A. E. 1924, P. 71). 

Sangamapura, too, cannot be definitely identified. Kftdli at the confluence of 
the Tunga and Bhadra in Shimoga Taluk, Kudlur in Ohamarajanagar Taluk where 
the Honnuhole receives a tributary, Harihar where the Tungabhadra receives 
Haridravati, etc., might each be called Sangamapura, (a town of confluence) but they 
are not so called in the inscriptions. If Tegure of this grant is to be identified with 
the village Tagare in Belur Taluk, then the Kiru-Kudalur of the Tagare grant 
might be considered to be the same as Sangamapura of our grant. There is a 
Kudalur near Belur where two minor streams meet. Three villages Kachihalli, 
Hosahalli and Kadumanahalli are shown in the village list of Belur Taluk. These 
villages probably are the same as Kachappalli, Posavalli and Katullamali of our 
present record. But Yallavi-vishaya comprising Honnali Taluk is far off, unless as 
stated in the record it was a 8,000 province extending to parts of Beltir Taluk. 


The inscription records a grant made by the Ganga king Madhava, son of 
Yishnug6pa. The predecessors of these kings, namely, Kongonimahadhiraja, his son 
Madhava, his son Harivarroa whose son was Vishnugopa are all given the usual 
epithets qualifying them and met with in inscriptions. 

It is now well known that the evidence of the copper plates on Ganga 
genealogy is conflicting. Prof. Jouveau Dubreuil in his Ancient History of the 
Dekhan (p. 104S) reviewed the evidence and suggested that there were two dynasties 
of the early Gangas, namely, the Gangas of Talkad and the G-angas of Paruvi. 
According to him the latter issued the Penugonda plates. He went further and 
thought that Krishnavarma Ganga of the Bendiganahalli plates (Mysore Arch. 
Eeport 1914-15, Plate XVIII) was the son of Madhavavarma of the Paruvi branch. 
Mr. E. Narasimbachar, while editing the Kudlur plates of Marasirnha, thought the 
suggestion ingeneous but did not accept it (Mysore Archaeological Eeport 1921, 
p. 29). There can be little doubt tbat the genealogy as given in the Kudlur plates 
of Marasimha is also correct. In 1924 while editing the Ohukuttur plates of 
Simhavarma Ganga, Dr. Shama Sastry agreed that the dynasty of the Penugonda 
plates was different from that of the Kodanjeruvu plates, the latter's genealogy 
being identical with the earlier part of that given in the Kudlur plates of 
Marasimha. To these two branches he added a third as mentioned in the Chukuttur 
plates. (M. A. E. 1924, p, 17.) 


Since in the present report three important records of the western Gran gas are 
published (Nos. 3, 36 and 88), each with a different genealogy, the subject may be 
further reviewed here. Though some of the alleged records of the G-angas are 
definitely spurious, there could be no doubt about the genuineness of a large number 
of them like (1) the Kudlur plates of Marasimha, which are supported by the 
Keregalur plates of Madhava II (No. 3 of this report) ; (2) the Penugonda plates 
which are supported by the Kudlur plates of Madhava varma (No. 88 of this report); 
and (3) the Ghukuttur plates of Simhavarma (Mysore Archaeological Report 1924, 
No. 81) which support the Bendiganahalli plates (Mysore Archaeological Eeport 
J 914-15, plate XVIII). All the three genealogies may be accepted. The problem 
now is to reconcile them. 

There are three theories possible according as we conclude that only one 
dynasty existed or two or three. 

If the dynasty was only one, then the first six rulers would be as follows : 



Aryavarma alias Hari varma alias Krishnavarma 

Madhava alias Viravarma 

Yishnugopa alias 


Madhava (Tadangala) 


This theory is weak since (1) it is assumed that single persons bore a variety 
of highly differentiated names, (2) Yiravarman is mentioned only in one of the 
records and (3) the Pallava overlordship is acknowledged in two only of a large 
number of inscriptions. 

The second theory would be that the dynasty of the Penugonda plates is 
different from that of the Keregalur plates. To the former, which we shall call with 
Dubreuil the 'Paruvi dynasty,' belonged Madbavavarina of the Penugonda and 
Kudlur plates (No. 88). He ruled over at least the Paruvi and Marukara-vishayaa 
consisting of the Tumkur and Anantapur districts. His father was Aryavarma or 
Ayyavarrna who was the son of Madhava I, the author of a commentary on Dattaka- 
sutras and the common ancestor of both the G-anga branches. 

Simhavarma of the Ohukuttur plates states that his father Krishnavarma 
who ruled over Kaivara-vishaya in the Kolar District was the son of- Madhava- 
varma whose father was Kongunivarma. The Bendiganahalli plates appear to 


refer to the same Madhava and Krishnavarma. It is not known whether 
Aryavarma had also the name Kongunivarma after his grandfather. If he had, 
Krishnavarma would be Paruvi Madhava's son. If he did not, he would be one 
of the three sons of Madhava I, each of whom would appear to have been at 
the head of a kingdom after their father's death. The main difficulty about the 
latter position would be that while the Tumkur and Anantapur Districts were 
subordinate to the Pallavas, the Kaivara Visbaya in the Kolar District would be 
independent, according to the Chukuttur and Bendiganahalli plates which are silent 
about the Pallava connection. This dynasty does not acknowledge the overlordship 
of the Pallavas and was probably a third branch ruling independently. If Krishna- 
varma was a son of Paruvi Madbava, he may be taken to have become independent 
of Pallava suzerainty after his father's death. In that case the Paruvi dynasty 
would consist of Aryavarma, his son Madhava (both of whom were vassals of the 
Pallavas), Krishnavarma and his sons Simhavarma and Yuvaraja ViraVarma 
who were free from the Pallava yoke. The territory held by this Paruvi dynasty 
may have consisted of the Paruvi, Marukara and Kaivara Vishayas forming a solid 
area of about three districts, namely, Anantapur, Tumkur and Kolar. 
According to this theory the dynastic table would be as follows : 



(Talkad Branch) J I (Paruvi Branch) 

Harivarma Aryavarma 

Vishnugopa Madhava 


I ' I 

Madhava (Tadangala) | | 

Simhavarma Viravarma 

The weakness of this theory would be that two assumptions would have to be 
made : (1) that Krishnavarma became independent of the Pallava yoke, though his 
father and grandfather were crowned by the Pallava overlords ; and (2) that the 
reigns of four generations of the Paruvi Branch were equivalent in length to two of 
the Talkad Branch, namely, those of Harivarma and Vishnugopa, since the empire 
appears to have become reunited under Tadangala Madhava who held sway over 
the Tumkur and Kolar Districts also (E. C. X Mb. 263). 

The third view would be that there were in all three distinct branches of the 
G-angas. The dynasty, mentioned in the Keregalur and Marasimha plates, 
which was perhaps the main branch was descended from Kongunivarma and 


Madhava I, through Harivarma whose son was Vishnug6pa. Vishnugopa's son 

was Tadangala Madhava or Madhava II who granted the Keregalur plates and who 
was the father of Avinita. This Avinita of the Talkad branch appears to have 
acquired possession of the Paruvi area. It is also possible that the Ganga Empire 
was divided after the death of Madhava I, perhaps owing to a disputed succession 
between his sons Harivarma, Krishna varm a and Aryavarma, who got respectively 
Talkad, Kaivara and Paruvi. The Pallava Emperor Simhavarma probably 
intervened on behalf of Aryavarma and crowned him. The separation of the 
kingdoms appears to have existed for two or four generations between 400 and 
500 A. D. However it was the Talkad dynasty which ultimately won the 
mastery. This theory has also its weak points. 

To the information gathered from the plates discussed above, we may add the 
facts about the succeeding generations as supported by what is gathered from the 
G-anjam plates and the newly discovered Devarahalli stone inscription of Sivamara, 
(For the genealogy of the main dynasty see notes on No. 36 below.) 


Tbe present record mentions no year but names only the full moon day of 
Yaisakha. Thus the date cannot be determined with any approach even to 

But on the basis of the above discussion it may be stated that. Madhava II 
(Tadangala), the author of the present grant reigned just before his son Avinita 
and was a contemporary of the last Paruvi Granga ruler. If the latter was Madhava, 
the author of the Penugonda plates (0. 475 A. D.), the Keregalur plates may be 
assigned to about the same date. But if the last of the Paruvi rulers was 
Simhavarma, grandson of the abovenamed king, then these plates may be assigned 
to about 500 A.D. 

Other Particulars. 

The various terms sandhi-mgraJia, mgriliydsana, etc., found in LL 11-13 are 
met with in Kautilya's Arthasastra. That several families of Brahmans were 
employed to help the king in his foreign policy and defence of the country, at 
the same time preserving their Vedic learning and religious duties, and that they 
were rewarded with grants of land and the right to collect certain taxes on. 
merchandise in certain places would be interesting for a study of the social 
history of the period [cf. Kautilya's Arthasastra Bk. I, ch. 9; Bk. II, ch. 22]. 




On a set of copper plates of the Vijayanagar King Narasimha dated S. 1326 
in the possession of G6palakrishna Bhatta in the village Ambale in the hobali of 

Size 18"X6". 
Two plates with ring : Devanagari characters and Sanskrit Language. 

IB. 1- 



4, ^s* a^^ateotorarajs* aJozffsi&e) atoaSds ajcSaJafe 

5. S3D [O] 


8. & aJa 



15. sSrarto^do 


13. scOo ^ocreqrsdo aJaj^s 3^ Z33 ^ 3 | [c#C] tSJB^zScP to 
19. sSi ^ss*c5^5 QJ&JO G^sj^jsS^cto-SRy^qjF SJD 



20. 3rio 

21. & ^ 

22. ^ 

23. ESO 

24. 2^00 

II A. 25. *8 


27. sJe^^ESss^s^garsctejO aS^stosratf? 

28. ^^o^do oorto S^sto s3^osi332g>tf ^ 

29. a^ssg)^ ^clortt^saj^s srQc^dosJoo crscdo 




35. as^a^z^ssss ri^ia^ds&do s^^o stooaJo.rtosJ oa 



40. SS'Sj fTDjdOO KTSjO^KTSOb ^^ dc5yi3og)dO 




45 e 


48. 89y [o] 

49. ^o3^o [o] 


A i, 

1. Oin namo NarayanAya namas tunga-sira^-chumbi-cliandra- 

2. chamara-charav^ " trailokya-nagara-rambha-miila-s [t] aixibha- 

3. ya Sambhave " satyaika-vrata-palano gunanidhih srima- 

4. n tritiyaryapan panchamnaya-parah shada tapah dri^ha 

5. satanga sarvamsaha || Ashta-vyakti-kaladhard nava-ni- 

6. dhih pushyad-ya^ah m (pr?) atyayah sriman Eanga-mahipati- 

7. r vijayate dharmagran! sriguni 1 tasya Sri-rangaraja- 

1 The stanza is corrupt. 


8. sya patni Tiinmambika babhau tasyam sanjanayamasa 

9. sr! Nrisimhakhya-bhubhujam sa prapta-yauvano raja-Nri- 

10. -timhva 1 tilaka svayam Sriranga-tilakam tatam toshaya- 

11. masa cheshtitaih alokya taoayam raj& ratna-sim- 

12. hvasane tada abhlshichya samriddharthali sarnra- 

13. jyais 2 chakravartinam sapatntko yayaa turnam vanapra- 

14. sthasramam tada tato Nrisimhva-nripatih jitv& sa- 

15. rva-digamfcaram sa-sainyah pravivesasau Chandradrona-ma- 

16. hidharam tatratya-Badari-namnyah nadyas tire su- 

17. vistaram Velapurlm purah prapya drushtva Sri Kasavam 3 

18. Harim tula-bharam tatra kritva Brahma [ne] bhyo dadau ba- 

19. hu tasmin dese dvijam drisbtv&j veda- sastrartha-pa- 

20. ragam santushta-hridayo raja Yelapurya uda.g-di- 

21. si krosa- dvaya-mite dese sukba-samvasanoclii- 

22. te Devalabhidha-simayah bhushanam jana-topa (sha ?)- 

23. nam Somasettipallir iti pratliitani gramam u- 

24. ttaroarn Sri-Yenkatapuram cheti kritv& naroa sudharmi- 

II A. 

25. kah svasti srt-vijayo-peta-bliyudaye Saliva- 

26. hane nagha-naitragni- chandranke vatsare Tarane subhe Bra- 

27. vane masi paurnamyarn Somavare maliipatih stbapya 

28. Somesvaram lingam Kesavam Yenkatapure ekabhogyam tatah 

29. kritva putra[hj Srlranga-bbupateb pautras Tirunialaraya- 

30. sya sri-Nrisimhva-mahtpatih Atreya-gotr^ chotpannah 

31. Asvalayana-sakhaya Apastambakbyasakba- 

32. yam Lobita-bbidba-gotrake naptre Kesava-bbattasya 

33. sufcaya Siya-yajvanah Silkanthavajapeyaya sa- 

34. . gnibotra-kutumbine grarnain enam adad dbirah sri Nrisim- 

35. hvakbya-bhupatih Betagerc-puram prachyam Muttugamnnam cha 

36. daksbine pasobime Sefctiballiti Hann^palll tad-u- 

37. ttar6 evam cbaiva chatur-dikshu pratbifce bbu-pradesik ni- 

38. dbi-nikBhepa-pasbana-taru-gulmadi-saLnyufc& a- 

39. ksbinyagami tat-purva sidbba-sadbyasbta-sadbanaih 

,40. datva gramam Brarnbanaya ^ri-Yenkatapuram vibhuli uddi- 

41. sya vipra- mukbyaya putra-pautra-tad-udbbavaih a-cbajidra- 

42. stbayino bbutva vasad-bbam 4 iti cha bruvan. tammra- 

43. pattam karayitva likbitva gotra-sutrakam bhavi 

.44. nah prarfchayah bbupan dbarmara palayata db. [r] uvam [sri] Nri 

J Eead simha. 2 Eead s^mrajye.' 3 Eead lisavam. 4 Read vasadhvam. 


45. siinhva-mahlpalah dharma- sthapana-tat-parah ekai- 

46. va bhagini I6ke sarveshara eva bhubhujam na bhojya 

47. na kara-grahya vipra-datta vasundhara svadatta-dyugunam 1 pu- 

48. nya [m] para-dattanu-palanam para-dattapahar^na sva-da- 

49. ttam nishphala[m] bhave"t |i sri |j sri || SSriranga I 

(in Kannada characters) 

LL 1-2. 

Qm. Obeisance to Narayana. Invocation to Sambhu. 
LL. 3-7, 

Victorious is the king Banga, foremost in righteousness and possessed of aus- 
picious qualities, protector of the vow of truthfulness, a storehouse of righteousness, 

highly prosperous, , devoted to the five Anmayas (the four Vedas and 

the Mahabharata ?), firm in the observance of the 6 kinds of austerities (tapas or 
control of the five organs of sense and of mind), ruler of the earth with the seven 
elements of sovereignty, endowed with the attributes of the eight guardians of the 
regions, possessed of the nine treasures and of ever increasing fame. 2 

The queen of that ^rirangaraya was Timmambika and by her he got a Son, the 
illustrious king Nrisimha. 


After attaining youth, the king Nrisimha pleased his father ^riranga by his 
good conduct. 


Seeing his son (grown of age) the king installed him on the jewelled throne as 
the emperor and being fully satisfied went away early with his wife to lead the life 
of a hermit. 


Then king Nrisimha conquered all the regions and with his army came to the 

mountain Ohandradrona. He next reached the great city of Velapur (Belur) on the 

banks of the river named Badari and visited the god Vishnu in the form of Kesava. 

Bead sva-dattad dvigunam. " ~ ~~ " 

2 This stanza seems to be an adaptation of the verse: satyaika-vrata-palak6 dvigunadhis tryarthl 

chaturvedM panena-skandha-kritl shad-anvaya-driclhas saptanga-sarvamsahah ashta-yyakti-kaladhard 

nava-mdHh pBshyaa-dasa-pratyayali smartbchh-r^ya-dhurandharo vijayat^m srl-Bukkana-kshmapatih 

which occurs at the commencement of Madhay^charya's commentary on Parasarasmriti known as the 

Para- sara Madhaviya and also m Kaiamadhaviya, another work of the same author ' 


There he got himself weighed in the scales (against gold) and gave large sums of 
money to Brahmans. 


In that country he came across a Brahman deeply versed in the interpretation 
of the Yedas and Sastras and being highly pleased with him, the virtuous king (gave 
away) the village known as Sornasettipalli, an ornament to the sirne (region) known 
as Devala and loved by all the people, situated within two krdsas to the north of 
Velapuri, where people could live happily, and renamed the village as Venkatapura, 


Be it well. In the auspicious, victorious and prosperous Salivahana year, 
numbering mountains, eyes, fires and moon (1527), in the year Tarana, during the 
auspicious month Sravana, on Monday the full-moon day, the king set up Somesvara- 
linga and Kesava in Venkatapura and made a gift of the village as ekahlidgya 
(enjoyable by a single person). 


The son of the king Sriranga and grandson of Tirumalaraya, the illustrious and 
heroic king Nrisirnha, a descendant of Atreya-gotra and of As'valayana-sakha bestowed 
this village on Srikantha-Vajapeya, a man of a large family tending the sacred fire, 
and belonging to the school of Apastamba-sakha, and born of Lohita-gotra, grand- 
son of Kes"avabhatta and son of Siva-yajva. The boundaries on the four sides of the 
land granted are in the east Befcagerepura, in the south Muttuganna, in the west 
Settihalli and in the north Hannepalli. The king granted the above village 
Venkatapura with all its underground treasure, deposits, minerals, trees and plants, 
imperishables, future revenue, rights which have accrued before and rights which 
are possible hereafter comprising the eight rights of property to the Brahman, and 
spoke to him praying that he might live with his children and grandsons and their 
descendants for as long as the moon endures. 


Engaged in protecting righteousness, the king got the copper plates engraved 
giving therein the gotras and sutras and a request to the (future) kings that they 
might maintain the charity for ever. 


The land gifted to Brahmans is the only sister on earth common to all the 
kings ; she is to be neither enjoyed nor seized by the hand (taxed). Protecting gifts 
made by others is twice as meritorious as making a gift oneself. By~seizing what 
is given to others, even one's own gift becomes fruitless. Good fortune. Good 
fortune. , 




The grant consists of two copper plates 13" X 6" connected by a ring. The ring, 
had been cut when the plates were received in the office. There is no seal. The 
plates are slightly rounded at the top. 


The characters look very much like present day Devanagari. Tbe variations 
are na (line 1), vya (line 5), la (line 22), stu (line 1) su (line 33), kshu (line 37). The 
letters are generally well-formed but in some places parts of them cannot be made 
out owing to faulty engraving. There are also some errors of writing. Thus sta 
looks more like sa in line '2 3 id is written for ptd in line 5, livd is written for ha in 
line 9, etc., khya in line 9, looks like raya, etc. The signature at the end of line '49 
is in Kannada characters which are carved very faintly. These look as if they 
were added later on. It is, however, known that the signatures at the end of royal 
charters were often affixed by the kings themselves. Further the script used for 
grants to Brahmans on copper plates was at this time usually Nandi Nagari and not- 


The language used is Sanskrit and the whole grant is in Anushtup verses with 
the exception of the stanza in praise of Eanga in lines 3-7, which is in the Sardula- 
vikrldita metre. Mistakes of language are few, except in the verse referred to. The, 
engraver seems to have been unable to understand the correct import of this difficult 
stanza and has committed several mistakes while copying it. The original stanza 
from which the present verse was adopted is in praise of king Bukka I, and was 
composed by Madhavacharya, his minister. 


The inscription records that king Banga, whose queen was Timraamba, installed 
his son Nrisimha on his jewelled throne when he was of proper age and retired to 
lead a hermit's life with his queen. Nrisimha made several conquests and in the. 
course of a military expedition came to the Chandradrona hill (now called Baba Sudan 
Hills). From there he went to Belur (VSlapura) on the banks of the river Badari 
(same as the present Yagachi river) and paid obeisance to god Kesava in that town 
At Belur he also performed the Tulabhara ceremony (weighing oneself in scales 
against gold and precious stones) and made presents of gold to Brahmans. On this 
occasion he made the gift of a village called Somasettipalli to the north of BeUur to 
a Brahman learned in the Vedas, named Srikantha-vajapeya. Details of the parentage 
of the donee and the boundaries of the village granted are also given and the usual 
imprecatory stanzas come at the end of the grant. The signature at the end is 
given as Sriranga, not the name of the donor but that of his father. 


Date. . .: ./. 

Details of the date are given ID lines 26-27 as Monday the full-moon day of 
Sravana in the year Tarana, the year numbered by naga, netra, agni and chandra 
in the Salivahana era. Chandra (moon) stands for 1, agni (fire) usually stands 
for 3 but sometimes is taken as equivalent to 5 (Mysore Inscriptions P. XXI), netra 
for 2 and naga for 7. So the year referred to is either 6. 1327 or &. 15>27 ; . 
If we take S. 1327 (expired) it corresponds to the year Tarana and the whole date 
may be equivalent to Monday 21st July 1404 on which day the tithi of Paurnima 
began at about 10-30 P.M. If S. 1527 is taken, it corresponds to Visvavasu and the 
nearest Tarana is 1506, 21 years earlier; and if this year Tarana is taken as the year 
meant, the date would correspond to Monday 10th August, 1584 A. D. on which 
day the 15th tifchi began at mid-day. ' 

Geographical details. 

Of the places mentioned in the grant, Chandradrona is the Sanskrit name of the 
Baba Budan Bange of hills near Chikmagalur in the west of the Mysore State. Vela- 
pura is evidently the town of Belur which is about 14 miles from Chikmagalur. The 
river Badari is the same as the Yagachi stream which flows near Belur. The god 
Kesava referred to is the deity installed in the Channakesava temple at Belur. The 
village granted named Somasettipalli is the present Savshatbipalli of the Taluk Maps, 
7 miles to the north of Belur. Hannepalli is Honnenhalli about a mile to the north 
of Bavshattipalli ; Settipalli is Shattihalli about a mile to its westj'Muttuganna is 
Mutganni about 3 miles to its south and Betageripura is probably the same as 
Dod Byadgeri about 3 miles to the south-east of Savshattipalli. Devalaslme 
is the Dvalige-nad of the inscriptions which includes Belur and the surround- 
ing district. The new name Veiikatapura given to the village granted has now 
disappeared like many other new names given to villages at the time of their gift to 

Brahmans, temples, etc. 


The present grant purports to record the gift of the village Somasettipalli to a 
Brahman by king Narasimha, son of Rangabhupala, on the occasion of his Tuldblidra 
ceremony at Be"lur. Now who was this king Narasimha ? If we take 1404 A. D. 
as the date meant there seems to have been no local dynasty ruling at Belur which 
was subject to the Vijayanagar king Harihara. No name of Narasimha or Banga is 
met With among the kings and princes at Vijayanagar during this early period. 

If the later date A.D. 1584 is taken as the correct year, then the king Banga 
becomes Banga I, or Srlraiigaraya, son of Tirurnalaraya, brother of the famous Aliya 
Ramaraya who was slain at Talikota in 1565. Eanga died in 1584 and was 
succeeded by his younger brother Venkatapati in 1585. (Heras : Aravidu Dynasty, 
Page 300). Eev. Heras says that Banga must have died in about the first half of the 


year 1585. His successor is given as Venkatapati (PP. 277, 300). He adds (in a 
foot note to P. 300) that " there is ground for doubting that this succession was 
immediate ..... . ....... A Emnbakdnam grant of Yenkata II, 1590, mentions one of his 

brothers, Tirunialadevaraya or Sridevaraya and states that he reigned for a short 
time ..... We hope new discoveries will throw light on this point ". But no mention 

has been so far made of Eanga's voluntary relinquishment of sovereignty and 
retirement to the forest or of his son Narasimha succeeding him. According to 
Chikkadevarayavarnsavali composed by Tirumalarya about the end of the 17th 
century Eanga (or Srlrangaraya) had no issue (P. 2). It is also to be noted that Belur 
in 1584 was ruled by a local chief named Venkatadri Nayaka who was a subordinate 
of the "Vijayanagar king Srirangar&ya I (E.C.Y. Belur 12, and 212, etc.). But the 
present record does not refer to him. However, the present record states that 
Eanga I relinquished his throne before August 1584, and that his son Narasimha 
ruled as Emperor for a few months. The name of the ruler is given as Narasimha 
and not Sri-deva or Tirumala-deva or Eama as surmised by Sewell and Heras. Thus, 
if the present record be genuine, it would discover a new emperor of the Aravidu 
dynasty and give some details of the early part of his reign. 

But there is good reason to doubt the genuineness of this record owing to the 
faulty date and paleography. 

At the same village Arnbale in the hobali of Ohikmagalur, on the pediment of 
the Linga in the Isvara temple. 

Kannada language and characters 

esosos? rn^sksS ^dd^sraoc&tfo Oori^cteS 


rid rfccdojjo Eakdo 3 


1. svasti srimatu ganakumari Boppavveya Mgayyanu 

2. sri Samkhara-devarige kotta Tarigodala mugandu- 

3. gada gaddeyanu Jiyaru a-Samkhara deva- [ra] pujisidavarum Hegga- 

4. de . i . . . viya salvudu alidavam Siva-dr6hi 


This record registers the gift of a rice land of the sowing capacity of three 
khandugas in Tarigodalu (village) by the Ganakumari (Vlrasaiva priestess) Boppave's 


(son) Nagayya for the services of the god Sankara. This land was to be enjoyed by 
the jiyar (head of a matt ?) and the priest who offered worship to the god daily and 
Heggade ...... An imprecation is laid against those who violate the 


No date is given, nor is the king reigning at the time named. 


Near the same village Ambale, on a boulder in a hillock situated at a 
distance of one mile from the village. 

Kannada language and characters. 

eo$ r 
sfof d 


2. . 


This short inscription, most of the letters of which are illegible, records the 
death of a Jaina priest named Jinachandra. 



At the village Badamakalahalli in the hobali of Dasarahosahalli, on a -boulder 
near the tank to the west. 

Kannada language and characters 

3. . . 



Transliteration. ' ' [ 

L srl Vijaya-samvatsarada Margasira su 2 lu 

2. a-gramada na .... si Bammana-n&yakam J * 

3. . . ..... Bayirapann madisida kothara ' 


This records the construction of a lotlidra (granary ?) by Bammananayaka and 
Bayirapa of a village (not named), on the second lunar day of the bright half of 
Margasira in the year Vijaya. The date is not expressed in the $aka era. 


At the village Tekal in the hobali of T<kal, on a stone standing in the field at 
the foot of a hill on the road to Ghinapaganahalli. 

Kannada language and characters. 

2. rtoto^A d 






1. svasti sri Dillpayyam prithuvl-rajyam 

2. geyyuttire Pomkundada turugole Konga- 

3. vveya Ma- 
4* yideva 

5. kadi sa- 

6. ttu saggi- 

7. yadan 


This is a viragal of the reign of the Nolamba king Dilipayya (called also 
Nolambadhirja, circa 943-956) and records the death of a warrior named MayidSva, 


soil of Kongav ve, while ghting In a cattle-raid at the village Pom'kunda (now 
(Called Hunkunda in Bowringpet Taluk). No date is given. 

At the village Kommanahalli in the same hobali, on a boulder near a well 
named Sannamma's well, 

Kannada language and characters. 



- . Note. 

This record is full of lacunae. A pond and a mantapa are stated to have 
been constructed by Bayiraravuta .and his wife in the year Vijaya. No date in 
terms of any era is given. A possible date is 1653 A. D. 


At the same village Kommanahalli, on a boulder near the fort. 

3'-0"Xl' 6" . . . - . . u 

Kannada language and" Characters. 


SoqS oo oo 

2. ^53333 wcOodDDeAD^d dirt 

3, ^do ^joosbrfSg ^do^ori 

4 r? ^y sterf. SOJDO edso^j&tfrt rtc3 

^t. ed <D 

5. gjs^rt 

Transliteration. . . 

1. Partiva-samvatsarada BMdrapada ^udha 11 lu 

2. ^rimatu Bayira Baiitara maga Child? ana Bau- 

3. taru Kommanahalli Tiruvengala-cievanatha- 

4. ge kotta manya hola aru kolaga gade &ru 

5. kolaga 

Note. ' 

This is a temple-grant and registers the gift, free of taxes, of a plot of wet land 
;pf the sowing capacity of six kolagas and a plot of dry land of the same sowing 
capacity, made by Chikkana-ravuta, son of Bayira-ravuta for services in the 



temple of Tiruvengalanatha of the village Kommanahalli. Bayira-ravuta is also 
referred to in the previous record with the. prefix ' srimatu' (illustrious) and must 
have been a local chief or high officer. 

The date of the grant is given as the llth lunar day of the bright half of 
Bhadrapada in the year Parthiva. No Saka year is given and hence its exact 
equivalent cannot be determined. The year 1645 A. D. may be the date according 
to the characters. 


At the village Dinntir in the same hobali, on a stone lying in the land of the patel 

Size 2' -9" X 2' -3" 

Telugu language and characters. 

2' 9" x 2' 3" 


2. ... 

3. . . oSo^% & ^stoato ...... coocsfc 

4. a 


7. s-ss? . . . srartai.S) .... sterf.o 



(The top portion is cut off) 

1 ........... 

^ ....... Sarvari-samvatsaram Ashadha su 

3. ... yendu srimatu ...... Yimma- 

4. di Tanimaya-gauni-ayyavaru 

5. Vira Nayaka ........... 

6. Bamrne-gauni ........ 

7. hala . . , Mgappaku .... manyam 


The top of this record has disappeared and there are several lacunae through- 
out the inscription and hence the meaning cannot be clearly made out. It seems to 
register the gift of some land, rent-free, to an individual named Nagappa by some 
one related to Bommegauda, who was probably a dependant of Vira N Jaka dm 
the reign of Imrnadi Tammayagauda. The latter was the chief of Sugatur who 


ruled about 1451 A. D. over parts of Mulbagal Taluk and the surrounding territory 
(see E. 0. X, Mulbagal 241). The record is dated in the year Sarvari and the 
further details given are the month Ashadha and the bright fortnight. The date is 
not expressed in the Saka era. The year Sarvari may correspond to 1420 A, D. or 
1480 A. D. since the record is of the reign of Immadi Tammegauda. 


At the village Halahalli in the hobali of Masti, on a boulder lying in the old 
village site to the east of the village. 

Kannada language and characters. 






Trans liter at i on. 

1. svasti srl Marasingha-deva prithuvira- 

2. jyam geyyutire Ponkolada einme-turugalo- 

3. ..... haydu 

4. Madekappa- 

5. na kadi 

6. sattu sa- 

7. ggiyada 


This is of the reign of (the G-anga king) Marasingha and records the death of 
a warrior named Made-kappana while fighting in defence of the buffaloes and 
cows of the village Ponkola. No date is given. Marasingha is said to have ruled 
from c. 961 to c. 974 A. D. (Mysore and Coorg from the Inscriptions by Rice, p. 50). 



Copper plate grant in the possession of Channavtraradhya, son of Kumara- 
radhya in the village Haradanhalli in the hobali of Haradanhalli 

One plate : Kannada language and characters, size 14" X 10 A " 


1. ,^0 SSo^orS AdSOjOO ^oz3je3-ssjid z^sddil 



Si 1 


7. ^oortjss?ojoo 

8. sacraoafcwart *flM8racrtoaorta& 

10. <3n ate^sJosfc^ 3os?sfoc3o stoasS^^jCfiaajEaGJoJ 


13. _ % v ._ w ___ 


^ SfiflFOrtft 






40 A e ttoOB^Fsrs 23 efi 3c&&oc& ad^Sd cSosfc utf&&na 

^* *^ * (3 w 


41 . aofco sfcfeJj 

s?<& s&jFsS 


42. SsTDj^ -asr^ctiraosrsctio^ &j<sog II 


This sasana consisting of a single copper plate was in the possession of a 
gentleman of the Viras"aiva sect in Hardanahalli. The language of the grant is 
modern Kannada and the characters are a curious mixture of the Hoysala type and 
the modern type. Thus the letter bJia in lines 1 and 25 and dha in lines 8 and 18 have 
a vertical line at the bottom to show the aspirate. The letter r is written for r in 
Kovinakere in line 9 and the letters ni and vi in lines 4 and 14 have a curved line 
above and de in line 20 has an ili to mark the elongated vowel. These characteristics 
clearly prove that the paleography is of a much later period, perhaps of the 17th or 
18th century. But the letters la in line 3 and da in lines 6 and 11 and slia in line 18 
are of the Hoysala period. The language too is modem. The use of uiathaventalti 
m line 17 and H&misiruUve and kodutteve in lines 19 and 26 and sdlundme in 1. 32, and 
aidawondu in 1. 37 is not met with in the 14th century to which the plate purports 
to belong. There is also considerable confusion of language in describing the deeds 
of Mahadesvarasvarni in 11. 20-30. The use of the words ombattu-traya pana in 
1. 10 and parichaidu in 1. 17 and taUa-devasthdna and tatta-matMdUpaUgal in 
1. 18 is rather peculiar. There are also several mistakes in the writing. 
t The date of the record is given in 1. 14 as 8 1246 Tarana sam, Magha su 3. 
S 1246 is Baktakshi and not Tarana. The nearest year Tarana is 20 years later, 
S 1266. Taking this year as correct and 4 in 1246 as a mistake of the engraver 
for 6, the date corresponds to January 7, 1345 A. D. On this date a grant is stated 
to have been made by the Hoysala king Viraballala during an expedition in the 
south. Even if we take Ballala IV as the king meant the date is rather late 
There are, however, some records of 1342, 1343 and 1346 belonging to this kinxr 
(E. C. XII Tiptur 100 .; E. C. YI Chikmagalur 190 ; E. C. IX Bangalore 120). 

The record claims to register the grant by the king Ballala in the presence of the 
guru Gosalarya, certain rights and honours to the heads of the five Virasaiva mathas 
named Chandrani-matha, Kanchi Teluganyada-matha, Vamiyapuri-matha 
Keinballurnatha and Mahalingi-matha. ' ' ' ' ' 

As regards Gosalarya, the Virasaiva saint referred to above, we learn from 
Siddhesvarapurana (chap. 2, verse 33), a Kannada poem by Tontadarya (Q. 1560 






22. zto eogpD c5^s3"soa3os3o ^43 
cdoS ctt^ ^ozs 

8* 23 




26. ^^ 


27. do 

28. ^ 




33. sdo^ 
34 eMTaa5o,.d 

>^ ^t 

33iarredo p aatooeB^aoto d Art zss? 





35. *a rto3do;3Sj3ta 

stosSo. &aj.d3rt* &os 




33. rt^o Z3L30 es 


Kavicharite, Part 2, p. 281) that he was the head of a matt in Yanijyapuri called 
also Hardanhalli (the Tillage where the grant was found) and that his disciple was 
Sankareis'a who was the guru of Divyalirigesa whose disciple was Channabasava, 
Tontada Siddhalingarya, a Yirasaiva saint, whose achievements are described in 
the above poem was a disciple of Channabasava and is said to have been found with 
an ant-hill covering him in a garden at the village Kaggere, (in Kunigal Taluk) while 
engaged in meditation. Another Kannada poera named Ghannabasavapurana by 
Yirupakshayya of 1584 A.D. also refers to Gosala Channabasava as the preceptor of 
the above Tontada Siddhalingarya (Canto V, chapter 1,0, verse 44). The Mysore 
Archaeological Eeport for 1912 states on p. 18, " It was at this village (Haradanhalli) 
that the Lingayet guru Gosala Channabasava had his inatha where T6ntada 
Siddhaliiiga, another great teacher and author of the same sect who flourished at 
the close of the 15th century was initiated in the tenets of the Yirasaiva faith." 

The record commences with the usual invocation to Sambhu. The blessing 
of G-osalarya-yati is prayed for in line 1. He is stated to be the head of Yanijya- 
puri Matha (Haradanhalli Matt) and son of Appanarya, belonging to a lineage of 
rd/jagwru-s (preceptors of kings) and a descendant of Marularya. He is praised as 
being ever filled with sat, chit and Ananda ; as the embodiment of knowledge, bliss 
and light ; as the foundation pillar for the worlds and the cause of creation of all 
beings mobile and immobile ; as the worshipper of his ishtalinga (favourite Linga; 
the stone linga tied to the body of a Yirasaiva) which is the supreme being 
worshipped in six positions (sthala) inculcated in the sruti (Yedas), smriti and 
pur anas ; and as the pattamurti (pontiff or head of a matt), well- versed in the 
Yedas and philosophy (Y^danta) and the Upanishads. 

Next are described the miracles worked by G-6salaryasvami, He is said to 
have made a stone bull speak and to have converted ordinary water in a pot into 
ghee when the supply of that commodity ran short during the feast given in his 
honour by one Pandavadiya. He is further credited to have divided his followers 
into 335 clans, himself becoming their guru. He also is described as having 
invested one Kovinakere Sasalaraya with linga and installed Bayanna-nayaka as 
the chief of Malenad. The followers of the latter are stated to have paid the svami 
at' 27 panas ? (vambattu tray a} for each house (kula). The svami is also stated to 
have travelled to Padipattidesa and brought back to life the son of the king who 
was bitten by a serpent and to have won victory in a disputation and thereupon to 
have had the religious mark (namani) on the forehead of his opponent removed and 
got in its place ash marks and invested him with a linga. The svami is next stated 
to have gone to the Tuluva country and shown his miraculous powers to the people 
of that country and won fame as the man of hundred miracles. 
' The present copper-plate is alleged to have been got engraved in the holy 
presence of the above G-osalarya-svami by the Hoysala king Ylraballala, the refuge 



of the whole universe, lord of the goddesses of wealth and earth, mighty emperor, 
during his victorious tour in the southern regions (Dakshinadesa) on the 3rd lunar 
day of the bright half of Magha in the year Tirana, the year 1246 of the prosperous 
Salivahana era. 

The details of the copper sasana thus granted are as follows : Five heads of 
Matts are stated to have been invested by the Mng with full jurisdiction over the 
five temples as named below, to have full authority over all the officiating priests in 
the above temples and the disciples or devotees of those temples including clans of 
the Bedas (Bedagainpana). The heads of Matts alone would invest the above persons 
with linga and distribute holy water and food among them and receive in turn dues 
and presents and look after all the services in the temples specified : (1) Chandra- 
nimatha to have jurisdiction over the temple of Sivanankaresvara of Hirimadivala, (2) 
Kanchi Teluganyada Matha to exercise jurisdiction over the temple of Mad6svara, 
(3) Vanijyapuri-matha over the temple of Pandesvara (4) Kemballumatha over the 
temple of Siddesvara, and (5) Mahalinga-matha over the temple of Brahmsvara. 

The sasana next gives the achievements of a guru or god? named Mahadeves"vara 
and registers the gift to the Vanijya-Matt of jurisdiction over the five temples and 
a share of one-fifth of the income earned in a virakta-matha named urigaddige on 
the Madesvara hill and the perpetual ownership of the villages Eayanahalli and 
Basavanpura including the right to collect taxes such as Mddramba (tax over dry 
lands depending on rain-water), niraramba (tax over lands irrigated), taxes over 
shops (pomme-sunka), income from temples, income from the lands of Brahmans, 
tax on all stone monuments, tax on all bulls allowed to roam in the land (pastures), 
etc. All the income of the above villages was to be given away for the feeding 
and illumination expenses in the matt. The above rights and property were to 
continue in the matt in perpetual descent. 

The usual imprecation against the violaters of grants is next given. 

The achievements of Mahade'ves'vara may be summarised as follows, though 
there is some confusion in the language of the lines 20-29. 

Mahadevesvara-svami dwelt for some time in Kattali-rajya and from there he 
went to Kanniyala-desa. Here he saw " that all the gods had been joined in 
Sravana " and he "slew him." This probably means that the images of various 
deities had been placed in a temple of Jina and that Mahad^vesvara broke the idol of 
Jina. He next received lingadJidrana (a ceremony during which a stone linga is 
tied by a cloth to the arms or neck of a disciple by his preceptor) from the guru 
Prabhulingaradhya. He now went to Yajramale and settled there. Here 
Chunchegauda of Alambadi built a small temple for his use and both a Brahman 
and a person of the Beda community named Eannaya. offered their worship at the 
temple. Being pleased with the devotion of Kannaya he gave him mtiksha (helped 
him to attain salvation). 


," . In the meanwhile, one Rayanna-nayaka, chief of the Bedas in the country of 
Kunnapa-Nagar, had to leave Ms home because the king of the Kongas asked him 
to give his daughter in marriage. On his 'way he had to cross the river Tunga- 
bhadra which could not be forded at the time. He prayed to the goddess Bhadrakali 
vowing that he. would give the names of Bhadra and Bhadri to his male and female 
descendants and with the miraculous help of the goddess he was able to cross the 
river and settle at Neralekere with his followers. Here the heads of the five Yirasaiva 
matts came and gave initiation to him and his followers. And the Beda chief 
(Rayappa-Nayaka) was given the honour of looking after the okali-seve (services of 
sprinkling coloured water over the devotees during certain religious ceremonies). 

The Vlrasaiva guru Mahadeva or JVfahadeve^vara-svami (referred to in a 
previous para) who was apparently present at the ahove ceremony along with other 
heads of the Vlrasaiva matts, favoured Uppaliga-setti (a salt -manufacturer) by 
making him a gudda as he was firm in his religious devotion and invested him 
with the office of looking after the oil-bath ceremony of the images. His temple 
which at first was small was now extended. Next arose a dispute between the rival 
claimants for the office of the pujdri, viz., the sons of KMavira Tammadi and the 
descendants of Kernpamada Tarnmadi and IMamada Tammadi of the house of 
Alasalamma. The guru Mahadevesvara-svami appointed the eldest claimant who 
was also a worker in gathering salt-bearing earth for salt-pans as the manager of 
temple services, while the younger members of the family performed the actual 
worship (the meaning of this line 31 is not clear). These priests were in return 
exempted from paying taxes for the land cultivated by them. The guru next 
honoured Patagara (weaver) Bayamia-nayaka by presenting him a white umbrella, 
emerald ear-ring, bracelet and bangles and a shawl and made him the hereditary 
leader of his tribe. 

Mahadevesvara-svami further decreed that the descendants of Patagara 
Bayanna-nayaka, the priests of Pandesvara temple, and its devotees or disciples, 
the clan of Hindi Rama, the divisions of JBelekuta, (agriculturists ?), Dormekuta 
(class of persons that policed the village with their clubs), G-uparina-kuta (families 
which erected huts ?) Minda-gudli-palinavaru (spade -workers) Kerane-Palinavaru 
(those who worked with a trowel in putting up mortar etc.,) Sivanankaresvara- 
vakkalinavaru (devotees of the god Sivanankaresvara) should be under the religious 
control of Vanijya-rnatha (Haradanhalli Matt) which was also to have the general 
supervision over the five temples referred to before. 

Further it was also agreed that one-fifth of the fees collected in a monastery 
named Urigaddige on the Mad6svara hill was to be made over to the Haradanhalli 
Matt. So also two villages Rayanhalli and Basavanpura with all their rights were 
given away to the Haradanhalli rnatt in perpetuity for the expenses of food and 
illumination etc.,, in the matt. 



After this comes the usual imprecation and the signature of the king as 


It may be stated in conclusion that the paleography 3 date and language of 
the grant as well as the excessive importance shown to the Vanijyapuri Matt in 
preference to the other fellow Yirasaiva matts prove the spurious nature of the 
grant. The plate is yet interesting as it records the traditions current in the matt 
about the miracles and greatness of the Vlrasaiva gurus named therein. 


At the villge Heggotara, in the hobali of^Chamarajanagar, on a slab set up in 
front of the Eamesvara temple. 

Size 4' 6"X2' 0" 
Old Kannada characters and language. 


disS EO^O sfcdcS 3$ ft 31/353 r a* ^o 

e3 6 CO 

%353E> 4' 6" X 2' 0" 

aStfrtt cfcJ Oc53 


" n & 

3. Tte sirsi^. sj 






arYeJSgjea rf sSe* 

1 ~- 7t CB O 

g t 3 2 d 
10. rs-soo 


1. svasti Srl-rajya vijaya Nlti- 

2. margga Permmanadigala pattam- 

3. gattida 3936 1 Subha- 

4. kratu-samvatsarada Bhadra- 

5. pada-masada peretale-devasa- 

6. mage Permmadiya sule Jdga- 


7. bbeya rnagal Sigenada Pernima- 

8. digavundana pendati Chavunda- r , 
" ' 9. " bbe i-d^gulava madisi Tera- 

10. galam devattha bittal idan alidam 

11. kereyum Varanasiyumairt ka- 

12. vileyuman alidam. 


Be it well. May the Siri-rajya be prosperous. In the year Subhakrit, 3936th 
year of the anointing of Nttimarga Perrnanadi, on the full-moon day (pere-tala- 

divasa. see p. 29 of M. A. E. 1913.) Chavundabbe, wife of 

Permadigavunda of Slgenad, and daughter of J6gabbe, courtesan (stile) of Permadi, 
got this temple erected and granted Teragala as property of the temple ( dtivattha : 
this word is probably a mistake for d&vasva). He who violates this is the destroyer 
of tanks, Benares and tawny cows. 


The main theme of the present record is the erection of a temple, probably the 
original nucleus of the present Ramesvara temple near which the epigraph is set up, 
by a woman who was the daughter, though illegitimate, of the G-a-nga Mng Nlti- 
marga Permanadi. The date is given as Subhakritu 3936th year of the reign of the 
above king. It is not known which king Nltimarga is referred to in this record, 
There are three kings of the name among the G-angas, Nltimarga I who reigned 
prior to 870 A. D., Nltimarga II whose reign lasted probably from 886 to 913, and 
Nltimarga III who ruled about 989. The characters of the present record seem to 
belong to the latter half of the 9th century. It is therefore likely that Nitiinarga I 
is the king mentioned in it. The number 3936 may be taken to indicate the 
number of years elapsed in the Kali era and if so, it corresponds to 835 A. I). This 
year is, however, Bakshasa according to both the southern and northern cycles of 
Jovian years and not Subhakrit. The nearest Subhakrit years are A. D. 822 or 3923 
Kali and 882 A. D. or 3983 Kali. Whether any Nltimarga was ruling at such an 
early date as 822 A. D. cannot be determined. The use of the Kali era, however, is 
very uncommon at this period in the Mysore inscriptions. It is more probable that 
the engraver first engraved 39 and finding that it was wrong, put in 36 and forgot to 
cancel 39. If the year is regnal it corresponds to 882 A. D. The ruler would be 
Ereyanga Nltimarga I the date of whose accession would then be 846 A. D. But 
Ep. Carn. I, Ooorg No. 2 suggests 870 A. D. as the year of the accession of -Eacha- 
malla, son of Nltimarga. In that case, it would have to be suggested that Nitimarga I, 
came to the throne in 846 A. D. and was yet ruling in 882 A* D. and that his son 
Bachamalla was crowned as co-regent in 870 A. D. Otherwise it would be difficult to 
explain the name of the year which distinctly reads as Subhakrit in the inscription. 


On a stone slab set up near the tank bund at the same village Heggothara, 

Kannada language and characters. 

ob 20 


. oort 

X. gaiflstoRto. cSidoord sSosj^ 


Q O&S. 
t - / * ' 

4. d 

5. cJ 

p e 

9^ So 


12. c^Satikeostetort t^ro 

1. subham astu Durrnmuki-samvatsa- 

2. rada Asvija s"u 3 lu srl Ba- 

3. lakrushnadevara nirupadim Nambi- 

4. ra Ankappayanavaru Heggothara- 

5. da Malingaiyage a Heggo [tha] rakke salu- 

6. va Pura ninage guttigeyagi kotta kalla- 

7. pattheya vivara & purake saluva sime- 

8. yolagada sarvasvamyava a [nu] bhavisi ko- 

9. ndu ninu Durmmukhige teruvadu ga 2 <0 

10. H&malambhige teruvadu ga 4 <0 Vi- 

11. lambhi-samvatsarakke ninda guttigeyagi 

12. ninu theruvudu ga 6' yidallade a- 
13 ..... kapike bh^dige illave- 
14. ndu kotha kallapatte 



May there be prosperity. On the 3rd lunar day of the bright half of Asvayuja 
in the year Durmukhi, the priest (Nambira) Ankappaya issued under the order 
(nirupa) of Bala Krishnade'varu the following stone charter (kallupatte) to Maling- 
aiya of (the village) Heggothara granting him for payment of a fixed annual rent 
the (hamlet) pura belonging to Heggothara : 

You (the grantee) must enjoy all the rights over the lands comprising the^mro. 
and pay two varahas for the (year) Duvmukhi, four varahas for Hemalambi, and six 
varahas for the year Vilambi as quit-rent. All other payments like the presents 
(kanike), benevolences (bedige] are remitted. This is the stone charter granted. 


This records the letting out of the village Pura belonging to H eggothftra by 
the priest of the Bala Krishnadevaru temple of the said village to one Malingaiya 
for a fixed annual rent of six varahas, a smaller sum being paid for the first two 
years. The date is not expressed in terms of any era. The characters seem to 
belong to the first half of the 16th century. From this it is possible to infer that the 
Durmukhi year corresponds to A. D. 1536 and September 18 of this year is the 
probable date of the grant. No invocatory or imprecatory stanzas are given in the 
grant. No king is named nor the engraver. 


At the same village Heggothara, on a stone standing behind the image of the 
Grod Krishna in the Kalingamardana temple. 

i. Size5'x4j'. 

Karmada language and characters. 

s&ood ^ctosS s'stforis&cJrrf cS^sScUS 3rfg d^sSd 

1. ^ %?>. 6,?W0333l^C3a3D gTSOSTSSo^^ SJdOSj OVVF 

2. rfcxJo sJ^Fsasssft^ 330053 


5, sftddd d^djCxSxSsJd ^roojo^^d d??^ srao&S 





11. ^ cS^sSd eortdort^jD^rl ts so0-s>d 63 Tr 

12. sS^ScTDfi aa^oois^cj ^s^rsrSjSto. . . . do 

38. 33/3S3F35TSA e 



Trans lite m tion. 

1. sri svasti sri jayabhyudaya Saliyahana Saka varusKa 1449- 

2. neya varttamanakke saluva Sarvvajitu-sarnvatsarada Pushya su . 7 


3. dalu snman maharajadhiraja rajaparaine^vara sri viraprafcapa Krishna- 

4. devaraya-maharayaru pruthvl-r&jyain geyyuttiral a-samayadalli A- 

5. vasaradaD^marasayyanavara nayakatanada valitakke palisida Yummattura- 

6. simeyalli Tagadura sthalakke saluva Heggotharavanu a Heggotharakke 

saluva , 

7. purainargga sarvasvamyagalanu sri Krishnad&varaya-maharayaru Avasar 

8. rada Demarasayyanavarige nirupavanu palisi Sarvajitu-sainvatsa [ra] da 


9. su 7 Eavivara Makara-Sankr4nti punyaksbladallii Pampaksh^tradalli 

Vir up aksh sva- 

10. rana sannidhi Tungabhadra-tiradalli Bammapurada sri deva-devottama 

sri Bala- 

11. Krishna-devara anga-ranga-bhoga & Heggothara a gramakke saluva 


1^. modalagi enuntada sarvva-svamya ..... dalli devad^ [ya] 
13. brahmadaya gauda-senabovara (ra), kodagi ....... . godagi 


14 ............... santeya sunka 

15 ............ saluvaliya 

16. vagi Demarsayanavara . ..... . . ' . . .- . . . . . . 

17. da Anantapurada ........... . . , ; dana-dhara- 

18. purvakavagi a-chandrarka-stbayiyagi . . . . ... . -. palisida 


19 nidhi-nikshepa-jala-ta- 

20 galanu sa , . . . ya bala 


Good fortune. Be it well. On Sunday the 7th lunar day of the bright half 
of Pushya of the year Sarvajit, 1449th year of the victorious and prosperous 
Salivahana era, while the illustrious rualidrdjdclliirdja rdjaparamsvara, sri vlra 
vratdpa Krishnadevaraya was ruling the earth : 

The illustrious Krishnadevaraya-maharaya issued a nirupa to the Secretary 
(avasarada) Demarasayya granting the full rights of the village Heggothara 
with its hamlet Pura and outskirts ( ? Puramarga) belonging to Tagadur-sthala in 
Ummattur-slme favoured for the office of ndya'ka to Avasarada Demarasayya. 

On the holy occasion of Makara-sankranti and Sunday, being the 7th lunar day 
of the bright half of Pushya in the year Sarvajit, in Pampakshetra and in the sacred 
presence of Virupakshesvara and on the banks of the Tungabhadra, (king Krishna- 
raya) granted (by the above nirupa) for the decorations and illuminations of the 
greatest of the gods, Sri Balakrishnadevaru of Bammapura, all the rights over the 
village Heggothara including Puramarga, d&vdddya (grants for temples), 
braJmidddya (grants for Brahmans) ga,uda-s6nu.bdvara-Jcodige (grants to the village 
headman and accountants), grant to Ramaiya-devaru temple, income from tolls at 
fairs, etc., to (some one not named) belonging to Anantapura and (a subordinate) 
of Avasarada Demarasayya. the grant being made with pouring of water to last as 
long as the sun and moon endure and to include the rights of treasure on the 
surface and underground, water springs, tree-growth, etc. 


This inscription being incised on a slab behind the image of the god Krishna 
could not be fully read as some lines below were screened partly by the image. The 
record is of the reign of the Vijayanagar king Krishnadevaraya and records the gift 
of the village Heggothara in Urnmattur-sime for services in the temple of the god 
Bala-krishna in Bammapura, the grant being managed by some officer subordinate 
to Avasarada (Secretary) Demarasayya. The charter was issued as a nirup 
and addressed to the said Demarasayya on Sunday 29th December 1527, which is 
exactly the English equivalent of the lunar date given in the grant (lines 8, 9). 


At the village Kirugothara, in the same hobali, on a stone slab standing near 
the well in the garden of Puttanna. 

Size 4' x 3' 



Kannada language and, characters 



- ti -~ O 


3. .. 

4. .. 

5. .. 

6 .. 

7 . . . . tSS d dsaacdooo ^.acdoooo ^o ..... ea o 




J - v ' t 





Trans liter ation. 

1. svasti sri tirumanni valara Tiru-nilamadandeyum 

2 ...... chelviyum 

3 ...... vodava 

4. pareya 

5 ...... ilata .... mudiyum 

6 ...... madiyum munnarava 

7 ..... chandara madiyum iviyuldutam . . . ndam 

8. Parakesariyana Sri Eajendra Ghola devar ki yandad ayda- 

9. neya Sakanripa-kalafcitamgal 939 neya JSTaJa-samvatsara 

10. Bhadrapada-masada punnainayum Brihaspati-varadandu 

11. ........ Kalala- 

12. yya ............ turuvam kom- 

13 .......... besaha-geydode 

14 ........ benkonda kaliyala 

15. Chdlattara magam .... 

16 ....... vittam sanikara .... 



This record is much worn out and only a few letters in each line are clearly legible 
except in lines 8-10 which have been fully deciphered. After the usual titles 
applied to the Ohola king Parakesari Rajendracholadevar, the inscription contains 
the exploits of a hero, who was the son of Cholattara, in a fight for the defence of 
cattle. The date is given both in regnal years and in terms of the Saka era : 
5th year of his reign and Saka 939 Nala, Bhadrapada su 15 Thursday. The 
year S 939 corresponds to A. D. 1017 and this is Pingala. The previous year 
namely S. 938 is Nala. Taking the latter year, Bhadrapada s"u 15 corresponds to 
August 20th, 1016 A. D., a Monday and not Thursday. Taking the former year 
S' 939 Pingala Bhadrapada su 15 corresponds to September 8, 1017 A. D., a 
Sunday. If, however, the previous year viz., S 937 Rakshasa is taken the date 
coincides with Thursda}^ and is equivalent to. September 15, A. D. 1015. But the 
year 1015 is the 4th year of the king Kajendrachola. The titles of the king 
" tirumanni valara tiru-nila-rnadandeyurn," etc., are in the Tamil language but 
written in Kannada characters, (cf. B. 0. Ill, Nanjangud 160.) 


On the site of the deserted village Sambhupura, on a stone set up under a 
margosa tree in front of the Sambhulinga Basavesvara temple. 

Size 5' X 2' 
Kannada language and characters. 

[ rt] 



8. sd ^d^ 






18. craod 

dd cdodcSodc&o 




1. sri nijada lingane gati 

2. sri Sainbulinga [ga] ti sri Bujan- 

3. gane mafci JaDakadi-sanakalaraam varu- 

4. shamam masankamarp pakshamam di- 

5. namam suvaramam sritnan mahamam- 

6. dalesvara sri Viradevaraya-maha- 

7. raja raya-simhasanaman alu- 

8. va vira-nripati Krushnarayara nirupa- 

9. dinda Saluva Timmaraja alu- 

10. Yummaturige saluva Badanagu- 

11. ppeya Virapa [ga] vudage sarvarnanyada 

12. vrittiyagi kotta kodageya Sam- 

13. bakipurada' chatusimeya ele- 

14. ya vivara Xareya-gadeya Ba- 

15. danaguppe-purakke saluva badara 
16 ve kalambeya ha- 

17. yigada [da] inudala tevarum Bana- 

18. dalada mMala tevaru Heggotha- 

19. rada yalle yeradum kMidalle Mari- 

20. yalada baduvu 


The illustrious (god) Nija-linga is the refuge. The auspicious Sambhulinga is 
the refuge. The holy Bujanga is the inspirer. During the auspicious time, 
( ? janalddisana-Jcdlamam) year, month, fortnight, tithi, and week-day 
The following are the four boundaries of the village Sainbakipura, granted as 
kodagi-vritti free of imposts to Virapagauda of Badanaguppe belonging to Ummattur 
ruled by Saluva Timmaraja, under the orders (nirtip) of the heroic king Krushnaraya 
ruling on the throne of the illustrious mahdmandaUSvara Viradevaraya : 

The high ground (tevaru) to the east of Kareya-gadde (a large area of wet 
land) and the place where the stream .... belonging to Badanaguppe (village) is 
forded ; the hillock to the east of Banadala (village) ; the corner of Mariyala (village) 
where the two ends of Heggothara (village) meet. (Heggothara, Badanaguppe and 
Mariyala are the villages immediately to the west, north and east of 


The inscription is not dated. The meaning of the phrase janaJcddisana 
Mlamam in line 3 is not clear. The names of three favourite lingas (symbols of 
the god Siva) are invoked. Of these Sambhu-linga is the name given to the linga 
in the temple near which the record is found. Bhujanga is the name given to the 


linga in the large temple of Siva at Urnmattur, about five miles from the inscription 
stone. The village Sambakipura or Sambhulingapura seems to have been granted 
as a Tcodagi to Virappagauda of the village Badanaguppe, about two miles off from 
the epigraph. The donor was Saluva Timmaraja, the famous minister of Krishna- 
raya (1509-1529), king of Vijayanagar. The minister was entrusted with the 
government of Ummattur district;. (See E. G. Ill, Nanjangud 195.) Viradevaraya 
may be a contraction of Vira Narasirnhadvaraya, the immediate predecessor of 
Krishnaraya or it may indicate Devaraya, his distant predecessor. The inscription 
abounds in orthographical errors. 



Copper-plate in the possession of the goldsmiths of G-undlupet town. 
One plate ' Modern Kannada characters and language. 



13 4 

14 d^dcJ stertFSdSo 9% oto 

J--iC. jj 

15 3o S^^, 00 SSOLOQ5TTSC3 

JLCx -u c^ ' 

16 f . sgjdctocoodosj aoos^rtodo 

17, sorf ^^OAO rf^o^sraa 

13. 5-s^SosSoia Sozgftfl^a I 

19 1 ^s ?6ocS SjsSoodo 5os3oi5 Ses^ cdod 

back (*oWDrt) 

20. ^ 


23. <1$tf sddogo <<o 

24. sfeJrfrtyrt cr.3 SD 

25. a&J&SrtSrt cro sosa 33 






This copper plate record called jayar&lzlie-patte is written in the characters of 
the 19th or 20th century. A. long vowel is often indicated by the sign (Q. Thus 
Jculdbarana in line five is written as Ttula^ barana. Similarly in lines 8, 11, 12, 
16, etc., the same sign is used. The grant is further full of mistakes of orthography 
and it is very difficult to make out the several epithets in praise of the priest Malapa- 
gurusvami, the donee. The ohject of the record is to register an agreement by the 
guilds of artisans of Nilagiri, etc., to pay certain taxes or fees, viz., a general tax of 
one hana per family or house, marriage-tax (including fees for other such auspicious 
occasions) of two hanas per family, a fine of one hana for transgressions of religious 
customs, to their guru Mallapagurusvami, priest of Kalikammat^svara, in Yi jayapura 
(G-undlupet). They also agreed to give him a free supply of provisions .when he 
visited them and convey him (free of cost) to the next camp. The donors are 
stated to be (lines 17-20) the sisumaltkalu. or disciples among the Kdtas of, the four 
nadus of Mlagiri, disciples among the artisans of Kala-kammata, Kenchakodi, 
Namalukote and Kudaluru-kammata, Kanaeha, etc., and all the inhabitants of the 
last two places. These places, however, cannot be identified and the meaning of 
the lines (17-20) is far from clear. 

The witnesses to the grant are named Jogigauda, Nanjegauda, PMagauda 
Kenchegauda, and Dadegauda. The engraver's name is Subbachari of Koyamtur 

The usual imprecation against the violators of the grant is given in lines 30-31. 
The meaning of the lines 4 and 5 containing praises of the god Kalika-kamatesvara 
is not clear. 


The date is given as Sunday the 5th lunar day of the bright half of Margasira 
with Hasta in the year Tarana, 1638 of the Salivahana era. But S' 1638 is 
identical with Durmukhi and not Tarana and the nearest year Tarana is 8' 1626, 
which is twelve years behind the date given. If we take S' 1626, Margasira su 5 
coincides with Monday (November 20, 1704) and the nakshatra is Sravana. The 
genuineness of the grant is very doubtful. 


At the village Madehalli in the hobali of G-undlupetj on a slab standing at the 
back of the house of Madappa, son of Kuljappa. 

Size 5' X 5.' 
Kannada language and characters. 


, Oort 


4 ta^ So3joE32oC=!d, 


7. W| 

1_0. cwqSsi^F^ wdo 

1 1 ^J3OCS5JOrf e^3 

-*- JL . 

12. ^s^ ^^oscra cSja^aod^afc sj RJooqJcrso ! 


. coo 

16. 3 

1. svasti sri saka-varusha 1296 neya sri Ananda-samvatsarada Pu^ya ba 5 

2. srirnanu mahamandalesvara ariraya-vibh&da bhasege-tappuva- 

3. rayaraganda chatus-samudradhipati s"ri vira Bukkarayana kum^ra 

4. Chikka Kampanna-odera kumara Nafijanna-ocleyaru tamma tan- 


5. de Kampparayara svarggastaradalli Vijeyapurada Eamayyadevarige a- 

6. mrutapadige Kudugunada Madehalliya chatussime-olage enula gadde 


7. akshmi nidhi niksh&pa jala pas"ana siddha sadhya tejasva- 

8. mya sarvva-prapti samasta-bali sahitavagi a Madehalliyanu 

9. Eamanatapuramam dhareyan eredu kalla nadisi kotta sasana 

10. yi-dharmmakke aru alupidavarige deva-dravyavanu apaharsi- 

11. kondavarige eshtu narakavihudu a yashlu narakav ihudu 

12. sva-dattarn para-dattam va yo har6tu vasundharam shashthir-vvarusha- 

13. sahasrani vishth^yam jayate kriini endu tagi i 

14. dharminakke alupidavaru antha narakavanu anubhavisu- 
14. vara yi sasanakke Nanjanna-odeyara su-hastada va- 

16. ppa sri Visv^svara || 


Be it well. On Monday, the 5th lunar day of the dark half of Pushya, in the 
auspicious year Ananda, the Saka year 1296 : 

This is the charter granted by Nanjanna Odeyar, son of Chikka Kampanna 
Odeyar, who was a son of the illustrious mahamandalesvara, destroyer of hostile 
kings, champion over kings who break their words, lord of the four oceans, Vira 
Bukkaraya, on the occasion of the death of his father Kamparaya, made a grant for 
food-offerings to the god Bainayyadevaru of Vijeyapura, of the village Madehalli, 
(called) Eamanathapura in Kudugunadu, with all rice-fields, dry fields, imperish- 
ables, treasure, hidden hoards, water springs, minerals, present rights and possibilities, 
full powers, all income and taxes, after pouring of water and setting up a stone 
(on which the grant is engraved). 

He who violates this charity, suffers (residence in) as many hells as one who 
seizes the property of the gods. He who confiscates the land given by himself or by 
others will be born as a worm in ordure for sixty-thousand years. Thus those who 
violate this charity will suffer in such hells. 

To this sasana (is affixed) the signature in his own hand of Nanjanna Odeyar : 
Sri Visv66vara. 


This records the gift of the village Madehalli (the village where this inscription 
is set up) situated in the district of Kudugunad (which seems to have comprised 
portions of the present Gundlupet Taluk) for services in the temple of Eamayya- 
devaru in Vijeyapura which is the same as the Eamanatha temple near the present 
town of aundlupet (the hamlet of Vijeyapura still existing near Gundlupet) The 
donor was Prince Nanjanna Odeyar, grandson of Bukka I of Vijayanagar, and son 
of Chikka Karopanna Odeyar called also Kamparaya (line 5). Several inscriptions of 


both the father and the son are found in Nanjangud, Chamarajanagar and 
Ghindlup&t Taluks testifying to their rule in those parts as governors (See Gundlupet 
32 of S 1294 and 46 of S 1290 and Nanjangud 117). The occasion of the grant 
was the death of Chikka Kampanna Odeyar the date of which is thus determined. 
The date of the grant is given as S 1296 Ananda, Pushya ba 5 Monday, corres- 
ponding to 25th December, 1374 which is a Monday. But the tithi current on the 
day is shashthi and not pafi chami as stated in the grant. No invocation or impreca- 
tion is contained in the charter. It is also interesting to note that this very village 
had been previously granted for a Jaina temple Bittijinalaya of Tuppur in S 1118 
(E. C. IV G-undlupet 27). The village Madehalli seems to have been renamed 
Eamanathapura as it was given away to the god Rarnanatha or Bamayyadevaru. 
If we take the solar month corresponding, Makara bahula panchami will coincide 
with Monday Jan. 22 A. D. 1375 on which day panchami tithi began at about 
10 A. M. This confusion between lunar and solar months is possible in these 
parts owing to the mingling of the Tamil immigrants from the neighbouring 
Coimbatore and Malabar Districts with the native Kannada people. 


At the village Masahalli, in the same hobali, on a stone set up in front of the 
village. Size 4' x 4'. 

Kannada language and characters. 



3, s sSood srao^d rfosj^dS ^^s3c3 zo a. 

5 > cooo D-ssJocrsai Sj03a ^dsjort^ ^rfosdQo dodoes so 

Q t rf 


8 ^A-^SSD 515OOSJ9 dOS50KA)^Sgld O 3or?3o<&>2g)d O 

q esorn>,sios3 

tJ I _J . 

0. ft oo^stoo 

Si o 

1 4 o}33h 3eeOc3;>ri$ vo 


15 a 



-. Transliteration. 

1. subharn astu sri jayabhyudaya Salivahana 

2. sakha varusake saluva 1468 ne varusa- 

3. kke saluva Parabhava-samvatsarada Bhadrapada ba 3 lu 

4. srimatu Sadasivarayamaharayara anugye- 

5. yim Bamaraja-inaha-arasugala nirupadim Bustumji-kha- 

6. na-voderu Kodatiya-honna Halagevoderige kota gramanu gra- 

7. inada kalapate-kra [ma] ventendare namma Yijeyapurake saluva Masah'a- 

8. li grama kaluvali Marujaulipura 1 Kenga-halupura 1 yi-mu- 

9. ru gramavanu nivage sutti guttigeyagi kalupateyagi koieva- 

10. gi yl inura gramada chatusime-volagula gade bedalu t6ta a- 

11. du-sunka yenuntada sakala-adayavanu anubhavisikondu Pra- 

12. madi-chamvatsarada Kattikha su 1 arubhyavagi Ananda-samvatsarada 

13. Asvayija ba 30 nilege dhannmakke gramadalu saguvali kalapate- 

14. vagi taridu ga 40 aksharadalu naluvattu varahamnnu 

15. terutali kanike bedige yilla yi dharmmak alihidavara G-ange-Ka- 

16. siyali goii brainara konda papake hoharu 


May it be auspicious. On the 3rd lunar day of the dark half of Bhadrapada in 
the year Parabhava, corresponding to the year 1468 of the prosperous and victo- 
rious Salivahana era. 

By the order of the illustrious Sadasivaraya-maharaya and under the iiirupa 
(letter) of Eamaraja-maha-arasu, Bustumjikhana-voderu granted the following stone 
charter conferring certain villages on Halagevodeyar of Kodatihonnu (village) : 

We have given with a charter on stone the three villages Masahali. belonging 
to Yijeyapura and Marujaulipara, a hamlet of Masahali, Kengahalupura, . as mttor 
guttage(srdtiiya-guttige i.e., grant of land for a fixed payment of rent made, in favour 
of priests) to you and hence you may enjoy within the four boundaries of the said three 
villages all the income from wet lands, dry lands, gardens, taxes on goats etc , 
with effect from the 1st lunar day of the bright half of Kartika in the year 
Pramadicha and paying forty varahas for (a year, the first year ending with) the new 
moonday of the dark half of Asvayuja in the year Ananda. The land is to be 
cultivated and enjoyed as a religious grant in virtue of this stone charter No 
presents (Mmke) or benevolences (Udige} need be paid. He who violates this 
chanty will incur the sin of killing cattle and Brahmansin the Ganges and Kasi. 


This inscription records the grant of the village Masahalli and its hamlefcs 
belonging to ^ay^pura sub-division (Gundlupet) to a Lingayat priest named 

Halage Vodeyar of Kodatiyahonnu for an; annual payment of a quit-rent. The 
grant was made by a local officer named Eustumjikhan under the orders of 
Raniar&ya- of Yi.jayan.agar/ Sadasiva- was -still the nominal king of "Vijayanagar- and 
his name is also mentioned along with that of Eamaraya. The date of the present 
grant is S. 1468 Parabhava sani. Bha. ba. 3, which corresponds to 12th September 
1546 A. D. The presence of -a Moslem governor at G-undlupet under Rama Baya 
may be noted. 


In the village Hangala, in the Hobali of Hangala, on a stone set up in. a wall 
of the Siddhesvara temple. 

' Size 4' X 2' . 

Kannada language and characters. 

j. o ^qjSoatos&SdcS SF~SU 0003 

g. o 

g. o 

4, o 

5. o rterod^dort 

Note, ' 

This inscription is incomplete as it ends abruptly after tne name Ankegauda, 
(the donee ?) in line five. It seems to record some grant made by Sankaraya, an 
officer under the mahamandalesvara Ramarajaya-Tirumalarajayyaj to some one not 
named, who was the son of Ankegauda. It is dated the 10th lunar day of the dark 
half of Kartika in the year Sobhakrit. No Saka year is given. Kanwaja-Tiru- 
rnalarajayya was the last governor of Seringapatam under Vijayanagar kings and 
served Sriranga I (1573-1584) and Venkatapatiraya I (1586-J615). The. present 
grant may belong to Sobhakrit, A. D. 1603. Bamaraja-Tirmnalarajayya.was the son 
of Bamaraya, who was a son of Ere Timmaraja, brother of the famous king Bama- 
raya, who died in the battle of Talikote. (See p. 2 of the Kannada poem Ghikkadeva- 
raya vamsavali and also E. C. IV, Hunsur, 36 of '160.7, Cham arajariagar,. 194 of 
1610, Gundlupet, 13 of 1614? and 40 of 1610.) .;, . _ , ^l 



At the same village Hangala, on a stone lying near the village entrance. 


Kannada language and characters, 
edorf^ TO sfcrf wo3c3s3e>fto gos? 

3 4 




Trans liter ation. 

1. subhanamastah Kha- 

2. ra-samvatsarada Sravana su 7 lu 

3. O srlmam mahamandalesvara 

4. Eamaraja Tirumalaraja-deva-ma- 

5. haraya-ayanavara k^ryake 

6. kartarada Bhadrapa. 

7. Gangdjanu Hangulada 

8. kelasigalige sarvva 

9. li bMuge sunka yella- 
10. u sarva-manavanu 


kota silasadhana 
idake anipidavanu 
katteya tunniyanu 
kaluppann tinda nayida- 
ra kasige ase madidava 


16. nayidara hoteyali hu- 

17. tidava endu kota sila- 

18. sadhana mangala ma- 

19. ha srl sri sri 


This records the remission to the barbers of Hangala of all taxes including bene- 
volences, customs, duties, etc. The remission was made under the orders of the 
mahamandale'svara Bamaraja-Tirumalarajadeva maharaya by his agent Bhadrapa, 
the order being issued through his servant ? Gang6ja. An imprecation is contained 
in the grant that those who violate it will be born as the children of barbers. There 
are also other imprecations of a foul nature. 

The date of the grant is Khara sani. Srav. su. 7. No Saka year is given. 
Probably the year Khara corresponding to A. D. 1591 is meant. Similar grants to 
barbers are also met with in other inscriptions (See M. A. E. 1912, Page 52). 


At the same village Hangala, copy of a paper sannad in the possession of the 
Lingayat guru Channabasavasvamigalu. 

Kannada language and characters. 


2. aw sJcf^otorfdda srsosrsscrf $3 sidosjort^o OS?OF 

4 8 sDo^w^sSOort sjcfon sgj^srfBiS, ez?J N a 

^Jt* ' * cJ ) 

f\ i 

7 oo I 9&3KraLA <2s3ds3o^oc3d II ecisft II 

M aO * 

3. *^tforra,sto ^JSCJ^^D Wai^so^^ rr^do 

Q rt orto 4t- II J I eroa s3s?Sor5o 2.6-0 

^ - CO 


J. J-. O CO 

12. Artfjs esioo esto53eDA*floq^ iOdOqSCJo I cc5o 
13 m odiooo ao-sdcSos^, 33^^0035 3oorts?cd ^i 

SodSod rr^dorts?^ tj 



c3 sSjadafc sto-i rf^cflssdorfo 


21. 13039^ sraj 


1. srimad rajadhiraja praudaprafcaparadantha Dodha-DSvara- 

2. ju-vaderaiyanavaru Salivahana saka varashangalu 1409 

- 3. ne I Sobhakrittu-nama-samvatsaradalli Hangalada Kallumatha- 

4. da Santa, Basavalinga-vaderige putra-pautra-abhivriddhiya- 

5. gi ] nadeva rltige ' bita svasfci vivarav entendare " adagi Svu- 

- 6. blaakritu-samvatsaradka { Kartika sudha 5 yallu G-oruvarada- 

- '.-1, llu ' bita svasti- vivarav entendare !i adagi " Hangalada 

8. Ktlugrama Horakeri Bacbahaligraina ' kke gutti- 

9. ge Kangu 36 l! 2 ! [h] fittuvali kangu 7 " Hangalada bbu- 

10. miyalli seridda bola 25 kke kamba gatale 1725 ' 

11. du kaniba vandakke holallu (?) inatakke yaru adhipa- 

- 1*2. tigalo avaru anubbavisikondu baruvudu ' ya- 

13. ndu yi bakidantta svasti yt Hangalada hadhi- . -- 

14. nalku baligu yinnu barabara gramagalige a- 

15. cbara vicharake 1 karanakartaru ' mattyobarige ka- 
16'. ranavilla uaatyu netakalla bita basivi aya 

17. somu kaya batta sakalaii yi matakke sa- 

J 8. latakkadde borattu matte bere yarnnu badyate- 

19. yillavendn bnkkum anusarisi yirutte ayu- 

20. rarogya ai^varyabbivriddhiyagalendu ' bi- 

21. tanta svasti subbani astu Ayur ardgya ai^varyam astu 


The illustrious rajadhiraja praudbapratapa Doda Devaraju-vad^raiy-a-navaru 
made a grant of land as detailed to Santa-Basavalingavader of Kallumatba in 
Hangala for tbe prosperity of bis sons and grandsons in the year named Sobhakrit, 
1409th year of the Salivahana era : The following are the details of the grant of 
land made on Thursday the 5th lunar day of the bright half of Kartika of .the year 
Sobhakrit. The annual fixed quit-rent for the village Horakeri Bachahalli which is 
a suburb (kilugrarna) of Hangala is 36J varahas and 2J hanas of Kanthirayi-gulige : 
the income (from other sources ?) is seven Kanthirayi guliges and for the dry fields 
included in the lands of Hangala, 1725 kambas. ? ? ? . . ....... 

dry field. 


Whoever is the head of the inafcha will go on enjoying it. Thus is the estate 

They (the heads of the matt) alone have authority for inquiring into .the con- 
duct of (the residents of) the fourteen villages of Hangala. No one else, has any 
right over this. 

Further in accordance with these orders, all stones set up in the land, all 
women dedicated to god (basavi), all income and property, Tt-ayabatta ?, . all these 
can only belong to this matt and to no one else. The estate is granted in order 
that longevity, health and wealth may prosper. . . 

May there be good fortune ! May there be long life, health and wealth ! 


This is a manuscript supposed to be a copy of an original sannad. It seems to 
register the grant by Doddade~varaja Vodeyar, of some lands in the villages Hangala 
and Horakeri Bachahalli, on the condition of a fixed annual payment) to Santa 
Basavalingavoder, the guru of a Lingayat matt, named KaHumatha in Hangala and 
to his descendants. The donee was also invested with authority over the inhabit- 
ants of Hangala with its fourteen villages and of some other villages, not named, 
in social and religious matters. He was also given special rights such as control 
over dedicated women in the villages, etc. 

The inscription is dated Thursday the 5th lunar day of the bright half of 
Kartika in the year Sobhakrit, 1409 of Salivfthana era but & 1409 is Plavanga, 
not $6bhakrit. The nearest Sobhakrit is S 1405 or A.D. 1483. Moreover the date is 
too early for the donor of the grant, Dodda Deva Raja Odeyar who was the king of 
Mysore from 1659 to 1672 A. D. Even if 6 1409 is a mistake for S 1585 or A. D. 
1663, Kartika su 5 during this year would be Monday (26th October) and not 
Thursday. The grant appears therefore to be spurious. 

A part of the next inscription in this collection (No. 25) also deals with the 
subject-matter of this grant. . . 


The stone set up in the field of Ghirappa to the south of the same village 


Size 5' x 2'. 

Kannada language and characters. 

5' x 2'. 


4. d^&d ^^dsSjS'saS g^tioso 


g, doa 

7 Soft sS>;>aJocre>$aJ 

3. ess 


1 1 ^osSDiasj^iJ^ Oort^sjfdsjjsssjod^ 20 

* o. j) 


1 K oosS 


1 ft 

19. o 




1. subham astu svasti ri vijayabhyudaya ....... 

2. rasa 1578 sarn Durmaki-samvatsarada Vayisakaba- 

3. 12 chaui-varali srimad-rajadhiraja rajapa- 

4. ramesvara sri vira pratapa Sri Bankha-maha- 

5. raya-xaya-rayarayaru pritvi-rajyam geyutti- 

6. ralu sri Venkatapatirayaravara nirupa- 

7. dinda Maisuradhipa antembara-ganda-bira- 

8. dada Devaraju-voderu Hanguladalu a- 

9. rasinavaru yida aramaneyali yodedali- 

10. Eajoderu muktarada baliya A.mrutamma 

11. Kalainatava kaiisi Limgastapyava madi Marala Ba- 

12. sayalimga-dfivarige sva-santtada matava katisi Hangu- 

13. lada stalada Horakeri Bachali-gramake salu cbatn- 

14. sime valaguja [n] ta gida liakkalu marakate yere ketu-ka- 

15. luve a-kelagana gade beddalu tftta suvannadaya sii- 

16. nkba rnagga mane-vana-jati-derige sarva-saniya 

17. sarvadaya agumadi anubhavisikondu 

18. baruviri yendu kota sila-sMbana dana-manyada 

19. li ......... yi-da- - 

20. rmake alupidava katte prajapa- 

21. tige alupidage 

- - - Translation. 

May there be good fortune ! Be it well. In the prosperous year 

-1578, the year Durmukhi on the 12th lunar day of the dark half of Vaisakha 
Monday : " 

While the illustrious king of kings, lord over monarchs, possessed of great 
prowess, Srirangamaharaya-rayarayaravaru was ruling the earth: 

When Devaraju-vodr, lord of Mysore under the nirupa (orders) of the 
illustrious Venkatapatiraya and possessed of the title of champion over those who 
say so and so (that they have such titles), caused to he dismantled the palace at 
Hangula where the arasu (king) lived : 

Auiritamma (thereupon) got constructed a kalumatha (a stone matt) at the 
spot where Bajodeyar died and set up a linga thereon. She also built anindepen- 
dent matt for Marala Basavalinga-devaru and gave this stone charter stating " You 
may go on enjoying all the rights of possession, and income within the four 
boundaries of the village Horakeri Bachalli in Hangula-sthala with all jungle, 
clearings, trees, embankments, black cotton soil fields, channels and rice-fields below 
them, dry lands, gardens, money income, customs dues, loom tax, house tax, and 
caste tax, He who violates this will incur the sin of 


This inscription records the construction of a matt and the gift of a village 
Horakeri Bachali for a Yirasaiva guru at Hangala by the queen Amritamma. She 
is also said to have set up in the old palace site at Hangala a linga to mark the 
place where Baja Odeyar died and built a matt called Kallu-matha around it. 
Amritamma was the queen of Dodda Devaraja Odeyar and mother of the famous 
king of Mysore Chikka-Devaraja Odeyar who ruled from 1672 to 1704 (Eice's 
Mysore and Coorg from Inscriptions, p. 126). 

The inscription records the suzereinty of the Yijayanagar kings over Mysore 
in so late a date as 1656 A. D. It is also well known that Chikkadevaraja Odeyar 
lived at the village Hangala during his exile from the court and left it for Seringa- 
patam on his accession to the throne. Who was this Baja Odeyar who died at 
Hangala and how was the queen Amritamma related to him ? Could it be the 
famous Baja Odeyar I or Irnznadi Baja Odeyar or could Baja Odeyar stand for 
Deva Baja Odeyar, the two letters de and va being omitted before Baja Odeyar in 
line 10 ? The last seems to be more probable as the Baja Odeyars referred to are 
known to have died at Seringapatam itself (see p. 49 and 64 of Sriman Maharaja- 
ravara Vamsavali by Bamakrishna Bao) ; while Dodda Dvaraja Odeyar is stated to 
have died at Chikkanayakanahalli (ibid p. 108). But there was another king called 
Muppina Devaraja Odeyar, father of Dodda Devaraja Odeyar who is believed to 
have lived at G-undlupet and its neighbourhood and who might have also had a 



palace at Hangala which is seven miles from G-undlupet, and died there. Amri- 
tamma would be his daughter-in-law and king Devaraja Odeyar his son. This 
queen is said to have been a daughter of Bale Urs of Mugur (p. 95, ibid) and was 
evidently patronising the Viras"aivas. ; 

The date is given as S 1578 Durmukhi Vais' ba. 12 Monday and corresponds 
to May 12, Monday 1656 A. D. This day was not exactly Dvadasi as stated in the 
grant but Trayodasi. However it is quite probable that Dvadasi was observed 
on the day according to the custom of the Vaishnava sect. Another difficulty is 
that the date A. D. 1656 is too early for Devaraja Odeyar's reign (1659-1673; see 
p. 95 ibid). But it may be answered that this was granted by him before he became 
king, though royal titles are applied to him out of courtesy. 

See also the previous number for the grant of the village Horakeri Bachahalli 
to Basavalinga Odeyar of Hangala. 


At the same village Hangala, on the basement of the north wall of the Vara- 

darajasvami temple. 

Tamil and G-rantha characters. 


1. svasti sri Vira Narasingadevar : 

2. prituvi-rajyam pani arulanikka I- 

3. va sa Mesha-masam Ba (?) s"enra desami-nal Pangulattu Tiru-narayana- 

perumalu achandradi- varai sela kadavadu 

4. Arandukka Kuripatti Marisetti-madai tri-sandi-vilakku kudutem (?) 

2 ponil 2 vatti . . . tu ..... galum ..... 


This records the gift of two varahas of money, the interest of which was to be 
used for illuminations thrice a day in the temple of Tirunarayana at the 
village Hangula made by the wife of Arandukka Kuripalti Marisetti in the reign of 
the Hoysala king Vira Narsingadeva. It is dated in the year Yuva, the 10th day 
of the dark fortnight in the month Mesha. The combination of the year Yuva 
with the reign of the Hoysala king Narasimha suggests that it might be 1155 A. D. 
in the reign of Narasimha I or 1275 A. D. in the reign of Narasimha III. The 
latter is the more probable date as the characters appear to belong to the end of 
the 13th century rather than to the middle of the 12th century. If so, the date 
would correspond to 22nd April 1275 A. D. 


The temple of Tirunarayana, referred to, is evidently the present Varadarja 
temple at Hangala on a wall of which the record is engraved. 


On the site of the disappeared village Siddaiyanapura, to the south of the same 
village Hangala, on a vlragal lying in the land of Idigu, Narasimhegauda. 

Size 6' X 3'. 
: Old Kannada language and characters. 


aJ Etoea 6'X3'. 

2. 695339 dOJOy 







Terar, son of Marayya, of Kava-Doderu, fought during the cattle-raid at Eli 
and died. (His) daughter Tatabbe caused the stone to be set up. 


This is a viragal set up by the daughter of a hero who died for the cows of his 
village. The characters seem to belong to the end of the 9th century A. D. 


At the village Kallipura in the same hobali of Hangala, on a vlragal standing 
in a Hero-shrine (viraragudi) in front of the village. 

Kannada language and characters. 

I g&4 SD si 



3 33 rt 

*' ) 



This is also a viragal record. One Vlranna is said to have set this up in 
memory of his son Madappa. It is dated Monday the 3rd lunar day of the bright 
half of Jye"shtha in the year Rakshasa. The characters seem to belong to the end 
of the 17th century A. D, and the day may correspond to Monday, May 17, 
1675 A. D. 


At the village Ghannamallapura in the same hobali of Hangala, on a stone 
standing in the Nanjund&svara temple. 

Size & X 4'. 

Kannada language and characters, 

833 sbcra^Od rfoaiooeS^dtf rto&c&g 


>s3aJ2? 4 tf$ 


3, oos3 

4, o asoocS^CTsO^d t3^c3^^do So 

5, cdoor? 

3. cfofcd 



14. rfcS^o 


1. sv'asti sri jaya- 

2. dudaya Sakavarusha 1352 neya sa- 

3. luva Sadharana-samvatsarada Ashada su 

4. 1 ralu d^vadhideva d^va-d^vottama Kali- 

5. yuga-visha-parihari Kapila-Kaundyamnya- 

6. sangamadali prasannarada ^rl Nanjundesvara- 

7. devarige srlman mahamandal^svaram sri Vlra 

8. deyara kumara Chikkaima-vodeyaru Terakanambiya 

9. rajyavanu aluttu [mira] lu Kudugunada-ga- 

10. diya Alaturanu [devamanyavagi] chatus-slme ashta 


11. bhoga teja-svamya sarvva-prapti samasta-bali sahitavagi 
12 danadh&ra-piirvakavagi a- 

13. chandrarkka-stayi agi. samarppisidaru sva-dattarn pa- 

14. ra-dattam v& yohareta vasundhara ' shashthir-vvarusha- 


Be it well. On tbe 1st lunar day of the bright half of Ashadna in the year 
Sadharana, in the prosperous Saka year 1352, while the illustrious inaahamandale- 
Svara sri Vira Sdvannavodeyar's son Chikanna Vodeyar was ruling fcne kingdom of 
Terakanambi : 

The village Alatur situated within the limits of Kudugunad was bestowed with 
pouring of water and with all the eight rights of possession and enjoyment and all 
the sources of income within its boundaries, to last as long as the sun and moon 
endure, to the god Nanjundesvara, god of gods, supreme among gods, destroyer of 
the poison of Kaliyuga, and manifest at tbe confluence of the (rivers) Kapila and 
Kaundyanya. He wbo confiscates tbe land given away by himself or by others 
(will be born as a worm in ordure) for sixty thousand years. 


This records the gift of a village Alattur in Kudugunad for services in the 
temple of Nanjundesvara (in Nanjangud town). There is a village in ruins, 
called Graudi Alattur near Ghannamallapur, in which the inscription is found. 
The date of the gift S 1352 Sadharana sam. Ashadha s"u 1 corresponds to 21st 
June, A. D. 1430 when De"varaya II was king of Vijayanagar. His name, however, 
is not found in the record but the donor is stated to be Chikkaniiarvodeyar, 
son of Sovanna Vodeyar, ruler of Terakariambi, Evidently Chikkairma .Vodeyar 
was a chief of Ummattur as it is known that the TJmrnattur chiefs ruled for a time 
.over the Terakanarnbi kingdom about this period. But the names S6vanna 
Vodeyar and .Chikkanna Vodeyar bave not been met 'with so far among the Umraafc- 
tur chiefs (see P. 27, E. G. IV Intr. for. a genealogy of tbe Ummattur chiefs). 


At the village Berambadi,"in the same hobali of Hangala, on a stone pillar 
standing in front of the village chavadi. 

Size 3' x V . 
Kannada language and characters. 

rra^oc? E^^aojo sfooocS 

ID 8S 




9* ^ 




Trans liter ation. 

1. Dundubhi-samvatsa- 

2. rada pratama-Sravana 

3. ba 5 Iti. Husanusa fhu] 

4. sahapasahu-iideya 

5. sr! Bamarajaya-de'varalu u- 

6. ligada Basavapa-gavundeya 

7. Terakanambeya Kongu- 

8. ra ganacharigalige kota da- 

9. ta kalanchiyagi kota 

10. kodageya gramagalu Vi- 

11. jeyapurada slmeya vo- 

12. lagana Bareyembadiya gra- ; 

13. ma yidake salu ayagalu 

14. saha anubhavi Husanu sa- 

15. hu Basavapa vodeyara 

16. voppa I' srl sri Nanjund^sva- 

17. ra-devara vopa 


This record belongs to the reign of Bamaraya of Vijayanagar, the nominal king 
Sadagivaraya not being mentioned in this and some other inscriptions. It is dated 
Dundubhi sam. Prathama Sravana ba 5. Evidently the year referred to must 
be S' 3484 "Dundubhi, since it is the only year of that name occuring in the time of 
Bamaraya. In this year there was an intercalary month for Sravana and the date 
is equivalent to July 20, 1562 A. D. 

The object of the record is to register the gift of the village Berambadi (called 
Bareyembadi in the inscription) with all its income, situated in Yijeyapur-sime as 
a rent-free grant to the Vlrasaiva priests (gandchdri) of Kongur in Terakanambe 
(kingdom). The donor is Basavapa- vodeyar also called Basavapagaundeya (L.6), a 
servant of Bamarajayade"var (Rdmar&ya), The signature of the donor is given at 
the end as Sri Narijundesvaradevaru. The Persian titles applied to Bamaraya are 
Husanasahu and Sahapasahu. The former alone is applied to his dependant 
Basavapa-vodeyar. . ., 



On a viragal lying in the middle of the same village Berambadi. 

Size 7' X 3'. 
Old Kannada language and characters. 


Q <s* ^ 

CJ cd 





sva [sti] srtmafc Cha- 
vunda Permmanadiga- 
la pattam-gattida ela- 
neya varisadandu 
Bayalnada bandu A- 





a 6 






lattiran iridu pendir- 
Alageyara Lakka- 
nayya kadi sattam 


Be it well. In the 7th year of the installation (pattam-gattu) of the illustrious 
Chavunda-permmanadigal, on (a warrior ?) of Bayalnad coming to Alaturand 
slaying (its citizens) and stripping the waists of its women, Alageyara Lakkanayya 
fought and died. 


This inscription seems to belong to the end of the 10th century A. D. by its 
paleography and language.. It records the heroism of an inhabitant of the village 
Alattur. There is a village of this name called G-audi Alattur, near Berambadi 
where the inscription stone is found. The meaning of the phrase Bayalnada 
bandu is not clear. It might mean that some one, perhaps Cha vunda Permanadi 
or his general, came to Bayalanad or it might mean that some one from Bayalnad 
came. Bayalnad is the name of a province which included the territory in the south 
of the Mysore District near the Nilgiris. Who the Cha vunda Permmanadi of the 
record was is not clear. He might be the chief Chavundayya referred to in 
B. 0. III., T.-Narsipur 69 which is not dated. 


At the village Puttanapura, in the same hobali of Hangala, on a fragmentary 
stone on a platform of the peepul tree. 

Kannada characters and language. 




10. oe5 


Several letters have disappeared in each line of this fragmentary inscription. 
It seems to register a sale-deed issued by the gaudas of the village Hangala 
(named Hangula) to the Yirasaiva matt at Puttanapura (?) of some lands to the 
north of Kalasagara tank of Anise and also north-west of Marulakkana-halla 
channel with the approval of the (citizens of the) nad. Bice fields to the extent 
of 18 salages belonging to Mada Lakka were also included in the lands sold. The 
inscription stone is completely broken at the end. Ho date or king is given. The 
characters seem to belong to the 15th century A. D, 


On the mdstigal standing in the land of Subbegauda to the south of the village 
Kunagahalli in the same hobali of Hangala. 

Kannada language and characters. 

2 <SGBJBS?OO aoSoa-sssTjSoosrf sSa^A s&oas-scoj ^^cdss [d] do 


On the expiry of 1361 (moon, seasons, cities, moon) Saka years, in the year 
Siddh& [rthi] , on the 9th lunar day of the dark half of Jyeshtha, Manch&yi, wife 
of Tirumala Vamannaj became a sati. Grood Fortune. Sri. 


This is an instance of an act of Sati. The date corresponds to 5th June, 
1439 A. D. but is not verifiable as the week-day is not given. 


On a broken stone lying in fib eland of Viraiya in the village G-opalapura, a 

hamlet of Kunagahalli. 

Size' 3' X 2'. 

Kannada language and characters. 

3' x 2' 

2. 3od d^dj 3oSg,dc5 s^sSes 3o o 


5, c 

6, ti 

7, c^ro jgja^eoEssgpcSaiid 3djD33>o 


9. ^rfs3^oo 5i>o;3c3 ajojo^cd ss-soi etf^cirt 



1. svasti Sri Sakarakala 1302 ne ya sam 

2. sanda Bavudra-samvatsarada Sravana sn 3 

3. A svasti sriman mahamandalesvara arirayavi- 

4. bhada bhashege-tappuva-rayara-ganda ohattissamu- 

5. dradhipati Sri Yira Ohikka Kampartnavodeyara koina- 

6. ra Nan j anna- vodeyara prithuvi-rajyam-goittami- 

7. rddalli Choli Annavodeyara nirupadim Yingu Ja- 

8. vadi Kunigi-halliya in annum Kandarakadu Kodi Houna- 

9. ppana-vadum Karinada Jayatada Palguri6svarag(i kotta ko- 

10. dage . , . '. ......... . . ka- 

11, ladali saluvudu mangalamaha sri srt 


Be it well. The 1302nd year of the time of the Sakas having expired, in the 

year Eaudri, on the 1st lunar day of the bright fortnight of ^ravana, on Sunday: 

Beit well. While Nan j anna Vodeyar, son of tho illustrious xnaliamaridaleS- 

vara, destroyer of hostile kings, champion over kings who break their word, lord of 

the four oceans, Sri Yira Ohikka Kampanna Vocleyar was ruling the earth: 

Under the orders (nirupa) of Cholianna-Vodeyar, tho lands of Kunigihalli of 
Yingulavadi and Kandarakadu and the small tank, (vaddu) of Kodihonnappa" aro 


given as kodagi to Palgunes"vara of Jayita in Karinadu. This will continue fco be 
maintained during the times of all the rulers . Grood fortune. 



This is a record of the time of Nanjarma Vodeyar, son of Chikka Kampanna 
Yodeyar, son of Bukka I, king of Vijayanagar (see also No. 20). It records the 
gift of some land in Kunagahalli for the services of a Siva temple in the village 
Jayita, Kari-nad. Karinad or Karenad is also referred to in some inscriptions of 
Nanjaogud Taluk as a division which covered parts of the present Nanjangud and 
G-undlupet Taluks. 

The date is given as S 1302 Eaudri sam. Srav. su 1 Sunday. The English 
equivalent of the above tithi is July 3, A. D. 1380, but it is a Tuesday and nofe 
Sunday as stated in the record. 


At the same village G-opalapura, on a viragal in the land of Mahabasetti. 

Size 5' x 3' 

Kannada language and characters. 
riw.d sfca&ogw d 

09 jd 








sfc I 


drf si)oi5rs 










28. ^ 

29. fift| 

30. s& 








" 7. 




svasti sri Sakarakala 1078 ne varsha sanda sri Dha- 
tu-sa m [va] tsarada Bhadrapada su ' 5 A svasti sri 
Vira Narasingha-devaru prithuvi-rajyam ge- 

yyuttiralu || svaati srimanu mahapasa- 
ytarum appa Vamana Mallananavaru 

Konginge dhaliya harivalli 

lla-bovana Rana Manchiga 


du bhi- 



mafcu Ku- 






na maga 







Ingulavadiya Ma- 
Saradiharada bhase inadi 


tta ma- 


rmu savi- 


ra rna- 




m ma- 






la mam- 


[ma] kkalu 












Be it well. Good fortune. 1078 years having expired in the era of the bakas, 
on the 5th lunar day of the bright half of Bhadrapada, on Sunday: 

Be it well. While the illustrious Yira Narasingadevaru was ruling the 
earth : 

Be it well. When ihe -mahdpasdyta (the highly favoured) Vainana Mallana 
marched to invade Kongu, Ranarnanchiga Saradiharada, (son ?), of Mallab6va of 
(the village) Ingulavadi made a vow, pierced and fell. On this Maratamraa, -son of 
Chdlagauda, the illustrious mahd-prabhu (great lord) of KucLugunftdu, ' granted land 
to the extent of 1000 marinu in Muttagadaharige. This .will, (continue . to be 
enjoyed by his "sons'and 'sons' grandsons. Well-being. Grood Fortune. 


.Note ..... 

This is an instance of a grant of land in memory of warriors who f ought 
valiantly and died in battle. It belongs to the 'reign of the Hoysala king 
Xarasimha I and is dated S 1078 sain. Dhatu Bha. s"u. 5. It corresponds to the 
23rd August of A. D. 1156 but the week-day is Thursday and not Sunday as stated 
in the grant. If however S 1078 expired or Isvara is taken as the year meant the 
tithi Bhadra su 5 falls on Sunday, llth August 1157 on which day Panchami 
began at about 10-30 A.M. 


On a slab near a well in the village Dfivarahalli in the same hobali of Hangala, 

. Size 2' X 2' 
Old Kannada characters and language. 


S30J350 gforttfrf 


2' x 2' 








m Q 





svasti srimatu Konguni- Madhava^ chaiva Vi- 

shnugottamah Madhav6ravinitas' cha Durvvini- 

[ti] Vikramas' cha Duggas' cha Sivamaras tathaiva cha Kongoni 

prithuvi-rajyarn keye Durvvinit Ereappor Zo- ' ' 

sarupulk irid idirupayd agid idid ir uda- 

rin Amandadigal Upagolatt elpadinvaru nara- . 

7. mokaraman odedode ppadettadu Punisur-ppola 

8. nellu pandiyu valevadu sarvva-parihtoa ttottopa [r] 

9. kedipuvdnu kolvdnn ppancha-maha-patakanakke okka- 

idu kangettu to|kuttuv a [kke] 
The meaning of lines 5 and 6 is not clear. 



(p. 176, No. 36. 

Mysore ArchcBological Survey^] 


- Beit well. The illustrious Konguni Madhava, Vishnugottama/ 
Avmita Durvinl, (Vi) krama, Dugga and Sivamara likewise : - '-:. 

- While Kongani was ruling the earth, Durvinita Breappor pierced KosampulM, 
tell upon it, dug up and dismantled it; thereupon Amanda and others forming thV 
seventy men of Upagola broke the army of men (the opponents).* For this they 
got the dry lands as well as lands where paddy and pdndi could be grown in 
1 unasur. They will enjoy the lands free of all imposts. May he who violates 
this or seizes it incur the five great sins. May he who takes it away from its tenants, 
enjoys it and fights for it, lose his eyes and arms. 


This is a Ganga inscription in old Kannada characters and language of about 
the 8th century A. D. as seen from the letters ja in line four, thai in line three ci 'in- 
line four, ppo in line four, and the use of old Kannada la in.lines five and six. The- 
use ofpadettadu, as the neuter singular past indicative form of pade, Jcedipdnu and'- 
tolvdn, in line nine, and elpadinvar inline six are also examples of Old Kannada 
language. ....... 

The characters are about two inches square and well-formed. The language is 
in places obscure as in line five. 

The inscription records the heroism of 70 soldiers of a village named Upagola 
in breaking the ranks of the enemies of the Ganga prince Durvinita Ereyappa 
m the siege of Kosarupulki and the grant to them for their -valour "of the 
village Punasur by the Prince. The king is named Kongani. The previous kings 
are named in lines 1-3 as Konguni, Madhava, Yishnugottama, Madhava, Ayantta,.' 
Durvinita, Vikrama (Srivikrama?), Dugga and Sivamara. The last of ' these" is 
Sivamara I and as both he and his son Sripurusha bore the title of Prithvi-Jcongani, 
it is difficult, to say. whether the record belongs to the reign of Sivamara I or his 
successor Sripurusha. The use of the phrase tdthawachd (and so on), ' seems to 
indicate that the latter the king meant. The kings enumerated are also found 
mother grants. Vishnugottama is the same as Yishnugopa; Dugga is apparently 
Bhtivikrama, the brother and predecessor of Sivamara. This Dugga is different 
from Duggamara, son of Sripurusha referred to in B. 0. XI, 01. 8 etc. The name of 
this early Dugga is also found in the Ganjam plates (B. 0. IV, Seringa- 
patam, 160), after Sri-Vikrama and before Sivamara I. Marasinga Ereyapp6r is 
named in the Ganjam plates as a son of Sivamara II. 

No date is given. Durvinita Ereyappor, however, appears to be a son of 
Sivamara I or of Sripurusha whose date according to the Halkur stone inscription 
is 788 A. D. (Mysore Archaeological Beport 1918, P 42). The present record may 
* Meaning not clear. 


be assigned the approximate date .800 A. D. The only other stone record of an 
earlier date is the Xallur stone inscription of Sri-Vikrama which does not give a 
genealogy (Mysore Archaaological Eeport 1917, P. 31). 

The present inscription is important in Ganga history as it is the first lithie 
record of early times in which the Ganga genealogy is traced down to the 
time of king Sivamara. A great deal of doubt has fallen on the pedigree of the 
early G-anga kings, as no stone inscriptions were found of those kings containing 
their genealogy. It is also interesting to note that the genealogy given in the 
record closely follows the usual one of the Talkad. G-angas given in numerous copper 
plate inscriptions but not the special genealogy mentioning Aryavarma and Krish- 
navarma as in the Penugonda and Bendiganahajji plates (See supra note on No. 3). 

The first three lines of the present" record contain an incorrect version of one 
sloka and a half which appear in the Ganjam plates (E. C. IV, Seringapatain 160.) 
also in a mutilated form. Each of the records supplies the omissions of the other 
except that both of them make some common mistakes like omitting the name of 
Harivarman and calling Avinita, Eavinlta. The slokas containing Ganga genealogy 

CJ ' O O O O 

must have been well known in their own time and probably read as follows, the 
corrections being made with reference to the Keregalur plates, the Kudlur plates of 
Marasimha, etc: 

Kongunir-Madhavas chaiva Haris cha Yishnugopamah N 

Madhavopy-Avinltascha Durvinitascha Mushkarah ' 

ri-Vikramascha Duggascha Sivamaras tathaivacha " 

In the neighbourhood of DevarahaUi there are no villages of the name of 
Puniseyur and Kosarupulki. But in the Begur Hobli of the same taluk -there is a. 
village named Hunasinapura ; but this is at some distance from Devarahalli. 


At the same village Devarahalli on a broken stone in the Adikarnataka street.. 
Kannada language and characters. 

2 ^.rt oe? 

** O 

3. rS 02 sdo 



- This is a fragmentary inscription. It records some land and money grants-, 
for the stfiAnikas (managers) of some temple as also for its flower-sellers etc. The 
characters seem to be of the early part of the 17th century A. D. 




At the village Kahalli in the Hobali of Bilgere, on a stone lying near the 
village entrance. 

Size 5' X 3' 6". 
Kannada language and characters. 


5'X3' 6" 




5 n 

^ > dcjo.rfof!? sjsJj^^z^crasSMtf sS^odoO u ocisJoc3j!^3o [sioaSalreaj 

7, ?3^c3^d 3ja-sS,d3sqysd s3 p] o 

A >s,e^e^, ^> esJssi) .as dstoFsJosDOcrsaj 3& .0)crs&j p o^cODA3> doo 

\-/ "^*^/_)^ o -^ ^ U 

9, ScSO o)&jo3os3-sf\ i83!,aDOi*>d ^i^d^SA D-saJid ^djssjao ^sl)^o sSissD^qj^o ofli 


14 aj^^rt- ^MsrajSfc. p] o^o^o wrtostefi 

15 rt oaod'j) e^ddoo rfjs^ 
lg sfccpDcOrf sj^do ^d^ rt 
17 ^o 

1Q^/ sSoctfo p] ftj^^FSejcTsaJoss d^siort - 


^1. ^ wdoGre^Faj^cw eAsScero5J:c5oocJj^joi35^ l ?agga3^ 


24 rfi t3o^3o s333a^a*B3rra,5to 



2T ^^ oozjjsS^i I Rn>s3raod^aJioq3toFc3$ 

28 SSDO 

09 cU> 
,3Q ; . 


81. ctoqJsbFdrfD adjs&cfo e^o&cSScJo 

32. rtorf^acdoo ^dcdo&soG&rssd 

33. 33?j33*do *'"" 

: -.;::;- I-.-' .i. 1 :. .. Transliteration. 

1. svasfci srl vijayabbyudaya Salivabana saka varusba 

2. 1434 sandu nadavanta k - . . . . Srtmukba-samvatsarada Pbalgu ba 

5 svasti jitam 

3. bhagavata gata-ghana-gaganabhena sthira-simhasanarftdba srimaharaja- 

dhiraja ra- 

4. ja~param>svara sriman rQaha-m^dini-miseyara-ganda katbari-saluva srlma 


5. dradhipati Narasimha-varma-mahadbiraja tat-putra pitur-anv-agata 


6. ra-dyumani samyaktva-cbudan! ani sakala-vandi-brinda-sandoba- [santarpa- 

na] paranarisahodara 

7. saucbavira (sarvavtra ?) parakramadbara sa [ka] la d6sadhisvara-mani- 

makuta-cbaranaravinda katbari- 

8. fcrinetra ^rimat Krusbnavarrna-mabadbiraja prutbivi-rajyam-geyiiiottiralu 


9. sadalli vijayav&gi cbittayisida vira Krisbnarayara nirupadim srimanu 

rnahapradbanam Ya- 

10. ju-s^kbeya Kbandavag6trada Apastarnbba-sutrada srimanu Saluva. 

Timmarasaru Daksbina- 

11. varanasi Gajaranyakshdtra Rajarajapurav^da Talakadali srl mabad^va- 


12. ttama-Kirti Narayana d^varige Tbayura-stbalada Kavabaliyolagana gade 

bedalu t6- - - 

13. ta tudake suvarnadaya nidbi-nikshpa-jala-pasbana aksbini-agami-sidba- 

sadhyavemba a- . . 

14. sbta-bboga teja-svaniya [e] llavamnu agumadi anubbavisikondu .saluva 

adaya varaba 

15. ga 130 ' 2 aksbaradalu nuramuvattu varabaveradam Kirtinaraya^a d^vara 

16. madbyamna rauru avasarake ga 130 na grarnavanu Vijayanagariya 

Pamp aksb^fcradalu 

17. Tungabhadra-tiradali Yirupaksba-linga devara sannidbiyali 


18. maya [da] li srl Klrti Narayana-devarige Kaliballi-gramavanu Krlsbna- 


19. du sa-biramjiyodaka-dana-dbara-purvakav^gi Vijayanagariya utsava-de- 

20. varu deviyaru abbarana sabitavagi sri Klrti Narayana -devara bbandara- 


21. kke a-chandrarkka-sthayi-agi nadeiidu yendu kota Kalihalliya gramada 

22. stala Krishna-rayaru Saluva Timmayarigu dharinavagabekendu Bhara- 

23. dvaja-g6trada Yajusakheya Apastarnba-sutrada Upavasi-achariya- 

24. nu bmnahamadi kodisida grama ' dana-palanay6r madhye dan&chhre- 

25. yonupalanarn dana svargam avapn6ti palanad achutam padarn sva-dattam 

26. dvigunam punyam paradattanupalanam ' paradattapaharena sva-dattam 

27. nispbalam bhavetu ' samanyd yam dharma-seturu nrupan&m kale 


28. palaniyo bhavadbhih ' sarvan etan bbavinab partbivendran bbuyo bbu- 

29. yo yachate Eamachandrah ! sva-dattam para-dattarn va yo bar&ti va- 

30. sundharam sbasbti-varusba-sabasrani vishbayam jayate krimih ! 

31. yi-dbarmavamu arobaru alnpidavaru 

32. Grange-tadiyali kavileya konda papa- 

33. ke b6hara 


Be it well. In the -victorious and prospering Salivabana era, 1434 years baving 
expired, wbile tbe year Siirrmkba was current, on tbe -5th lunar day of tbe dark 
half of Phalguna : 

Be it well. Victory to tbe Adorable (Padnaanabha) who resembles tbe sky free 
from clouds. 

While the illustrious Krishnavarma-mahadhiraja seated on tbe stable throne, 
'the prosperous king of kings, lord of kings, champion over those who wear moustaches 
in the great earth, Jcathdri-sdhtva (dagger and kite), ruler over the southern sea, 
Narasimha-mabadhiraja's son ; a sun to the firmament that is tbe Yadava race of 
which he is a lineal descendant ; crest-jewel to righteousness, (deligbter) of all tbe 
assemblage of bards, brother to the wives of others, support for purity, heroism and 
prowess ; possessed of lotus-like feet on which bow the jewelled crowns of all the 
kings, kafhAri-trin&tro. (a Siva in tbe use of dagger) : was ruling the earth : 

Under the orders of Yira Krishnaraya, while he was pleased to go on a victorious 
expedition to tbe south : the illustrious mahapradhana (chief minister) Saluva 
Timmarasa of Yajus-sakha, Khandava-gotra, and Apastambha-sutra made a gift to 
the best of the gods, Klrtinarayanadevaru of Talakad which is Rajarajapura, south 
Benares and Gajaranya-kshetra, of the village Kavahali in Thayuru-sthala, with tbe 
right to enjoy the eight rights and powers in the village including all tbe rice-fields, 
dry lands, gardens, vegetable gardens (tudike), money income,- treasure, deposits 
underground, water springs, rocks, imperishables, future accruals, existing rights 
and possibilities. 

The said village Kalihalli with its income amounting to 130 varaJhas and two 
hanas is granted for the three services, in the afternoon, of the god Elrtinarayana 
and the gift is made in the Pampa-kshetra which is tbe same as Vijayanagari, on 



the banks of the Tungabhadra, and in the presence of the God Yirupaksha-linga on 
the above occasion, as a holy gift (Krishnarpana) with pouring of water and gold; 
and the Tillage is made over, together with the procession images of the gods and 
goddesses at Vijayanagari and their ornaments, into the treasury of thegod Kirtina- 
rayana, in order that the gift might last as long as the^moon and sun endure. ^The 
gift of the village was made at the request of Upavasi Achariya of Bharadvaja gotra, 
Yajussakhe, and Apastamba-sufcra, for the merit of Krishnaraya and Saluva Timma. 
Between making a gift and maintaining one already made, maintenance is 
better than gift. By a gift one obtains heaven and by protecting a gift one goes to 
a region from which there is no fall. Maintaining a -gift made by others is twice 
as meritorious as making a gift oneself. By confiscating another's gift, one's own 
gift becomes fruitless. " This bridge of dharina is common ,to all kings and should 
be protected by you from time to time." Thus does Bamachandra beseech again 
and again all future rulers. He who seizes land gifted by himself or by others is 
born as a worm in ordure for 60,000 years. Whoever destroys this gift will incur 
the sin of killing tawny cows on the banks of the Ganges. 


This is a record registering the grant of a village called Kavahalli or Kalihalli 
(same as the present village Kahalli) for services in the Kirtinarayana temple at 
Talakad on the Kaveri river in T.-Narsipur Taluk, Mysore District. It belongs to 
the reign of the Vijayanagar king Krishnaraya and is dated S' 1434 Srtmukha sam. 
Phal. ba. 5. This date corresponds to Ma*ch 15, A. D. 1514, if we take S' 1434 
expired or S' 1435 current Srimukha as the year intended. 

There are some peculiar features in the historical portion of this record. The 
king Krishnaraya is here styled Krishnavarma-mahadhiraja (L.8) as is also the 
case in two other inscriptions of the same Taluk (E. 0. III. Nanjangud 190 and 
195 of 1512 and 1513 A. D.). He is given some titles of the Western G-arigas and 
Hoysalas. (Jitam bhagavata gata-ghana-gaganabhena L.3, : Yadava-kulanibara- 
dyumani samyaktYa-chudamani). Another point to notice in this record is the 
mention of the king's visit to the southern part of his empire on a conquering 

Saluva Timrnarasa and his brother Saluva Govindaraja were ministers of 
Krishnaraja and Gdvinclaraja was entrusted with the government of Terakanambi 
kingdom (see B. 0. IY Gundlupet 3 of S 1435 and 1 of S 1444, etc.,) and 
his grants are frequently met with in the Nanjangud, Chamarajanagar and 
Gundlupet Taluks. (E. G. Ill Nanjangud 195 of S' 1435; T.-Narsipur 42 of 
S' 1445; T.-Narsipur 73 of S' 1441 : E. C. IY Gundlupet 1, 3, 35 ; Chamarajanagar 
99 of S 1445, 111 etc.) In some of these records their gdtra is given as Kaurjidinya 
and not as Khandava. 

Tlie temple of Kirtinarayana~-at -TalakacU is a Hoysala structure and is 
believed to have been constructed by king Vishnu vardhaB a (see M. A.- R. 1912,- p. 11). 
Not only are the revenues of the village stated to have -been granted for services 
in the temple but also the iitsava-images of the god and goddesses with ornaments 
either newly prepared or belonging to some other temple are said to have been sent 
from Vijayanagar, the capital. Lastly the grant is stated to have been made at 
the instance of a Brahman named Upavasi- Acrrariya. 

The usual imprecatory stanzas are found ab the end of the grant. 

~ - ' > - 

39 " ' . . ' '. " 

At the village Kalkunda in the same Hobali, on a boulder to the east of the 
Himada Ketar&svara temple to the south of the village, . . 

. - Modern Kannada language and characters. 



This short] inscription the characters of which seem -to belong to the 18th century - 
records -the construction of the above named Siva temple by one Sankanna. 

- ....... 40 ' ' r ; ::-. 

At the village Iggali in the same Hobali, on a slab lying on the road to T&yur 
village (E. 0. Ill Nanjangud 138 Revised).-" 

w - : -' - ...... -- " ; - Size 7' 6" x 3'. - / \ 

Old Kannada language and characters. 

O n 

7' 6"X3' 


3. . -*> 



a n 







1. svasti Asaga Ganga- 

2. yana magam Pi- ' 

3. Iduvigangam bhita stiti 

4. Adhikarigavundanu 

5. Charamagavundanu Siva- 

6. yagavundanu muvarum i- 

7. Idu IggaliyurS, ga- 

8. vateya vidisida- 

9. radade bitadu valita- 
10. ke Madigere 


Be it well. Pilduvi G-afiga, son of Asaga Gangaya, made the grant. When 
the three persons Adhikarigavunda, Charamagavunda and Sivaya-gavunda set free 
the cattle ? of the village Iggaliyur, Madigere was given as a grant. 


This inscription is not dated. It is probable that Pilduvi G-anga, the donor 
of this grant is the same as Pilduvipati I, son of Sivamara II, Ganga king, as the 
characters seem to be of the 9th century. The exact meaning of the phrase 
tl Ga vateya vidisidode " in line 8 is not clear. It is probable that the three persons 
named Adhikarigavunda etc., protected the cows of the village (gavate) while 
attacked by the enemies. As a reward for their services the king granted them a 
small village named Madigere as valita (grant of land with a fixed quit-rent to be 
paid annually). For Pilduvipati see Salem Manual, ii, 387, quoted on p. 42, Eice's 
Mysore and Coorg from inscriptions. 


At the village Sarma Mallipura, a hamlet of Kirugunda, on a stone lying in the 
land of Basappa to the west, 

Size 7' X If. 

Kannada language and characters. 

ad 6 egjw ws? adDrfiodcj crajod j&s s&o $33. ate 





7. ED . .. . * v . . a 
8 rt d ......... 





14. - - 04, 


"! fi 030uj035 tfO 2D43 

J-VJ. <~ _^ w . . . . xvu* 


22. .... ?3"Drtr1c3 lloll 



1. svasti srl pratapa-chakravarti 

2. Hoisala vira Narasim- 

3. ha-devarasaru pritivi- 

4. rajyam geyutiralu 

5. Saka varisha 1207 neya 

6. Subhakritu-samvatsarada Palgu- 

7. na he- 

8. ggade ......... 

9 garabeddalu 

10 lavum 

11 mataru 

12 hi atana tamma Ala- 

13. kodage Ala 

14 Idu holav eradu antu 

15 tidane sa- 

16. yira mattaru bitta 

17 sida sasana " 

18. . . . dakshina Tagadurali 


20. [Ta] yura Guliyapura 

21 yanna ala 

22 Nagagavuda " 1 " vltaraga 


This inscription belongs to the reign of tjie Hoysala king Narasimha III and is 
dated S' 1207 Subhakrit sam. Phalguna. But S' 1207 is Parthiva and the 
nearest Subhakrit is S' 1224 which falls in the reign of Ballala III. Hence the 
Saka year 1207 may be taken to be correct and the name of the year Subhakrit may 
he a mistake for Parthiva. S' 1207 or A. D. 1285 falls in the reign of Narasimha 
III,. The record seems to register the gift of some plots of lands rent-free , in the 
tillages Tagadur, Tayur and Guliyapura made by some heggade to Nagagauda. At 


the end of "-the - inscription is gi^en the signature ^Yitaraga,- the- Jama God. 
Apparently the donor was a Jaina.- ...... .-.-.... j - 

42 """.".".'// - ^ .' . \\ [ ' ' 

At the village Suttur in the same Hohali of Bilgere, a. sannad. of . Krishnaraja 
Vadeyar III, dated A.. D.. 1822, in the possession of Sivaratresvami, head of the 
Ylras"aiva mutt.of Suttur. ... -...,, ........ 

Kannada language and characters except the seal. 


CdOJDdO 55 53O ^S;PiO CTSOdOr? 


7, 2&/D2oako erto oeos3d ocoddo ^$z3 zo^alo 


13, sftSo us3sjoortdcld:tj 
13. eodsSor oej.s.33 


Soil dcS 

. - - . . Transliteration, 

;,.._ ...... _; ... Krishnarajavadeyaravaru. 

-1, - Chiferabhanti-samvatsarada.K:arttika su 12 Mangalavaradallu sriinattL 
-&''-.- ---.- .Ttayuru amila S6shagirirayage barasi kaluyisi-. .. .:?' 

- 3.----da nirupa-adagi ylttaluku paiki Sutturu-mathada Basavaiingavaderige _:" 

4. - Kan-tirayi muvattu hanada bhumiyannu sarvarLiamnyavagi nadasuva baggeY 
-5... -appanekottu.yidhittu-sagUT^ .1 ;... .-..:> 


6. sarakarada varada bhuiniyali agali yivaru madiyiruva kandayada 

7. bhumiyali agali yidarali yivaru kelida baliya kantiraya niuvattu ha- 

8. nada bhumiyamnnu gottumadi kottu Chitrabhanu-samvatsarada arabhya 


9. pratiyalu ttaja sannadu vujuru madade nirupadhikadali sarvamamnya- 


10. nadasikondu baruvadu yi-bhumige lingamudre silapratishte madisi kodu- 

11. vudu ,yi sannada nakalu ttalukada sirastara daptarake barasi asalu 


12. sadari Basavalingavaderru vasakke koduvadu battariku 26 ne mane 


13. bara san 1822 ne yisavi khat Subaiya munashi hajuru Pura- 

14. nurru kantiraya murru varahada bhu- 
15. ml yinamagi nadasikondu barru- 

16. vadu Sri Krishna 

17. paiyi-vastike Chitrabhanu sam " rada 

18. iibhayatmaka Pushy a 

19. ba 3 Mamggajavara 


This is the Nirtipa which Krishnarajavadeyar caused to be written and des- 
patched to Seshagiri Bav, Amila of Tayur on Tuesday the 12th lunar day n of the 
bright half of Kartika in the year Chitrabhanu : 

Orders have been issued to the effect that a plot of land of the value of 30 
Kantirayi lianas should be granted to Basavalinga-vader of Suttur Matt, of this 
Taluk. You must grant him a plot of land of 30 Kantirayi hanas or three yarahas 
which he might choose either out of dry land under general cultivation or. out of 
land which the Government lets out on vdram tenure (fixing a portion, of the 
produce to be given by the tenant in place of the land-tax) or out of land which he 
(Basavalingavader) is already culivating for Eanddyam (fixed rent). You, should 
maintain this as a sarvamanya from the year Chitrabhanu onwards without any 
impediment and without insisting on the production of the original sannad every 
year. The land should be "made over after setting up boundary stones marked with 
linga. A copy of this sannad should be filed in the archives (daftar) of the Taluk 
Sirastedar and the original sannad should be handed to the said Basavalinga-vadeyar. 

Date of writing : 26th November 1822 : written by Subaiya, Huzur Munshi. 
Puranur (Camp) : 

Land of three varahas should be granted as inam : Sri Krishna (signature.) 

Endorsement (Paiyivastihi) on Tuesday, the 3rd lunar day of the dark half of 
Pushya in the year Chitrabhanu. . 



This records the grant of some land to the Yirasaiva guru named Basavalinga. 
Vodeyar, head of the matt at Suttur, a village in Nanjangud Taluk, Mysore. The 
gift of the land was made by the king Krishnaraja Vodeyar 'III of Mysore, The 
order is addressed to Seshagiri Rav, Amil (amildar) of Tayur (which is now a 
village in Nanjangud Taluk but which was at the time the headquarters of a Taluk). 
The grant was made in the year Chitrabhanu, A. D. 1822 and the details of dating 
are given both in terms of Saka and Christian eras, and lines 14-16 contain the 
writing and the signature of the king making the gift. 

Above the writing is a seal containing the words Sri Chamaraja Vodera tanuja- 
Krishnaraja Vodera in Devanagari characters. 


Another sannad of the king Krishnaraja Vodeyar III dated the year Prajdt- 
patti (1812 A. D.) in the possession of the same Suttur matt. 

Kannada language and characters except the seal. 

$3 cto. 





4 ridps$vJ& 

T:. V 

5 osrsfisSsa c&$ d do.odoja^ ea| TTD, 

^' i eJ e) cO ^33 _J 

g, 5d:sS)tf53s?^dorl ^jsdo ooodooosi^d 


9 ecrsft -3cx3ojsdo 



1 1 

J- * 

13 1 cS sJddrt^o 

1 4 S&^O 

16 cj od: 

-Lw. CO i 

wcdro Rl tfao ooo 

.. 00 t*3 fl CO 

1 7 dod ^osi) s&drt^ 2SDdcS237)d sjo:o 

* * n5 

i ft D AsiEQ ^ja^osjoo ea^Ria 

-Lw -a 00 Co 

IQ srs>,aO, ??iSf os^&aofloo zodcS 

*- t ^' -/ if ^ 




22. 3DGA.rWoowdj.33 tfdo afcato do 

* CJ CO ' -J 




27 easort^ dss^do^ SJDIO^JS a?;jj do 

29. oDi 

30. ODO 

31. rf 

33. d* 

34. tfd 

35. c&sfcto coorfo 
36 S;y^. 

"-"-' O 



v> * - 

39, ssDCdod cOoerss3cdD3d:> 

40. ^o^ w^stoc&do;! s~36cOO^o sSra<2 coo 
41 as-sdsraft sSrfo 5SjE^t?jsa,oo;dorf 33, 

- CJ - f J 


43 , , 

' cu (^ * 


J - J 

45. a s3yc5 cra 4 s3d3, 

46. EJcSo s'DOa 

47 3 oso^<5) s 


48 2o&3JDd &je*ai 

a *^^* ' CJ PC 

Krishnar&ja Yadeyaravaru. 

1. Prajofcpatti-samvatsarada Phalguiia ba. 3 lu 

2. srimatbul 1 I'Tayum 

3. Haradanahalli Guridlu Terakanambi Hegga- 

4. dad^vanakote Pperiyappatna Kattemala- 

5. lavMi Bettadappura Maisuru ashtagra- 

6. ma Malavalli Benggaluru yi munttada A- 

7. ramane sime gadigala amiladara killeda- 

8. rarige saha barsi kaluhista nirupa 



9. adagi Tayura talku Suttura matha- 

10. da vadera patada devaru tamma mathada vi- 

11. charane-bagye nimnia nimma talkugalige bandi- 

12. ruvadarindda aya-tal6kkinalli yiruva rnatha- 

13. da vaderagalu sadari Sutturu-mathada vadera 

14. indla-mattavamnu appaharsi kondirruvarnttha- 

15. ddannu vicharane inadi tamma vadave tau 

16. vasullu madi-koluvallu aya-sthaladalli yi- 

17. ruva tamma mathagala achara yichara mum- 

18. tagi madikoluvallu addi sadi madadante 

19. prakku kacheri takitiyu barada bandda merre- 

20. ge ylgallu ade prakarakke nadadu-koluvante 

21. appane kodsi yidhitadakarana nirnmma nimmrna 

22. talkugalalli yirruva sadari Sutturu-mathada 

23. patada, dyava-rru vadera yilakhe matha- 

24. gala achara vichara vicharane rnaduva- 

25. llu yivarru vadave tegedukondiddavara vi- 

26. charane madi baramadikoluvallu niti 

27. adi sadigala madadante sabakku dasthurru 

28. prakarakke sara [pa] rasu nadsikondu barruvadu 

29. yl bagye aya-sthalada rnattbada vaderagalu 

30. yl vishayavagi tanfce bantegala madi- 

31. dalli nlvu vajabi yiddha nierege chamnnagi 

32. daryahptu madi sabakku mamullu praka- 

33. rakke nadedukoluvahage nimma nimmma talku- 

34. dalli yiruvantha vaderige jora takiyitu roa- 

35. duvadu yidu horttu yivaru Sutturu- 

36. matthakke simeyind4 bhikshatana niadikon- 

37. du tammma tammma sishyajanara kadeyindda 

38. davsa dhanyavenadarru tandu koluvallu 

39. Sayara-yilakheyavaru sunkka barabe- 

40. kendu addi madadante takiyitu madi yi- , 

41. vichara vagi sadari appane kodsi yiruva pra- 

42. karakke sara [pa] rasu nadasikondu barruvaddu yi 

43. nirruppada nakalamnu sarakarada daptarakke barsi 

44. asallu niruppavannu sadari Sutturu-inattha- 
45 e da patada dyavaru vadera vasakke vapsu kodu- 

46. vadu tarikhka gnrre mahe March! samn 1812 

47. ne yisavi khatta Asvathanaranaiyya inunasi 

48. ha jura Srikrishna 



This sannad also belongs to Krishnaraja Vode3 7 ar III and is dated March 1st, 
1812 -A. D. or (S 1733) Prajotpatti Phalg. ba. 3. It records an order by the king 
to the Amildars and Killedars (heads of forts) in several places including Tayur, 
Haradanahalli, G-undlu, Terakanambi, Heggadadevankote, Periyapatna, Katte Mala- 
lavadi, Bettadapura, Mysore, Ashtagrama, Malavalli. They are informed of the 
visit of the head priest in charge of the matt at Suttur to the places in their jurisdic- 
tion and directed not to obstruct him in his settlement of religious disputes among 
the disciples of the matt or in the collection of dues to the matt. They were also 
instructed to see that the local priests (vaders) did not cause any disturbance to the 
matt people in their collections of dues, etc., and in case any such priests caused 
disturbance, the authorities were to carefully investigate the matter and to compel 
them not to transgress the existing custom. 

Further the customs authorities were not to demand any tolls on the provisions 
collected by the matt people from, their disciples, as orders had been passed exempt- 
ing those articles of theirs from the payment of tolls. 

'- a A copy of this nirup had to be prepared and kept in the G-overnment records- 
(daftar) and the original nirup was to be returned to the presiding abbot (pattada 
dyavaru vader) of the Suttur Matt. Then follows the date 1st March 1812, and the 
name of the scribe Asvathanaranaiya and the signature of the king as Sri Krishna. 

: 44 

: Another sannad of the year Sarvadhari (1768 A. D.) in the possession of the 

same Suttur Matt. 

"' Kannada Characters. 

Seal in Persian Characters. 

i six-JcJ asSus&3Je>,.7Wd aosatttosSraad a^otfo S3 cfc. 


} t C{f)^2& CA)EfJ030O 


O. ^ v - 4 jj .- %^ S ,!, 






1. Sarvadhari sam 1 Ashadha su 3 llu srlmat sakala-guna-sampannar a- 

2. dantthA pradhana Yenkapaiyanavarige I adagi I ^ankaranarayanadalli 

3. yiruva mathakke modalu Hai ga 16 ' o varaha nadadu baruvadu sari- 

4. yashte ' yiga mattu hechchagi Hai ga 8 varaha vannu appane kodsi 

5. yidhittu ubhayam Haidari ga 24 ' o varaha ippattu-nalku varaha- 

6. kke sariyagi yivaru kelida baliya tota gadde saha bidisi ko- 

7. ttu suruchiyagi nadasi kondu baruvadu I yi hanakk ota 

8. pagadi muntadannu kyaladantte sthalakke takiti madisi yi ni- 

9. rupavamnnu sanabhagara kaditakke barasi punah yi mathada vade- 
10. ra vasakke kodistivudu " 


This is a sannad addressed to Pradhana Venkappaiya. The signature at the, 
end is apparently Hyder's signature, the letter is Hai in Persian inverted.- 
Pradhana Venkappaiya was a minister of Mysore serving nominally under the 
Mysore kings (Krishnaraja Yadeyar II, Nanjaraja Yadeyar and Bettada Ghamaraja 
Yadeyar) but actually under Hyder Ali from about 1763 A. D. till about 1780 A.D. 
(see pp. 199 and 224 of Annals of the Mysore Eoyal Family, Part I, 1916.) , . 

The object of the sannad is to record ao additional grant of lands to be 
given to the Vader (Yirasaiva priest) of Sankaranarayana, a sacred place, south 
of Mangalore in South Canara District. Lands of the rental value of 16 varahas 
were already being enjoined by the Matt and by the present grant additional 
lands of the value of 8 varahas were also ordered to be given away to the matt 
bringing the total value to 24 varahas. The minister was to procure the additional 
lands whether rice fields or gardens as specified by the matt. The local authorities 
were to be instructed that no deduction or tribute was due on the additional value 
of lands. The nirupa was to be copied in the Shanbog's (village accountant's) files 
after execution of the order and returned to the head priest (vader) of the matt. 

The date is given as Sarvadhari sam. Ashadha su. 3 which is evidently equi- 
valent to 17th June 1768 A. D. 

The Sankaranarayana matha of the present record is believed to have been 
a branch of the Suttur Matt and has now disappeared. The above mforrnation 
was furnished by the present head of the Suttur Matt. 


A copper plate of S 1693 in the possession of the same matt at Suttur* 
Kannada language and characters. 






4c3 sod cdos33 n3 s"3 ed3 23o oo 
cO ^ _3 

5. P 

6. B^* 

I ^J 



)]_ < o &3sj$r3Gr? 5~3^jo .3 I sojartc^jfrO&rJ 

10 rsScr^ 5"s>?jo J> ci)e3 rfcSr? cc5oe3sfocJo o 

J. JU 

Id. j tu 

-i-^t. cO 

15. o,rtcra 







26. ^ F 


28. otfosjdo li 


1. Sri Eama 

2. svasti sri vijayabhyudayya ' Sail 

3. vahana saka varrushangalu 1693 

4. ne Khara-samvatsa [ra] dha Sravana su 10 

5. llu ' Dh^vanagarada p^te-satti pattana- 

6. syami muntada iibhayya nana- 

7 desada mahanadinavarru ' Kalamgaridi- 


8. nmtakke -barasi kota dhamia-sasana- 

9. da kraniav entendarre adagi ' Yadado- 

10. rre-kote-inargadalli mule-herrige kasu 

11. 1 javali nadege kasu 2 hoge-sompina 

12. nadege kasu 2 yale nadege yale kanthu 1 

13. talehorege chaiika ' arrisina me- 

14. nsu muntada kavada sarakina he- 

15. nigella kasu 2 dara meraiyallu' ko- 

16. iu nadasikondu baralulavarru yan- 

17. du bliarresi komta dannasasana 

18. yi-darmakke yaramdaru yi- 

19. 114 yandavarrige Kasiyalli 


20. gohutya m^dida papa inatru- 

21. gainana inadida papa sisu-ha- 

22. feya gohatya madida papakke 

23. vajagaguvaru yennudagi 

24. nana-desadavaru aivatarru 

25. desadavarru barasi komta da- 

26. rma- sasana vartane-pantte 

27. sri Basavesvara-svanii- 

28. yavaru 


Sri Bama. Be it well. In the victorious year 1693 of the Salivahana era, in 
the year Khara, on the 10th lunar day of the bright half of Sravana, the pete-settis 
(merchants of the shops) and pattanasami (mayor of the town, the chief merchant) of 
Devanagara, the people of the great nads of the two great countries, caused the 
following sasana of charity to be written for the Kalangaridi Matt : 

We promise to pay the following taxes. On the road leading to Yededore fort, 

1 kasu for a bullock-load ? of general merchandise, -2 pies for a bullock-load of cloth ; 

2 pies for a bullock-load of tobacco ; 1 bundle of leaves for a bullock-load of betel 
leaves; 1 ch-auJta (100 leaves) for a package of betel leaves; 2 pies for each load of 
turmeric, pepper and other articles loaded on bullocks. 

This is the dharmasasana granted in writing. Whoever refuses to pay this 
incurs the sin of killing cows at Benares or committing incest with mother or 
killing infants and cows. 

Thus the ndnddttadavarullit-.'-poopleot different countries) and awattdm 
cUsadavam (people of 06 countries) have this ' dharmasasana and vartana-paUe 
(list of dues to be paid) engraved. , ' 

Sri Basavesvarasvamiyavaru/' - " - " y " 



13 :. This is- a copper plate sasana found in the same -matt at Suttur. No -king is 
named here. It is dated 6 1693 Khara sam. Sravana su. 10 (August 19, 1771) and 
records a grant by certain merchants to the matt at Kalangaridi of certain fees or 
taxes on the articles of merchandise in which, they traded. . This matt at. -Kalan- 
garidi is believed to have been subordinate to the one at Suttur. The record is full 
of orthographical errors : kotta is written as konita, etc. 


At the same village Suttur, on the pedestal of the gaddige (tomb) of'&ivara- 
tresvami to the west of the village. 

to>dc&oaoe>3fc3 sfttfrf asSou^ ara^rttf rt^rtofc 

1. c5oo<3o$ ajosj^dd sjjssosto OQ sS^sredcJoifl sSzsrfriad 


1. Dundubhi-samvatsarada Makha su 10 Sanivaradalu sajana-suddha- si 

chara-sampan- - -- - " . 

2. naradanta Sivaratre-d6vara nirupadinda Lingana-oderu Basava-prati- 

shtenu madida punyada seve ' . " 


On Saturday, the 10th -lunar day of the bright half of Maglia in the year 
Dundubhi, by the orders of Sivaratredevar, possessed of righteous conduct and pure 
Saiva religious practices, Lingana-odeyar did the _ holy service of consecrating the 
Basava (bull). 

Note. , ... 

. - . This inscription is engraved on the pedestal of the sacred bull set up over the 
-.burial place (samadhi) of an ascetic of the ViraSaiva .matt at. Suttur and the place 
-is. very sacred both to the matt and its disciples. Sivaratri Vodeyar of this record 
.was one of the early heads of the matt. No date in the Saka era is given, Ths 
-Characters look like those of the early part of the 16th .century A. D. If we take 
D.undubhi, A. D. 1502-3, the date corresponds to January 7, 1503, a Saturday as 
Stated therein. If we take 1562-3 Dundubhi, the date Feb. 2, 1563, would fall on 
a Tuesday. The former is possibly the .date intended. - 


the' date r . it , is hot possible to determine its exact English equivalent. The 
characters seem to belong to the end of the 15th century and the Rakshasa sam- 
vatsara of the record may be the same as 1495 A. D. 


At the same village Tayur, on a fragmentary stone in the vacant site of the 
ruined Hanumaritaraya temple at the entrance to the fort. 

Size 2' X i' 
Old Kannada language and characters. 

2' XI' 


o 3o33 d 

* et 

S?* ^js^D esPsje 


rf p] 

esPsjeS>. r (53s3o F 


Trans liter ation. 

1. svasti sri-rajya vijaya 

2. samvatsara Nitim^rgga perniinH- 

3 ...... digala Kongunivarmma dharmuia 

4. raja sriniat Permmana [di] gala 

5. [pattam gattij da 9 neya samvatsaravada . . . 

6. samvatsaradalu 'viradira 
7 ...... rimasa 


This inscription is engraved on a fragmentary stone and hence the record is 
very incomplete. It refers to the 9th regnal year of Kongunivarma-dharma (maha) 
raja rimat Permanadi (son ?) of Nitimarga Permanadi, king of Sri-rajya. The 
name of the year has worn away. After the date no further details are left. 

Sri-rajya or " fortunate kingdom " is the name used in inscriptions for the 
Ganga kingdom (Bice's Mysore and Ooorg from Inscriptions, P. 38) from the time 
of Slripurusha (circa 726-77 6-ibid P. 50). The titles Kongunivarma-dharma mahadhi- 
raja and Permanadi are applied to all the Ganga kings. Nitimarga is also a name 
applied to three Ganga kings. The characters seem to belong to the close of the 9th 



- 47 

At the village Tayur in the same hobli, on a pillar in the ranga-mantapa of 
the Jagade'svara temple. 

Kannada language and characters. 


g t 


9 > 


q3 o oo 




Trans literation. 



ka-ya (na) vo- 


rige kottam 

tha Hura- 

da hola 

ko 15 

yi bumi 

ya . . . . 

n apaharisi 

1. Rakshasa-samYatsa- 

2. rada Chayitra su- 

3. dha 1 lu srl Triyambaka- 

4. ka (ta) lavi-matada 

5. Chikavira- 15. 

6. nodeya- 16. 

7. ra sisya- 17. 

8. ra 18. 

9. Parvvatha-deva- 19. 
10. ru Triyamba- 

(There are 11 more lines below which are illegible.) 


This inscription is incomplete as several lines below line 15 cannot be made 
out owing to the letters having been very lightly engraved and covered with several 
coatings of whitewash. The object of the record is to register the grant of a plot 
of dry land of the sowing capacity of 15 kolagas in the village Hura to Triyamba- 
kaya Yodeyar by Parvatade"varu, disciple of Chikaviranodeyar, head of Triyambaka 
Kalavi-matha. It is clear that both the donor and donee were priests of the Vira- 
saiva sect. It is not known what became of the matt referred to in the record.. 
Nor is it easy to determine the date of the donor nor of the donee. The date given 
in the record is Eakshasa sam. Chaitra su. 1 and as no details are given to verify 


eentury and it is hence possible that the record belongs to the reign of Nitimarga 
II, surnamed Mahendr&ntaka (0 886-913). 



At the town T.-Narsipur, on a stone used for washing clothes in the backyard 
of Upadri oriniyasaiyangar. 

Size 3' x 2' 6". 

Tamil language : Tamil and Grantha characters. 
The text is printed as a Supplement. 

Front Transliteration. 

1. svasti sri pratapachakravatti 

2. sri vira Vallaladevar prativi-rajya- 

3. m panniy arula nirka Sakarai-ya- 

4. ndu ayirattu oru nuyru orupadu 

5. senra Kilaka-samvatsarattu ch Chi- 

6. ttirai-masam Punisaiyur ana 

7. ^riramadeva-chchaturpedimangala- 

8. ttu mahasabhaiy6ril Kausi- 

9. kan llaiyal.vahabhashtarum Bha- 
10. ratygija Karurnanikkalvar Pi- 
ll, llibhashtarum utpatta mahasa- 

' 12. bhaiy6m [rna] hamaikku Maligaiyu- 

13. daiy^n Netiyalvan-Kaiyi- 

14. 1 vangi yitta ponnukkum 

15. ponnara kkondu mannara 

16. kkudutta nilarn avadu kumbaran- 

17. kalil kilakkil simai. 

18. lumbaikku mrkulvayik-(k)- 

19. kuli mannukkum ponna- 

20. ra kkondu mannara kku- 

21. duttu kalladittu kkudut- 

22. torn Ilaiyalvarum Pil- 

23. liyalvaruxn utpatta mahasa- 

24. bhaiyom Netiyalvarukku 

25. Alugodana 

26. Kulotturjgas"olapurattu p- 

27. periyanattup perunterunka- 


28. ttu tulagadakanda Abai- 

29. ya-vallabha-deva-Vinnagara-ko- 

30. yilukku tiruma saptami amasi-bo- " - 

31. rum idakkadavadaga Maligaiyu- , 

32. daiyar Netiyalvar ^ettanamm idu 


This belongs to the reign of the Hoysala king Vira Ballala (II) and was issued 
in the year S' 1110 Kilaka, in the month Chittirai corresponding to March- April 
1188 AJD. The object of the inscription is to record the grant of some land for 
certain services (not clearly specified) to be offered on certain days of the month, 
namely, the 7th lunar day of each fortnight and Full Moon-day, in the temple of 
Abhayavallabhad^var, a form of Vishnu in the -village Algod, called also Kulot- 
tungasolapura. Algod is a village about a mile to the north-east of the town of 
Narsipur where the record is found and contains a temple now called Ghennigaraya 
or Ke"sava temple. Evidently the present grant was made for this temple. The 
donor is named Maligaiyudaiyan Netiyalvan and he is stated to have given a 
definite sum of money for the purchase of a plot, of land (with boundaries specified) 
to the village assembly (mahasabhai) of Punisaiyur called also Sri Rramade'va- 
chchatur-peditnangaia now known as Huiisur, a village two miles to the west of 
T-Narsipur. The above village assembly of whom, two members are named in the 
grant, Ilaiyalvaha-bhashtar of Kausika-gotra, and Karumanikkalvar Pillibhashtar 
of Bharadvaja-gotra received the money and granted the land and set up the 
stone sasana. 

The record ends with the signature of the donor and no imprecation is found in 
the grant against its violators. 

As the stone on which the inscription is engraved has been used for a long time 
as a washing board, some of the letters are much worn out. The figures of conch 
and discus and a cow are engraved on the back of the slab. 


At the village Bairapura, in the hobali of T-Narsipur, on the 1st slab in front 
of the Basave's'vara temple. 

Size 3 f 6" x 1' 6" 
Kannada language and characters. 

'__6"Xl'~- 6"- 

OoJ^OGS 5D3F^3 

2. to z. rt> b 



5. So 37$ sgpdcdod 


Q, CBOOT^dSJoSft 2313 



12 sg/stfrtotf rtd z3d 

-*" ^ a ca 


oo sgjso^o y^ddoa n 


y [so] o 3ooj5^ 4 oc3o 




1. Angi-samvatsarada Karfcika 

2. ba 7 Gu srimam maha,-rajadlairaja 

3. raja-paramesvara srivira Hariha- 

4. rarayara dharmdddharaka Tirumakii- 

5. dala-nathavodeyara samakshadalli 
6 Alugoda gramada Kddaranatha- 

7, bhattagalu Eama-bhaktange Bha- 

8, yirapuravannu bita- 

9, ragi alliya haraha-ha- 

10. riyalulla d^vadanava- 

11. nu kaledu chatu-sime- 

12. volagula gadde beddalu 

13, tota tudike ^nulla sarva-svamya- 

14, vanu anubhavisikondu kattugutta- 

15. geyagi varusha vondakke feerutta 

16, sidaya ga 11 homnu aksbaradalu ga- 

17, dya [na] m hamnnondu homnanii varisha- 
18 varisham Magadalu kodufcta baharu yi- 

19. dan alihidavaru Kasl ......... 

20 ....... kavileya konda ppake 

21. hoharu ...... ..... , , . 

22 ........ varu 


On Thursday, the 7th lunar day of the dark half of Kartika in the year Angi 
[rasa] : 

In the presence of Tirumakudalanatha Vodeyar, protector of the charities of 
Vira Harihararaya, king of great kings, and lord of kings : 

EMaranathabhatta of the village Alug6d granted, Bhayirapura to Barnabhakta 
and therefore (the donee) will enjoy all the rights within the area (of that village) 
including all wet and dry lands, gardens, etc., within the four boundaries of the 
village with the exception of lands previously gifted for service to the gods. And he 
will pay the fixed sum of 11 varahas as siddhdya (quit-rent) in the month M&gha of 
each year. Whoever violates this will incur the sin of slaying tawny cows in 



This is an inscription of the reign of Harihara of Vijayanagar. From the 
imperial titles used and the name of the year Angirasa it is evidently Harihara II 
that is referred to in the grant. The year Angirasa did not occur in the reign of 
Harihara I. (0. 1336-1356.) In Harihara II's reign (1377-1404) there is only one 
year Angirasa S ' 1314 and taking that year, the details of the date of the present 
grant correspond to .November 7, A. D, 1392 which is a Thursday as stated in the 

Both the donor Kedaranathabhatta and the donee Ramabhakta are private 
individuals. But who is this Tirumakudlunatha Vodeyar in whose presence the 
grant was made? He is evidently some officer of Harihara II who looked after the 
charities of the king (dharmdddhdraka). No such officer's name has been so far 
met with. It is possible to take Tirumakudlunatha Vodeyar as the name of the chief 
cieity (Siva called also Agastyesvara) of the village Trramakucllu, a few miles from 
the inscription stone and dharmdddhdraka may mean one who helps the king to 
make charities. The title Vodeyar is, however, applied to kings, nobles and even 
heads of matts but not applied to gods. Hence it must have been applied here 

to some officer of the king, 


On a second stone standing in the same place at Bairapur, 






5, arc&>ds3sg)dc5 sg/s^oo esddo 




1 ........ ...... 

2 ...... kairuhale-adhikarigala 

3. Kaliyura adhikarigala Tirumakudala 

4. Hanumantesvara-d^vara dipa-amrita-padige Alugudu 

5. Bayiravapurada vokalu avaru teruva cha- 

6. . meyanu bittu kota vivara yidake 

7. tapidavaru Gangeya tadiyali tamma tande ta [ya] 

8. Orangey all konda papake hoharti 

9. sva-dafctam para-dattam va ...... 

10. vas-undharam 


The first line at the top and a portion of the 2nd line of this record have- 
become worn out and the letters thereof cannot be deciphered. What remains- 
seems to register the gift of some taxes paid by the farmers (voJcJcalu) of the village 
Alugtidii Bayiravapura (same as Algod-Bayirapura) for the service of illuminations 
and food-offerings of the god Hanumante'svara of Tirumakudlu. The grant seems 
fco have been made by certain officers of the" villages Kairuhalli and Kaliytir. These 
villages are situated within a radius of 12 miles from the inscription-stone. 
The usual imprecation occurs at the end of the grant. 

The grant is not dated. The characters seem to belong to about the 15th century* 


On a 3rd stone standing at the same place. 



2, esT3$ SoqJ oo 

4, sSgOTJSftdcj Oorto 

5. es^ )dr1oj 



This is a viragal set up in memory of a warrior named Linganna of the village 
Bairapura in the reign of the Yijayanagar king Achyutaraya. No Saka year is 
given. The date is Jaya sam. Ashadha su 10. As the only year Jaya in the reign 
of Achyutaraya is S ' 1456 the date corresponds to June 21, A. D. 1534. 


At the village Hunasur in the same T.-Narsipur hobaji, on a broken ?tone lying 
in a field to the north. 


Tamil language : Tamil and Granfeha characters, 
The text is printed as a Supplement. 


1. svasti sri pratapachakravatti sri Yira Yal- 

2. laladevar prativi-rajyam panniy arul 

3. nirka Idai-nattup Punisaiyu- 

4. r ana Simmadeva-chchaturpedi-nian- 

5. galattu mahasabhaiyom svasti 

6. sri padinen-vishayattu Desa sala- 

7. ttigandarku engal paramattak- 

8. ku vadakku Oranakku kilakkn Ara- 

9. sukku terku sri Kayilayattuk- 

10. ku merku in-naiu-padaivukku- 

11. tpatta bhumiyai vixapattana- 

12. kail adittu kkuduttom maha- 

13. sabhaiyom idukku irai- 

14. kadaiyadu Karkuda-u- 

15. daiyanukkum Yisaiyanallu- 

16. lanukkum irai-ili Aiyimani- 

17. kar-arasamakkalukku irai-ili- 

This Tamil inscription, like No. 49, also beloegs to the reign * the 


made to them. Some other persons named Karkuttadaiyan (stone engraver ?) and 
Yisaiyanallulan and Aiyimanigar (artisans of the five classes ?) and Arasumakkal 
(princes ?) are also said to have been exempted from the payment of taxes. ; 

" " 54 . .' 

At the village Kirugasur in the same hobali of T.-Narsipur, on a stone set up 
in the land of Deviramma to the west of the village. 

Size 2' 3" x 2' 

' 3"x2' 

^ oo 

4. so^^sqSdsJdo des3B-s(rre) 
d o^oskEi crsSd 


I * 


Kannada language and characters. 

Transliteration. ' 

1. G-opinatha-devain sa [ra] nu 

2. Eaktakshi-samvatsara Bhadrapa- 

3. da su 11 Su Tagadura La- . , 

4. kshuminathanavaru Kirudasu- 

5. ra Lakshumanadasara maga Dpdda- 

6. Singariya magge sarvvamanyava- 

7. gi kottaru yi-dharmmavanu 

8. arobbaru alidare Kaveri- 

9. ya tadiyalu kavileya 

10. konda papadalu ho- 

11, hanu sunka-manya 



G-opinathadeva is (my) refuge. 

On Friday, the llth lunar day of the bright half of Bhadrapada in the year 
Raktakshi, Lakshuininatha of Tagadur granted Kirudasur as sarvamdnya to the son 
of Doddasingariya, son of Lakshumanadasa. Whoever violates this charity will 
incur the sin of slaying tawny cows on the banks of the Kaveri. Customs dues 


This is a private grant made by one Lakshuminatha, a native of the village 
Tagadur (in Nanjangud Taluk). The donee's father is named Lakshumanadasa but 
the donee's own name is omitted unless we take Dodda Singariyamaga as a proper 
name and Dodda Singariyamagge as the dative singular of that name. What was 
the nature of the grant ? Either we might say that Kirugasur, in line 4 was the 
village granted or we might interpret Kirugasura as the genitive of Kirugasur, the 
village where the stone is found, and take Lakshumanadasa as a native of Kirugasur. 
In this case the grant made was of customs dues of the village as stated in line 
11 sunJca manya. The former interpretation seems to be preferable. 

The Saka year is not given. The date given is Raktakshi sam. Bhadr su 11, 
Friday. The characters seem to be of the 16th century. If we take S ' 1426 
Baktakshi the week-day is Wednesday; and if S' 1486 is taken the week-day is 
Friday. It is, therefore, probable that the date of the grant is Friday, the llth lunar 
day of the bright half of Bhadrapada in S ' 1486 Raktakshi corresponding to 
August 18, A. D. 1564. 



At the village Belagunji in the Hobali of Sagar, on a slab in the ceiling of 
the Yirabbadra temple. 

Kannada language and characters. 


II 1 

A I 














2. arscrscdoKO qre^ctioo 

3. fra.trt>o] GSsfcjd^&si^o jdosoOo 
4 o 


5. odrtodc 





F 93 C 


viracholam vitaranadolu karumnyakaram vai- 
ri-Narayanam dhatriyali Bommarasam 

[Hosagun] dada nelevldinolu sukhadim rajyam geyyu [ttire vai] 
ri-nar^yanam Amnnale-verggadeya m^le Na- 
karagandam Kabakana Bommeyanaya ... 
Pulkanada Yindasorali sakala-stoe [ve] 

rasi paritandu Saka varusha 1191 neya Sukla-samvafcsarada 
katakamani kalakulam niadidali Kabakana Bommeya Nayaka 
ke kayidu barutirpp Annalavergadeya s^neyam markondu 
kudnre fchatamttire vidalana-patu vatti sabaladim kudure 

. . . ondanu" kalal idirchhi ponarddade salittam 
Kabakana maga Bominaiiu 11 ant ruvam-negamoda 
tageya hattiyantire sr^ntiyan eri kudu 
hohata tyakta jlvanam Suravadhugalu hemavima" 
srt sri sri Somoja madida 


This inscription slab forms part of the ceiling of the Virabbadra temple A 
portion of it containing the first few lines is hidden in the wall and cannot be seen 
Even wi h regard to the remaining lines, the letters at the end of each line have 
been destroyed while sawing off the edges of the slab to make it fit into the ceilinl 
Hence the record is very incomplete. g ' 


It belongs to the time of Bomrnarasa, a general of the Santara dynasty. The 
capital of this dynasty of kings is Patti Pomburcha, same as the village Humcha in 
the Nagar Taluk. Bominarasa of this record was a general of the Santaras and 
stated in several inscriptions to have been ruling in Hosagunda, a village in 
Sagar Taluk (E. C. VII, SMmoga 61 : VIII, Sagar 83, etc.). It is also known that 
the Santaras were feudatories of the Hoysalas (E. C. VII, SMmoga 61). 

The present record describes the heroic fight and death of a warrior . named 
Bommeyanayaka, son of Kabaka, in a battle at Indasor in Pulkanadu , fought 
against Annaleveggade. A battle against Armaleveggade is also referred to. in two 
stone, inscriptions of Hosagunda (E. C. VIII, Sagar 137 and 138). 

The name of the engraver is given as S&m&ja. The titles given to Boinrnarasa 
in the record are Vira-Chola (?) in liberality, a mine of kindness, a Narayana to 
enemies. Similar titles are also recorded in a stone inscription at Hosagunda 
(E. 0. VIII, Sagar 140). . . 

The date is not fully given, the name of the month and week-day .having 
disappeared at the end of line 7. The year given is 8 1191, Snkla and this .corres- 
ponds to A. D. 1269. 


On a atone set up in the wet land of Keladi-Naranappa at the village Jambani 

in the same Sagar Hobali. 

Size 4' X 2'. 

Kannada language and characters. 

4' X 2' 

i s5Dq3dos3i II rfstosio ort 

JL* ^ o 

4, cSsszfedcfla 

5, aJOsS^FrfS 

Q t SFS ^0 03 


10 tf sorfC3D<o cS^rfdo 

]_]_ ^O0^030OCl I <3O3 

12. d ffl43 SSj^OJO cSJ 

13 d rfosA) . . anDtf(pjs'3V3oisrt 

. . anDtf(pjs'3V3oisrt ?5oos3 udjarf ft^eSo cfijs - . 


14 tfrtea asjaosraacja eosb$ zddoa &g 

A.TC. jj 

O )dr)OCfo5 3J3CG3 30OC& O 

teSc&aort o 
o rtcSoSo soaa soS cue 

20. niD^ qyscrs 

% . 

eJ O 

t?*o I sSjDoJor ^oddJD SJD II ccoa 


24. *S oortstoocS Sd^ris I os^?1o^ SOD 

25. S oorte&ocSj gd^rliS ccoo^ 




1. subhamastu 11 namas fcunga-siras-tumbi- 

2. chandra-chamara-charave trailokya-naga- 

3. rarambha-fflula-sbambMya Sambhave svasti srtja- 

4. yabhyudaya Salivahana Sakha-varusha 1519 ne 

5. parivartanakke saluva Hemalambi samvatsarada Ka- 

6. rtika sn 12 pumnyakaladalu rtmattu Kaie 

7. Purusofctama-nayakara makkalu Basavapa-naya- 

8. karu sajjana-sudha-sivachara-sampannarumappa 

9. deva-prufchvi-maha-mahattigolagada Basavapattana-> 

10. da Annadanidevaru mumtada rnaha-inahattige 

11. Kalusiyalul MlakanthaTayaru kattisida ma- 

12. thakke bifcta svasteya sila-sa^anada kramaventenda- 

13. re aamma Kala (?) kalamchige saluva Bariira-sime-yo- 

14. lagana Ghikkajambanilu" ammalike-saruvino- 

15. lagana Basaviviragondana Hire-hondada gadeya 

16. tundn 1 Viragondana hondada tundu 1 

17. Chalahondada gadeya singe 1 antu gadeyatu- 

18. ndu 2 sil gadeya kalavina hakkalft sahanamma 


19. hirerige punnaya-vaga-bekendu sahiranyoduka- 

20. dan a-dhara-purvaka- vagi Sivarpana madi- 

21. deyagi a gadege saluva chatu-sirneya vi [vara] 

22. mudalu hakida Linga-mudre kale gadi tenkalu 

23. hakida Linga-raudre kale gadi I paduvalu ha- 

24. kida Linga-mudre kale gadi I badagalu ha- 

25. kida Linga-mudre kale gadi yimtt chatu-sime 

26. volagada bhumiyalli ' yenuntada gade rna- 

27. kki rnekkalu I nidhi nich^pa jala pasana muntada a- 

28. shta-bhoga teja-svamyagalanu agumadi-kondu nimma 

29. sisya sisya param-pareyagi all bhogisi ba- 

30. hiri ' yendu kotta sila-sasana ' yint-appudakke sa- 

31. kshigalu ' Surya-Ghandam s&kshi " yidakke avavan a- 

32. luputane ' Kasiyallu savira gova konda papakke 

33. hdhanu mata-gamana madida p^pake hohanu 


Grood Fortune. Praise of Sambbu. 

Be it well, In tbe ever victorious and prospering year Hemalambi, corres- 
ponding to tbe year 1519 of Salivahana, on tbe boly 12th lunar day oi tbe brigbt 
half of Kartika. 

Tbe illustrious Basavapanayaka, son of Kare Purusb6ttama Nayaka granted 
tbe following stone s&sana making a gift of land for tbe matt built by Nilakanta- 
raya in Kalusi to Annadanidevaru and others, tbe maJidmahattu (Vira^aiva priests) 
of Basavapattana, followers of tbe righteous and pure Saiva practices and belonging 
to the makdmahattu of heaven and earth. 

In the village Cbikka Jambani in Barur-sime belonging to our Jcdldnchi 
(estate) ; one piece of the rice-field of tbe Big pond belonging to Basavi Yiragonda 
situated in Amnialike-saruvu ; one piece in Yiragonda's pond one singe (a small 
plot of land) of tbe rice field of Ohilahoiida ; comprising in all 2 pieces of rice-land 
and one singe including the hakkalu (plots of dry land around ?). 

All this land, we have given away, with pouring of water on gold and dedi- 
cation to Siva for the merit of our ancestors. 

The following are the details of the four boundaries of the wet land; to the 
east, the stone marked with linga (newlyj set up ; to the south, the stone hearing 
the mark of linga set up : to the west, tbe stone bearing tbe mark of the linga set 
up ; to tbe north, the stone bearing the mark of linga set up : 

You may administer and enjoy, in a succession of disciples, all the rice-lands, 
etc., in tbe plot situated within the above four boundaries, with the eight-fold 


powers and rights of possession such "as surface or underground^ treasure, - water 
springs, minerals. -. ; . .. .... ..... 

Thus is the stone charter granted .The witnesses to this are the sun and the 
moon. Whoever violates this will incur the sin of killing thousand- cows in 
Benares and the sin of incest. ' - - 


This record registers the gift of some land in the village Ohikka Jambane 
(where the inscription stone is set up) for a matt of the Yiras"aiva sect set up in 
Kaiuse, (same as Kalase, a village in the Sagar Taluk a few miles off) by. Nila- 
kantaraya. The donor is named Basavapanayaka, son of Kare Purushottama 
Nayaka and the chief donee is a priest named Annadanidevaru. The Kare Nayakas 
were apparently subordinates of the Keladi kings. The date of the grant is the 12th 
lunar day of the bright half of Kartika in the year H^vilambi, S 1519 and corres- 
ponds to 10th November 1597 A. D. 

Barur, a division including the village Jambane is also referred to in other 
inscriptions of the same village. (See B. C. VIII, Sagar 16, 18.) 


On a Masti figure, set up in front of the Marigudi in the same village Jambani. 
Kannada language and characters. 


'~ 9" 


4. oo 



7. coo^aSoS 53ort> 

8. oa3o 

9. afcs, 
10. &j? 


This inscription is engraved on a niastikal which, unlike the usual stones of 
that class, contains the full image of the woman who immolated herself The first 
line of the record is written above the head of the woman and the remaining lines 
on a side below. No definite date is given but the name of the king D^varaya in 
whose reign the record was composed and the year Vikritu and the nature of the 
characters m the inscription suggest that the record belongs to A D 1410 
(Vikntu;, m the reign of Devaraya I of Vijayanagar. 


The inscription records the death, as sati of Sayakka, wife of Bayichaya of 
Ohiliya Begur in Bayikunda belonging to Kariya Medeyur on the 4th luna.r day 
of the bright half of Chaitra in the year Vikritu probably equivalent to March .10,. 
1410 A. D. 

' 58 

On a Masti-stone in the village Keladi, in the same hobali of Sagar. 
Kannada language and characters. 
Size 5' x 1 6" 




















Saka 1326 . 
iieya Tarana- 
Margasirad a- 
li ' srima- 
tu sri vira 
rayanu ra- 
jyavanu a- 
hita yirdda- 

J'Xl'- 6" 

13. o 













li Gutti-rajya 




danada Keia- 


diya Hari- 




a [tana] mada- 


valige Mechi- 


gaudi sa- 


hita sva- 







This is also a mastigal inscription and records the death of Me"chigaudi as a, 
sati with her husband Hariyagauda of Keladi in Kundanad district in Ghitfci 
(Chandragutti) kingdom during the reign of the Vijayanagar king Harihara (IjQ. 
The date of the record is S 1326 Tarana sam. Margasira ba. 30 corresponding to 

2nd December 1404 A. D. 


On a second Masti stone at the same village of Keladi 
Kannada language and characters. 






This is also a mastigal inscription. The writer, however, has stopped in line 4 
after merely giving the date. The name of the woman who died as sati is not 
given. It may be remarked that only the right hand of the woman is sculptured. 
here and not her fall image. Below the hand the figures of herself and her 
band are carved in bas-relief. The date given is S 1375 Srimukha sam. Kar. 0; 
15, equivalent to 17th October 1453 A. D. 


On a stone set up in front of the Virabhadra temple to the south of the village 
Nadakalsi in the same hobli of Sagar. 

Kannada language and characters. 



2. J3S08 







g. ACTSBDRSsteS SjSis3o;iod3 1 

10. >rt a&os$oe 

11. &.cassrte8$so5to 

13. i sft| 

14, Sc&q 

sd&rf eoro^osfc 


18. ^ "^^3 Sd3p3] d^sJs^rf^ oj3cj3^ea So 
i o d 

* l/ 

20. 3 

21. o^cdo 


24 ^drdoesiao I wddo sjj^a cdo 

^^t. cd --* Q 


29. i,o II oil 


32 ^cSs-^aortvjeso 2goea ft o 

* cO ^j 

33. fcsreo;3o 

34. s3nds^, AS s3oo sJeS^o loll 


1. sri Ganadhipat^yam namah 11 sri Aghoresvarayam 

2. namah I subham astu namas tunga-sira^-chumbhi- 

3. obandra-chamara-charave" trailokya-nagara- 

4. rambha-mula-sfcambbaya Sarnbhave 11 svasti 

5. sri jayabbudaya Salivabana saka varasa 

6. 1495 neya parivartanakke saluva 1 Srimukba- 

7. samvatsarada Sravana 4u 5 lu srlmatu. Keladi- 

8. ya Bama-raja-nayakaru pratisbtheya madisida 

9. sila-asanada kramaventendare' namma biriya- 

10. rige sakala-punya-vagabekendu Sivaloka-pra- 

11. ptiyagabekendu' namraa kanachi-sime Kela- 
1'2, di-simeyolagana Kaliseya petbeya se- 


13. ti pattanasvamigaligu haradarigu aputri- 

14. keya dbareneradu bittevagi ' mratavada- 

15. varige amna tamma dayadya savantaru 

16. aradaru yidare 1 avaru unnali aru 

17. yilladiddare mrutavadavana hendatige ko- 

18. tlu mikkada kere kate devastanake kodona-valla- 

19. de narnina aramanege tegedu kolalilla nam- 

20. ma Keladi-simege saluva dor egal Aradaru kakku- 

21. liteya madi tegedu kondare Emaloka-prapti 

22. naraka-loka-prapti' tamma matra-gamanava inadida 

23. do^ake hoharu endn aputrikeya dhare- 

24. n erredu bittu' baradu prasiddhiya madi- 

25. da ^ila-sasina' yidakke sakshi aditya-chandra- 

26. vanilo' nala^cha dyaur-bhumir apo hradaya- 

27. m Yam as cha ahas cha ratris cha 1 ubhaya oha 

28. sandyana' dharmopi janati naras cha viu- 

29. ttam " o " dana-p^lanayor madhye dana- 

30. chhreyo nrupalanam' danat svargam ava- 

31. pnoti palanad achutam padam 

32. svadatta [d] dvigunam pumayam paradatta- 

33. nu-palanarp.1 para-dattapahar6na 

34. svadatta nih-palam bhavetu 


Obeisance to Ganadhipati. Obeisance to Aghoresvara. 

Good fortune. Salutation to Sambhu. 

Be it well. On the 5th lunar day of the bright half of Sravana in the year 
Srimukha corresponding to the year 1495 of the Saliyahana era, the illustrious 
Ramarajanayaka of Keladi set up the following stone 3asana : 

In order that our ancestors might obtain spiritual merit and attain the -region 
of Siva, we have granted with pouring of water the right of aputrike (succession 
to the estates of people who die leaving no issue) to all the settis, pattanasvdmis and 
merchants of the petke (bazaars) of Kalise in Keladi-sime, which has been -conferred 
on us (by the king). In case the deceased have elder or younger brothers, or kins- 
men, etc., they might enjoy the estate. If none such is forthcoming, the widow of 
the deceased might take the estate and that which is left (after her death ?) might 
be oiven away for a tank, embankment or temple. But it will not be taken to our 
palace. In case any rulers of Keladi-sime seize the same by greed, they will go to 
the region of Yama and hell. They will incur the sin of incest with their mothers. 

Thus is the right of aputrike given away with pouring of water and the same 
js- written (on stone) and. published in this stone sasana. s r _- 

_ The witnesses to this: the. sun, moon, wind, fire, heaven, earth, water, htiraarf 
heart, Yama, day, night, the two twilights., and Dharma know the deeds of man:- 
c ' Between protecting a grant and making a new grant, protecting is more 
meritorious than making a grant. "By making a grant, one attains svarga^ 
o (a heaven from which there is a fall) but by protection of a -grant one attains 'a 
region from which there is no fall. It is hence as meritorious to protect another's 
gifts as to make a gift oneself. By seizing what another has given away, one's own 
gifts become fruitless. 

"" " Note. ' ...... 

This record is of some interest as it describes an important concession relating 
to the succession to the estates of persons who died without leaving issue. 
According to the present record the kings of Keladi gave up the right of escheat to 
such property, and allowed it to be given away, in" case there were no agnates of the 
deceased and after due provision, for the widow, to some public charity such as 
construction of tanks, temples, etc. 

But this privilege seems to have been conferred on the merchants of the village 
Kalase where the inscription is found. Whether similar privileges were conferred 
on other villages it is difficult to say though it is quite probable that such rights 
were granted elsewhere also in the kingdom of Keladi. This information regarding 
escheat to the king is interesting to students of Hindu law. 

The date of the grant > 1495 Srimukha Srav". s"u. 5 corresponds to August 3, 
1573 A. D. and the king who issued it was Eamarajanayaka, king of Keladi (1570- 

1582 A. D.) 


On a Viragal set up in the door way of the Virabhadra temple at the same 
N&dakalasi. . ...''.'. 

Size 5' 6"xl' 0". . : 

Kannada language and characters. 

l' 0" 

2." sfcrttt e&DSfr d& cdojs d^sJd srsS po] 




This is an inscription engraved on a viragal containing the usual sculptures 
including the figures of a husband and wife, Sivalinga, etc?. A part of the first line 
has peeled off and several letters are hence lost. 

It records the death of Bamagauda, resident of the village Kalise and his wife 
Bommarasi on a Tuesday in the year Durmati. Although the Saka year is not 
given the characters indicate that the year meant is probably 1201 A. D. (Durmati). 


On a Viragal set up on a side of the same Yirabhadra temple at Nadakalasi. 

Kannada language and characters. 
Size 2' 6"X3' 0". 

G^xS' 0* 

&o3oOOufe3, 33rtc e^s&rs^, cS^sS^rfa ^odo qrsrtoO ,, 

1. ^A ^to?. &j^s3orfd ^0357) [stooc&^zSjOo] zs^^^d cS^sSd Osi. 

2. S373S3 SJCTS^O-S^C s^^ s3*rfo ...... dd 

3. zD^dd?ddo Soso Jto^qrs )d^SSo 

4. SosS^d e [ars] a wsfo . . . s3Ddc3oc3o ^ 

This is . also another viragal inscription. The sculptures dealing with the 
Kailasa scene usual in such stones are very elaborately carved . in this viragal, .' a 
miniature temple with a lion face above, with the Sivalinga, priests, bull, hero with 
folded hands, and bandsmen inside the temple. Only a portion of this viragal has 
been recovered from the earth where it was buried. The rest seems to have been 
cut off and transferred elsewhere. 

The inscription seems to record some event, probably the death of a hero, during 
the reign of the illustrious maharnandalesvara Birarasa, worshipper of the holy 
lotus feet of the god Billes"vara in the year Virodhikrit, in the dark half of the 
month Ashadha. Evidently the Santara king or feudatory Birarasa, several 
inscriptions of whose reign (E. C. VIII, Sagar 119, 146, 150, etc.) are recorded in the 
neighbourhood is referred to here and the year Virodhikrit may correspond, to 1251 


On a viragal set up in front of the same Virabhadra temple in Nadkalasi. 

Size 4' x 4'. 
Kannada language and characters. 




2 >_}^ sJoosix SO"D sftod^^d &od rtJD^ocS (b^rld rlocS SJ 





1 ...... jyam geyvutamire Kilaka-samvatsarada Palguna su svasti 

2. srimam mahamandalesYara Sinda-Govinda sitagara-ganda Patala- 

3. chakravartti Yisyaradeyana tamma Soyi-Ballaha-d^va. 

4. ... drasanum Birarasa Boramarsanum Hombuchchada kalegadalu 

5. talutiridu meredu suraloka-praptanadanu. 


This is also another viragal inscription, the top portion of which is lost. Some 
letters in the beginning of lines 3 and 4 have also become worn out and are not 
legible. The record is dated in the bright half of the month Phalguna in the year 
Kilaka and mentions the death, in a battle at Hombuchcha (same as the village 
Humcha in Nagar Taluk), of Birarasa Bommarasa and Soyi Ballahad^va, younger 
brother of Is"vara-deva who has the titles mahamandale^vara, Sinda-Govinda, 
punisher of adulterers. 

The above titles of Igvaradeva show that he was a king of the Sinda dynasty, 
who is referred to in an inscription at Kuppattur (B. G, VIII Sorab 276 of about 1180 
A. D.). Birarasa Bommarasa was either a warrior under him or was the same as 
the Santara king or feudatory of that name. The year Kilaka of the present record 
may therefore be the same as 1188-1189 A. D. and the record belongs to the close of 

February in 1189 A. D, 


On a stone set up in the wet land of Gauribhattar, to the west of the same 

village Nadkalsi. 

SizeS' 0"X8' 9*. 

Kannada language and characters. , : 


_J . \J. -~ - -Q 



*"* t / 


^-t L/a 

o ^3uQojQc3 JjJ&wOr* cOp 
^ * co eu 


1. Svabhanu-samvachhara- 

2. da Kartika s*udha 12 1ft 

3. Bagila 

4. Adiyapa-nayka- 

5. ru kotta dharmasva 

6. Ruku-s'akheya Yasl- 
- : - '--7. shtha-gotrada . 

8. Vedamti Bha- 

9. nappana vritti 

1 . Translation, 

This is the dJiarmasva (estate of charity) given by Adiyapanayaka of Bagilu 
on the 12th lunar day of the bright half of Kartika in the year Svabhanu : 
Tne vritti of Vedanti Bhanappa of'Riksakha and Yasishtha-gotra. 

" Note. 

A peculiarity of this inscription is that the lines are written in a wrong order." 
Their order, as found in the inscription, is as follows : 8, 9, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1." The 
characters seem to belong to the latter half of the 18th century A. D. and the date 
of tire record, Svabhanu sam. Kar. su 12 may be equivalent to 17th November, 
1763 A. D. 


On a stone, set up in the wet land of the patel to the south of the same village 

;. Size2'xl'. 

JIannada language and characters. 

n<D sforf c3&ps c$KPod rlcS cdi.o 

***J *4 CD ^-^ 


2, sSDdzJsdsS^I 4^?^?% rfrtcrado^J 


3. $3 sJj*. ^ 8cdrac& dob 

OO S?O 3 

7. So^rt a^dafl^oJisJ So^s?rt ^JDB /a&o aSoctf [o] 

8. as rloarf eftjooidoGto &&a 9js)0 wtfo-esb 

9. &&&;3ai 3o3 erSCQi ^OCSOJO OTJjOSSd OOOO 


1. 4ri G-anMhipatim namah namas tunga-^iras-tumbi-chandra-clia- c 

2. mara-charave I trail6kya-nagararainblia-mtila~stambhaya Sam- 
8. bhave svasti sri jayMbhudaya Salivahana.shakha 

4. varasha sa 10 40 29 parivartake saluva Kshaya- 

6. samvatsarada Margasira bahula 10 miyalu Bdava- 

6. xnurari Keladiya Chaudagaudaru Kaliseya kalu- 

7. kutiga Virapaiyana makalige kota bhumi hemni [n]- 

8. da gandige mulavendu kota bhftmi aru alu- 

9. pidavanu tanna tayi tandeya bramhara 1000 gova 

10. savira idanelavanu Varanasiyali kondS. do^ake ho- 

11. gali palisida avanu sukbarajyavanu alubanu 


This inscription begins wifch an invocation to tbe gods Ganesa ana ^j. v. 
records the gift of some land (apparently the plot of the wet field in wJiich the 
sasana stone is set up) by the king of Keladi named Obaudagauda to the children of 
Yirapaiya, kahikutiga (stone-carver) of the village Kalise. It was stipulated in 
the grant that the above estate should follow the rule of succession .to males 
through, females. The usual imprecation against the violators of the grant is. given 
at the end. The date given is S 1429 Kshaya sam. Mar. ba. 10. Kshayais S 1428 
and not S 1429 as stated in the record .Taking tbe name of the year as=correct, the 
date corresponds to 9th December 1506. 

This inscription therefore belongs to the founder of the Keladi state, Chaudappa- 
nayaka (1499-1513). Eecords of this ruler are rather rare and it is interesting to 
note that only the title Edava-Murari is applied to the king. The rule of .succes- 
sion laid down in this record is known as Aliya-santanam, descending to sister's son 
and is often found in parts of Malria^ and the adjoining Kanara District. The stone- 
engravers were often patronised by the kings and nobles and granted small pieces of 
land for their maintenance. . . - . 



In the forest adjoining the village Bairapura, on a 1st viragal standing near 
the Siddhes"vara temple. 

Size 5' x 3'. 

Kannada language and characters. 


5' X 3'. 

1, ^S^. stefc$rt3 sto3 sfcsoD 32^ sfcara stoods^Sjd ero^d skdocvsQ^tfo 33^ 

2, s&dsSouO^do afcy^stes dt^ 020^ dd s^srad <aojrt>G3"ss3jDd 

3, d$ docj ^jsod stoocS^^ov^^odzajGJozs o^j sfoods? ss^orl 


8. d 

Q ^ 

" B 



c * 

1 5, ydosj sJido^o does aj^sjoo &^dos3 sSodo^o sSesd rf 3os?a3i sSjD^5"t>oo 
17. si ^ocdisorlo srsdosd rt ris 


21 . , , sfrfosSctotfrt ssdsj^oo rtcS a3:o ^do 


22 J eSjaS FO srad^Tic?) Sadi^e^da) S3"s<?i rdi 

* c3 *M -J L J 

23. sra^j^o e w^^esdo ^dcdo srsg^doo n-s^^js^ $0 

24. srs oSj^aS d^ d^oodo-3 ss^sjFdo [aj] 

25. ^5sdd025 00021^ aJoodo 

Tr a nsUtera tion. 

1. svasti saniadhigata-pancha-maha-sabda-maha-mandal^svara Uttara 
Madhura-dhisvaram Patti-Pomburchcha- 


2. pura-varadhiSvaram Padinavati-devilabdba-vara-prasada mriga-mada- 

moda sabasoddama mandalika- 

3. dala-Rudra Tonda-mandalika-kujachala-vajra-danda ripuinandalika- 

patanga-dipamkura narnadi-sa- 

4. masta-prasasti-sabitam sri-Yira3yantara-d&varu Santalige-sayiramumam 


5. dim rajyam-geyyuttavire tatu-pada-padmopajivi ]| svasti samasta- 

prasasfci-sabitam drohi- 

6. gbaratta ripu-Kurnara-Taraka-Sadanana sahasa-Vainat^ya satya- 

Eadheyan asaha- 

7. ya-saurya harusa-Narayana narnadi-samasta-prasasti-sahitam sriinatu vi- 

8. ra Birarasan-aliya Tailarasam Haratalu-hanneradu Kadavarige-hanneradu 


9. tfcigehalli Na^avalli Nellivadi sahita yaluttaviralu Ananda-samvatsarada 

Chaitra su- 

10. ddha dasamiyandu Mudanada Desinga-verggade Siriyamma-verggade 

Hiriya Harikavam 

11. haydu sere-karuvam kondu hogal a-nada saniasta-huyyalu Simgadevana 


12. geya nayakarellam tagalu Nellivadiya prabhu Belagauda Bagiyabbe- 


13. suputram Sivapada-^ekharam Kaliyamma-gaudana rnagam Beleyarp pogi 

taltirida para- 

14. kramaventendade " kakkambim moneyambira nelegakkain billanfcu kella 

kellambugalim cha~ 

15. kkane ponarddara talegalu rnokkane pdpinegam echcha Belan 

ahavadedeyolu " 

16. aruva marulu aruna-jalamam piruva marulu penada vabaleya inolakalam 


17. va nariy ahagam paruva kbaga Bfilanirida samaranganadolu I vri N 

18. anta virodbi-seneyan agurbinolant iridalli viravikranta-saraligalu ta- 

19. mivan urcbchalodam Siva yendu vira-siddbantada postakarn tavanekolol 

alurvvisidante vlra-vikranta- 

20. van asevattu kali B^layan eydida Deva-lokavam " antatan-alutanakke 

mechcbi Tailarasa .... 

21. ... lagereyolage arevattalu gaddeyam netfcaru-kodegeyagi bittan idan 

alidan a- 

22. van orvvam Varanasi Kurukshfitradalu sasi[ra]-kavileya Bramhanara 

konda patakan idam prati- 

23. palisidam a-Bramhanaram kavileyan a-ksbetradalu dana-gotta pbala sva- 

dattam para-dattam 


24. va yo hareti vasundhara sashtir-varu [sha] -sahasrani vrishttayam jayate 


25. Saka-varusa 1117 ne jandu senabova Bommayyana baraha 


Be it well. While the illustrious Vira Syantaradevaru, obtainer of the band of 
five musical sounds, maJidmandaUsvara, lord of the Northern Madhura, lord of the 
excel lent city of Pat ti Pomburchc ha, obtainer of excellent boons from the goddess 
Padniavati, delighter in musk, great in prowess, a Eudra to the troop of mandahhas, 
a thunderbolt to the mountain that is the Tonda-mandalikas, a lamp to the moths, 
the hostile maudalikas, possessed of all these attributes was ruling the kingdom 
of Santalige Thousand in peace and wisdom : 

While a dependant on his lotus feet : Tailarasa, nephew (aliya) of Birarasa, 
possessed of all the excellent attributes, a grind-stone to enemies, Shanmukha to the 
Taraka the hostile princes, a Garuda in prowess, a Kama in honesty, mighty without 
the help (of others), a Narayana in joy, possessed of all these titles : was ruling 
Haratalu 12, KMavarige 12, with Kattigahalli, Nadavalli and Nellivadi. 

On the 10th lunar day of the bright half of Ghaitra in the year Ananda, on 
Desingaverggade and Siryarnniaverggade of Mudanad marching on Hiriya Harika 
and carrying away the calves (cattle) : the uproar of all the nad reached Singadeva 
and all the nayakas of Satalige. Thereupon Beleya, son of Kaliyammagauda, whose 
head is on the feet of Siva and the excellent son of Belagauda, chief of Nellivadi 
and Bagiyabbegaviti, marched to battle and fought and slew (the enemies) and 
displayed his might thus : 

Bela, a sun to the earth (?) took his bow and shot in the battle-field jagged and 
pointed arrows, all rushing one upon another, in such a manner as the heads of the 
fighting opponents flew away rapidly. In the battle-field where Bela slew (enemies), 
(could be seen) demons crying out vociferously (in joy), and sucking blood, and 
jackals vomitting the knees of numerous dead bodies (swallowed) and vultures flying. 
During his fierce fight with the enemy troops, numbers of arrows discharged with 
all the might of heroes pierced his body, and the brave Belaya exclaimed " Siva " 
and fell on the earth like a book treating of the philosophy of valour resting on a 
tavweM (tavanekdl. a kind of stand for books) and eager to follow the path of the 
heroes, he reached heaven. 

Pleased with his valour, Tailarasa granted as nettaru-kodage half a mattal of 
rice-land in .... Whoever destroys this will be guilty of killing a thousand 
cows and Brahmans in Yaranasi and Kurukshetra. Whoever protects this will get 
the merit of giving away those cows in those sacred places to those Brahmans. He 
who seizes lands given away by himself or others will be born as a worm in ordure 
for sixty-thousand years. 

Written by Senabova Bommayya in the Saka year 1117. 



This vfragal inscription describes the exploits of a warrior named Belagauda 
while protecting the cattle of Hiriya Haraka, a village in the present Shikarpur 
Taluk, during the reign of the Santara king Vira Santaradevaru over the Santalige 
Thousand kingdom. Tailarasa, nephew of Blrarasa, is stated to have been govern- 
ing under him Haratalu 12, Kadavarige 12, Kattigahalli, Nadavalli and Nellivadi 
and Singad^va was the chief of the iidyakas of Santalige district. The attack on the 
village was made by Desingaverggade, etc., of Mudanad and Beleya fought for the 
defence of the village on behalf of the Santaras. The event is said to have taken 
place in Ananda Sam. Chaitra su 10. No Saka year is given here. But in L. 25 
a grant of land is stated to have been made by the prince Tailarasa in memory of his 
valour in S 1117. Hence the year Ananda referred to before must be S 1116 and 
the date of the battle Chaitra su 10 corresponds to April 2, 1194 A. D. 


On a 2nd viragal near the Siddhe'svara temple in the same village Bairapur. 

Kannada language and characters. 

3d 20?? 

g' x 3' 

3, dodo Sj-Rj.^^sSi ?^o&5W^ ^d^F ^^sfetetoo et 


oo ggatosraAd 








12- cfc III rtcc$3rtoG3 

1. svasti samadhigata-pancha-iaaha-sabda maha-mandal^svaram Padmavati- 

labuda-vara-prasada mrigamadamoda namadi prasasti- 

2. sahita srlmatu Vira-santara-deva-varushada 19 neya Tarana-samvatsarada 

Yaisakha sudha 5 Brihayara- 

3. dandu svasfci srimafcu bhujabala-chakravartti Tribhuvanamala Bijanadeva- 

rasarum prithvisvarauagi Kalyanada nelevi- 

4. dinolu suka-sankliata-Yiuo (di) dadim rajyam-geyuttamire svasti srimatu 

hiriya-dandanayakaru Aralayanu 

5. Banavase-pannirchhasiradi ? Padalayyanum Hombuchchhada Singi- 

devanum Hosagundada Birarasanamele nadadu hogena- 

6. lu hatu-sasira-kudure ayvattu-sayirala dala Ghatada kelagana Alvarasu 

Jagadevarasan o- 

7. lagagi nadedu nada kidisnttaviralu Nellivadiya Teliga Aibisettiya raaga 

Haley amma G-aujava sutt Am- 

8. dasarak etti nadeva bida nadeyal iyade kaduttiralu halaii kudure hariyisalu 

kala-haydu kudureya ke- 

9. dahi ? hut'tameri bullam kachhidara kolal ollade kaydu kalibi sattu sura- 

loka-praptanada " jitena la- 

10. bbyat6 Laksbmi mrifcenapi surangana kshana-vidhvanismi kaye ka cbinta 

maranS rane 1 emba nltiyinda 

IT. sattan atana maiyduna Barnananu kalla nilisi para-l6ka-vin&ya madi sura- 
loka-prap-taru madida- 

12. ru " gandara-ganda guniyendu mannsya-varenyan endu bhumandala- 

sebyan endu kaliy endu buda-bra- 

13. ja-vaktra-padmini-chchbandamarichiy endu dhare bannisutirppudu kurttu- 

gondu Ha]eyama-sefctiya nadino ........ 

14. narati-bhayamkara-bahudandananu " Chatur-asraya Kamalalayan atisaya 

15. d olavim Vaksati parasi Haleyamasettiya kutuka- 

m adendu varadolu nilippalu " 

16. Marojana magam Buvayyana sila-likita s^nabdva Singanana kabba 



Be it well. On Thursday the 5th lunar day of the bright half of Vaisakha 
the year Tirana, being the 19th year of the illustrious Vira Santaradeva, obtair 
of the band of five musical instruments, mahamandalesvara, possessed of excelle 
boons from Padmavati, delighter in musk, having all these and other titles : 

Be it well. While the illustrious bliuja-'bala-chakravarti Tribhuvanama 
Bijjanadevarasa was ruling as the lord of earth, his kingdom in peace and happine 
in his residence at Kalyana : 

Be it well. The illustrious Hiriyadandanayaka Aralayan and Padalaiya 
Banavase 12,000 and SingidSva of Hornbuchcha ordered a military expedition agair 
Birarasa of Hosagunda. Thereupon an army of ten thousand horsemen and fift 
thousand foot-soldiers went to battle. Then Jagadevarasa, the Alva king below t 
Ghauts and others marched and were devastating the district. Thereup< 
Haleyamma, son of Aibisetti, telliga (oil-monger) of Nellivadi opposed the am 
which had burnt Gauja and which was marching to Andasara and stopped : 
further progress. Several horses were next led against him. Haleyamma therefc 
marched through the battle-field, cut down the horses but sparing the lives 
warriors who mounted anthills or chewed grass in their mouth (as a token of surrend( 
sent them away and dying attained heaven. Following the moral saying " T 
victor attains wealth and the slain have celestial damsels. When the body is lial 
to destruction any moment why grieve for death in battle ? " he gave up his life. 

His brother-in-law Bamana set up this stone as a monument in memory of t 
deceased and enabled him to attain the region of the gods. 

The world is praising with eagerness Haleyamasetti, possessed of arms dreadi 
to enemies, as the warrior of warriors, the best of men, worthy to be served by t 
world, valiant, and a sun to the lotus the faces of the learned men ..... 

The goddess of speech blesses Haleyamasetti a] 

admiring him confers boons on him (?) 

Mardja's son Buvayya's writing on stone. Se~nabova Singana's poetic compoi 



This viragal describes the exploits of a hero named Haleyama of Nellivadi in 
battle against the Aluva king Jagadevarasa. There was also a fight betwei 
Birarasa of Hosagunda and his overlord Vira-Santaradeva. Several generals of t 
Santara king including Hiriya-dandanayaka, Aralaya and Padalayya of Banava 
12,000 and Singid&va of Hombuchcha joined in this battle. The Kalachuri king : 
janadeva is stated to be the king at Kalyana in the record. Probably, he was t 
overlord of the Santaras. 

No definite date is given in the record. The event is stated to have tak 
place on Thursday, the 5th lunar day of the bright half of Vaisakha in the ye 


Tarana, 19th year of Vlra Santaradeva. As Bijjala is also stated to be ruling at this 
time, Tarana can only refer to A. D. 1164 and the equivalent of the date is 28th 
April 1164 A.D. if the Nija Vaisakha in the year is taken, and 29th March 1164, 
if the Adhika Yaisakha is taken. Either way the week-day is wrong, the first 
coinciding with Tuesday and the second with Sunday. According to this year, Yira 
Santaradeva must have hegun to rule in A. D. 1164 minus 18, i.e., 1146 A. D. 


On a stone set up in the wet land of Venkatagiriyappa in the village Belandur, 
Anantapur hobali. 

Eannada language and characters. 

rldcdoo 3 

Q CO ej 00 

2. O 

3. 3 enjjt, 


This small record inscribed on a stone containing the figure of Vamana engraved 
thereon, records that the land in which it is set up is a grant (vrittijmade to Atma 
Yithala Dasar. No date or king is mentioned. The characters seem to be of the 
18th century A. D. Nothing is known about this donee in the village. 


At the village Eannur, on a stone set up in the wet land of Sinappa to the 

Size 2' 8" x I 7 9 /; 

Kannada language and characters. 


oJiO ^w 

co e3 co 

' 8"xl'-9" 

, COrt, 

2. ?, g^^*^ ^rtcrsdo^ dojso^o^-scdi So 

3. ^=5 sj 

4. dd Sj 

5. Si^o^^i SosS^dti s333gs SoqS srs 


7. cdor^s-sdo 


9 < 


12. Ofo gotfrf aSOddCfc 30ZOS5 33 

13. Scfc wf^rfcto q3Sor^ a^d 

14. cto{q&s33F"s3s3 p&SsJrtort] crfo 


1. namas tunga-siras-tunga-chandra-cMmara charave 

2. fcraildkya-nagara-rambha-mula-stambhaya Sam- 

3. bhave svasti ^rlmatu saka-varsha sasi- 

4. rada nura aruvatta ayidaneya 

5. Subhakrutu-samvatsarada Magha sudba pa- 

6. diva Sukravaradandu srimad anadi- 

7. yagraharam Kamnavurada asesha-ma- 

8. hajanangala sri-padava suvarna-puje- 

9. yind aradhisi srimatu G-avutama- 

10. gotrada Haribara-bhattara putraru Da- 

11. modara-bhattaru harala-bayala-galde- 

12. ya olage bamneradu kambava ba- 

13. dadu agnishtbageya dharmake bittaru " 

14. yi dharmavan a [lipidava G-ange] -ya 

15. tadiya [lij sbabasra-kavileya konda 

16. papake bobanu mangala maba " 


Tbis record begins wifch tbe usual invocation to Sambhu and records fcbe gift of 
a piece of land (12 poles in measurement,,) in a rice-field called Harala-bayala-galde 
by Damddarabbalta, son of Haribarabbatta of G-autama-gdtra for tbe purpose of 
setting up an altar for offrings in fire (agnishthage). Tbe land was acquired by tbe 
donor from tbe mahdfanas of the immemorial agrabara Kannavur (same as Kannur) 
after paying a suitable price in gold. Tbe grant is dated S 7 1165 Subhakrit sam. 
Magba su' 1 Friday corresponding to January 23, A. D. 1243, taking tbe Saka year 
as tbe current year. Tbe usual imprecation is found at tbe end of tbe grant. 


At the village Gauja in the same hobli, on a stone set up near the village. 

Size 2' 9" X l f 0". 
Kannada language and characters. 
33 1 e3og3$dG$ 3jap2os? r&ttr&J&ti ssdob s&sSak wc&oo 3 


2' 9"xl'0" 

oort does t 



Q m 


8. w ov 


17. rtcS cn^^cdoo L. 

18. =toa%$ 

Trans litemtion , 

1. namas tunga-siras-tumbi-chandra- 

2. chamara-charave trayi-16- 

3. kya-nagara-rambha-mula-starnbha- 

4. ya Sanibhave svasti sri jaya- 

5. bhyudaya Salivahana-sa- 

6. ka varusha 1489 neya Pra- 

7. bhava-samvatsarada Magha- 

8. ba 14 Sivaratre-punnya-ka- 

9. ladalu srirnatu G-aujada 

10. Gautamesvara-devara sri-pada- 

11. kke Ta [ga] rtiya Bayichaya-na 


12. yakaru raadida dharma Kare- 

13. makiya harubariyolage 

14. karukada manya turidu ga- 

15. deyolage bitta datti kham ye- 

16. radu amrutapadi 

17. gade ubhayam 6 mangala 

18. maha sri 


This inscription records the gift of a plot of rice-land (details given) for the 
service of food-offering to the god Gautamesvara of Gauja by Bayichayanayaka of 
Tagarti on the 14th lunar day of the dark half of Magha, being the holy Sivaratri 
festival day, in the year Prabhava S' 1489. The date of the grant corresponds to 
January 27, A. D. 1568. 

At the same village Gauja, on a stone set up in the rice-field of Chidambara- 


3' 0"xO'9". 

Kannada language and characters. 

d rtcS 


2. so ossoo 

Q 3} ^sooj^dsJoS. tfo 

" ) O 

4. M3J 

-* c 


7 ....... s3o o 

8 .......... 



The record is full of lacuna, all the lines below the 5th line having become 
mostly defaced. The object of the inscription is to register the gift of some rice- 
land to Chik-Arasayya of the village Gauja by the chief, Katappa Nayaka, son of 
Kareya Bayirappa Nayaka. The purpose of the grant is not given- The date is 
given as Bhava Srav su 15. No Saka date is recorded. The characters seem to be 
of the latter half of the 17th century and the date may be probably identical with 
(For Karechiefs see also No. 56). 



72 - ' .-.. . -:.. v.- /:: 

At the same village Gauja, on a mastigal to the south of the Banasankari 
temple. ".'-."- 

Kannada language and characters. 

1. a 

Q sfosrt F&d ^oqS cm 

" A 

.4 . ...... 

5 . . 

fi 157)403 Oi 

w * D .0 . ., . 


The mastigal on which this record is engraved is of the variety which has only 
a single arm of a female with the figures of a male and female carved thereon. 
The inscription is written below. The record merely states that a woman named 
Chakiyakka entered fire, that is to say, became a sdti on Monday the 15th lunar day 
of the bright half of Margasira in the year Chitrabhanu. As the date is not ex- 
pressed in terms of the Saka era, it is not possible to find the exact equivalent of 
the date. From the paleography, however, it may be inferred that the year Chitra- 
bhanu here corresponds to 1582 A. D. and the whole date considered as equivalent 
to 29th November 1582, which, however, is a Thursday and not a Monday. 


At the village Tagarti in the same Anantapur hobli, on a mastigal in front of 
the Tirumalade"va temple. ...... . 

Size I' 6"xO' 9". 

Kannada language and characters. 



- ... .. .-.-. ...... Note. . 

This is also a mdstigal inscription similar to the previous one. The name of 
the woman who died as sati is Bachayi, wife of Mutyalachari. No date is given. 
The characters seem to be of the 17th century A. D. 



At the village Banniir in the hohli of Shikarpur, on a stone set up in the rice- 
field of Mallappa. 

Size 2' 3" XI' 8". 
Kannada language and characters. 

do rra.sftd 20**? s&oaJ 3 ricS o)O 

*-) V) ) Q 00 


2' 8"xl'- 8" 

1. fy. 

2. & 


1. svasti srlmatu Birarasa- 

2. ru Vuttaya-devarige kotta ga- 

3. de aravattalu 


This short inscription registers the gift of a plot of rice-land, half mccttar in 
extent, granted to the god? Vuttayadevar by the illustrious Birarasa. The 
characters seem to be of the 13th century A, D, and the donor of this grant 
Birarasa is probably the Santara general of the name met with in inscriptions. No 
date is given. 


At the same village Barmur, on a stone standing in the field of Bhimarma. 

Size 4' 2"xi:-r-4", t 
Kannada language and characters. 



3 3 
o o 

i o 


' " ' * 

aJjStea 4' 2" X 1' 4 
1. [%]*!. ^^^sfcrs^ofc 



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1. [svasti] samasta-bhuvanasrayam sri-pirfcbvi-va 

2. [lla] bha m aba-raj adbiraja raja-parame [svara] 

3. [pa] rama-bbattarakam Satyasraya-kula- 

4. [tiiaka] Ohalukyabharanam srirna- 

5. [Tribhu] -varia-iualla-vijaya-raiya- 

6. [m u] ttarottarabhivridhdlai-pravarddha- 

7. [ma] nam a-chandrarkka-taram-baram sa- 

8. [lu] ttamire " tafc-pada-padmopajlvi sa- 

9. [ma] dhigata-pancha-maha-sabda maba- 

10. [pra] cbanda-dandanayaka vib [u] dha-vara-daya- 

11. ka gotra-pavitram jagad-ekamitram nija- 

12. vamsabja-divakaram satya-ratnakaram vi- 

13. veka-Brihaspati saucha-maba-bra- 

14. fci para-nari-sahodara vidagdba-vidyadhara 

15. sakala-guna-nivasan ubbaya-raya- 

16. sant6sa ^rimat Trail6kya-malla-vlra-Nolam- 

17. ba-pallava-permmanadi Jayasingha-deva- 

18. pesana-HamiHianta ripubala-kritanta na 

19. madi samasta-prasasti-sahitam srima [d] 

20. dandanayaka Tambarasam Banava- 

21. si-panniohcbbasira-mumam Santalige-sayi- 

22. ramumam suka-sankata-vin6dadim rajyam- 

23. geyyufcfcamire " Chalukya-vira-vikrama-varsha 

2i. 7 neya Dundubhi-samvatsarada Pausya bahula 3 A- 

25. divara Uttarayana-sankranti-yanda svasti yama 

26. niyama svadhyaya dbyana dbarana mona-nu- 

27. sbfchana japa samadbi guna-sampannarappa srt agrabaram 

28. Bannivftra sasirvvargge pada-pujeyam kottu Alliyana ma- 

29. gam Nadayyana Bammam dalaram ko [ndu] bitta sara- 

30. na-vritti uraln Kanavaseya ala ball ..... ya-Naga- 

81. na rnattal ' ondu yi-dbarmmaman avanorvam ..... palisi 

32. davargge Kuruksbetrada Vanara ...... Arghghya- 


33. ttrtadolage sahasra-kavile 

34. da paragrappa Brahmanaringe 

35. dharmaman a" vanorvvan alidava a . . . . 

36. gadolu sasira-kavile [sasir] war Brahma [ra] 

37. konda maha livaru 

39. yo hare"ta vasu- 


Be it well. While the victorious kingdom of the illustrious Tribhuvanamalla, 
refuge of the whole universe, favourite of Prosperity and Earth, king of kings, the 
supreme lord, the great master, an ornament to the family of Satyasraya, a jewel 
of the Chalukyas, was prospering, to last as long as the moon, sun and stars 

While the illustrious dandanayaka Tambarasar, a dependant on his lotus feet, 
entitled to the band of- five instruments, Ttmhctpracliandadandandyaka, grantor of 
boons to the learned, purifier of his family, sole friend of the universe, a sun to the 
lotus, his family, an ocean of truth, a Brihaspati in discrimination, a Mahavrati 
(Bhishina or Hanuman ?) in purity of character, a brother to other women, a 
Vidyadhara to the wise, abode - of all good qualities, delighter of two kings, 
a Hanumanfca in crushing the enemies of ?- the illustrious Trail6kyamalla Vira 
Nolamba Pallava Permanadi Jayasinghadeva, Death to the enemy troops, possessed 
of these and other titles : was ruling in peace and wisdom Banav&si 12,000 and 
^antalige 1,000. 

In the seventh year of the Chalukya Vira Yikrama era, on Sunday the third 
lunar day of the dark half of Paushya in the year Dundubhi, the day of Uttarayana 
Sankranti : - " . ' 

Be it well. Nadayyana Bomma,. watchman, (talara) son of .Alliya, worshipped 
the feet of (paid a money price to) the Thousand (Brahman inhabitants) - of the 
agrahara Bannivur, endowed with the qualities of self-control, restraint, study, 
meditation, concentration,, silence, performance of religious duties, repetition of 
the sacred formulae and fixing .the mind intently on sacred objects, and obtained 
(purchased) one mattal oLNa"ga, near the banyan tree of Kanvase ? in the .village 
and granted it as saranavritti (land given away for religious devotees ?), 

To him who protects this charity accrues the merit of giving away to 
Brahrnans versed, iti.. the, Vedas, .thousand cows in_ Kuruksh6tra, Varanasi and 
Arghyattr]ia. ~Be t who destroys tbis charity incurs' the sin of killing thousand 
tawny cows and Brahmans in those sacred places.. . ' 


Note. : 

This inscription records the grant of some land as sarana-vr-itti by the => watch- 
man of the village Bannivur (Bannur) who purchased the land from the. thousand 
malidjanas of the village. The meaning of the word sarana-vritti is not clear. 
No donee is named in the grant. Evidently, the income of the land was to be 
spent for feeding religious devotees (saranar} who visited the - village 

Tambarasa was the governor of Banavase and Santalige provinces as a subordi- 
nate of the Chaluky as during the reign of Tribhuvananialla (Vikramaditya VI, 1076- 
1126 A. D.). The titles applied to him are also found in his other grants (see 
Mys. Arch. Rep. 1929, P. 140). It was during his governorship that the grant 
recorded herein is said to have been made. ... 

The date of the grant is given as Dundubhi sam. Push, ba 3. Sunday, 
Uttarayana-sankranti day in the seventh year of the Chalukya Vikrama era. Now, 
as the Chalukya Vikrama era commenced in 1076 A. D., the seventh year of this era 
falls in Dundubhi, 1082-1083. But Push, ba 3 of this year is a Monday (January 
9, A. D. 1083) and not Sunday ; nor is it a day of Uttarayana-sankranti as stated 
in the grant. If we take Pushya su 3 of this year (December 25, A. D. 1082) 
it falls on a Sunday and is an Uttarayana-sankranti day according to the grant. 
Hence it may be inferred that baJmla here is a mistake for suddlia and the date 
intended is Dundubhi Push, su 3 equivalent to Sunday 25th December 1082, 


On a stone lying in the jungle of Hale Bannur in the same Shikarpur Hobli. 

Size7' 0"x2'6" 
Kannada language and characters. 

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svasti samasta-bhuyan^sraya sri-prithvi-vallabha inaha-rajadhir^ja- 

param^svara pa- 
rama-bhattarakam SatyAsraya-kula-tilakam Chalukyabharanam srima 

[t] Tribhuvanamalla- 
[de] vara yijaya-rajyam uttar6ttarabhivri-ddhi pra^ r araddharDanam 

achandrarkka-taram saluttam ire ..... . ..... 

yirvarajam. samasta-bhuva [na]-samstuyamana-16ka-vikhyata Pallavan- 

vaya ^ri 

yuvaraja-raja-paramesvaram vtra-mahesvaram vikrama- 

bharanam jayalakshmt-rama [na] 
[sa] ranagata-rakshamani Oh^lukya-chudamani vira-sikliamani kadana- 

trinetram kshatriya- 
[pavi] tram gajangaraja sahaja-manojam ripuraya-kataka-surekaran 

Trailokyamaila vira Nolamba-pallava-permmanadi Jayasimhadevaru 

Banavase pannir-chchhasi- 
ramum Santalige-sasiramumam Mandali-sasiramumam padinentu-bbatta- 

grama-galam Belvala-munuru 



10. [Pu] ligere-mftnurumam Kavure-sasiramumam dusbta-nigraha-sisbta-prati- 

palanam geydu bilasa- 

11. dirp. dhareya-n aldarasu [ge] yuttam ire " tat-pada-padmopajivi. sama- 

dbigafca pancha-maha-sabda-raaha- 

12. [sa] mantadhipati maM-pracbanda-danda-nayakam vibudha-vara- 

dayakam gotra-pa-vitram jagadka- 

13. mitraffl nija-vamsambuja-divakara satya-ratnakara viveka-Bribaspafci 

saucba-mababrafci paranart-sabo- 

14. [da] ra vidagdba-vidyadbara sakala-gunanivasan ubbayaraya-sant6sha 

srlmat Trail6kyainalJa vira-Nolamba pa- 

15. [lla] va permrnanadi Jayasingha-deva-psana-Hanumantam ripubala- 

kritantam sriinan maha-pradbana berilala-ka- 

16. nnada-sandhivigrahi dandanayakam Tambarasar " kanda " nudiyisuvu- 

d aridu Taipbam nudidade Kailasa-sai- 

17. la gada Padmabbavain kadeda likbiti-yabdhiya kade Mridana varam 

Kaman-isu Karnnana vacbaoa " paligedey agada 

18 ' balisalu negalda ...... 

19 palisuva U dburadole nadapidanam bisadolu 

20 Tamba " Cholan alayalidu purarnaro palikki 

bhayakke mottam-modaligan ene tanila 
21 chakri Damba-dandadhipana !l Madake-dore-yall 

Ch6laiia padeyam benko- 

22. ndu Tainba-dandadhisam nadisi jaya-stambhaman em padedano 

Chaiukya-cbakravartfcige jasamam " vrifcta " 

23. pade-mat6m gala gange-gonda-purada Cbolani jayamgondan-al kadivodani 

Jayagoada-cbola-puradol klrtfci-dhvaja-stam- 

24. bbavam gudiyan kattisi sa [sa] nam-nilisidam sri-Yirasingh^sanam 

-odeyam Kuntala-chakravarti besasal Tambam 

25. jaya-stambbamam " vri " Dravilalipatiyemba Gbolikara rajyapakraroa- 

srige kancblvol irddoppuva Kancbi sancbalise ten- 

26. kal gbattamain danti sanuvinol Bajigan okkalam-badidu tandokkal Javam 

natta meti vol adattene nattan o- 

27. ttajikeyim Tambam jaya-stambbamam |! pirid adrindrarn Naggindrakk 

avani pirid Umabhrid-dbarA-cbakradim pirid ambh6- 

28. rasi sailavani-jalanidbi-sanddbadim diktatam tani pirid ant a-parvvatakkam 

dbaregam abdbigam digvibb& [gakke] raattani 

29. pirid kam kbyati mattam piriyan anitarim Tamba-dandadhinatham 1 

intenisi negardda srimad dandana- 

30. yaka Tambarasar . I Santalige-sasiranumam Mandali-s^siramumam 

Jiddulige erppattumam Nagarakbandaverppa- 


.31. [ttuma] 'niva modalagi palavum bhatta-gramagalumam dushta-nigraha 

sishta-pratipalanam geydu bilasa-vritti- 
3il . ,'. . ... mire ' tat-pada-padmopajlvi samasta-rajyabhara-nirupita- 


33. ndnnafca prabhu [main] trochchhaha-sakti-traya-sampannanappa sriroad 

dandanayaka perggade L6kanathayya 'I 

34. vinayama [noppane] nudiv op pane maduva madi kritakavillade negaldl 

Manu-charitan enipa Lokana 

35. vinayam budha-janada manaman irkkuli-gojgu " sarasijaman alarchchalu 

E>avi parinataa ent anti-sishtara poreyal i- 

36. deni parinatano Lokanatham Sarasvafci-oharaiia-ntipuralamkaram " int 1 

gunangale tanag anvartham agire Santali- 

37. ge-sasirake perggadetanam geyyuttamire " 
Santaligesasiradolage sriirjad agraharam Banniyural 

38. svasti yama-niyama-svadhyaya-dhyana-dliarana-m6nanushth.ana-parayana 

japa-samadhi-sampannarappa maha- 

39. janatnum alii pararnparyyayadim banda dana-dliarmmad okkalol Jakka- 

gosiyum perggade L6kanatbayyaingalu mukhya- 

40. magi arasara samtpakke bandu BaDniyiira kereyam munnirdd arasugal 

palavu-sul kattisiyum nilisal arttarilla nili- 

41. pode Dharuimarajane ninna pesaral katte balishtamagi niodappud a-gra- 

mada prajegalellam sukhamire punyam ninagakkum endn 

42. vinnapam-geydade savistaram kattuvudava gahanarn adam marppem endu 

Jakkag6siyam karedu ninenage pu- 

43. trana samanav enna maduva dharmmake sakhayan^gi padisalisufcfeu- 

mirendu taleyol kayyanifctu Banni- 

44. yural eradu graheya sidhdhhayada ponaa Jakkagdsiya kayole kottu 

kereyam kattisi Tambasamudram emba pesa- 

45. ran iltn .srimach Clialukya vikrama varshada. 5 neya Eaudri-samvatsarada 

Jeshtad .amavasye Adityavaradandina suryya- 

46. grahananirniUadim sriman Nolamba-devara besade Banniyftra Tamba- 

; samudrakke DSvimgereya badagana g6di- 

47. ' yali galeyaveradu 2. mat tar gaddeyumam a-yftra perjjunkamumam bittu 

prati-palisidali dharmmaman ava- 

48. n orvva sva-dharmmavennade rakhisida punyam atange. Gange Banarasi 

Kura-kshdtramemba punya-tirtthamgalol sasi- 

49. ra-kavileya k6dnmam kolagumam pancharatnadol kattisi sasirvvar vda- 

paragarappa Brammanargge kotfca phala-' 
50. maklm " y! dharmmaman ali [da] pafcakange a-punya-fcirthamgalol auitu 

kavileyuman anibar Brammanarumam 



51 . konda pancha- inaha-patakan akku " sva-dattam para-dattam vayo har&ta 

vasundhara [m] shash [t] ir warsha-sahasra- 

52. ni mishtayarp jayate krimi I S6bhanayya-nayakana magam Nllamayyana 

bareham mangala maha sri 

53. Malojam sasanamam madi akkaramam khandarisidam mangala maha srt 

(LL 1-3). 

Be it well. While the victorious kingdom of Tribhuvanamalla-deva, refuge 
of the whole universe, lord of good fortune and earth, mahdrdjadliirdja, paramesvara, 
paramaWiattdraka, ornament of the Satyasraya family, jewel of the Chalukyas, was 
ever prospering, to last as long as the moon, sun and stars endure. 


While the Juvardja (prince) Trailokyamalla Yira-Nolamba Pallava Permanadi 
Jayasiniha-devar, born of the Pallava family, praised by the whole universe and 
world-famous .... Yuvardja, lord of kings, a Mahesvara in valour, an 
ornament to prowess, lord of the goddess of victory, a talisman to the refugees 
crest-jewel of the Chalukyas, head jewel to heroes, a Eudra in battle, a pure 
tohafriya, a Kama to elephants, a Cupid in form, plunderer of the camps of the 
enemy kings, and a servant of his elder brother, was ruling over Banavase 12,000 
and Santalige 1,000, Mandali 1,000, 18 lhatta-grdmas, Belvala 300, Puligere 300, 
Kavure 1,000, punishing the wicked and protecting the righteous, governing the 
earth in sport. 

(LL. 11-16). . 

A dependant on his lotus feet, obtainer of the band of five great sounds, 
maha-samantadhipati, the highly powerful dandanayaka, conferer of boons on the 
learned men, purifier of his race, sole friend of the world, a sun to the lotus his 
family, an ocean of truth, a Brihaspati in wisdom, a mahdlrati (Bhishma ?) in 
purity of conduct, a brother to other's wives, a Yidyadhara among the learned, 
abode of all good qualities, delighter of two kings, a Hanumanta in fighting for the 
illustrious Trailokyamalla Vira Nolamba Pallava Permmanadi Jayasingadeva, 
death to enemy troops, the illustrious chief minister, great minister for peace and 
war of Lala and Kannada, dandanayaka Tambarasar. 

(LL. 16-17). 

It is difficult to induce Tarnba to give a promise. But if he gives his word 
it is as unshakable as) the Kailasa mountain, Brahma's writing, Siva's boon 
-Kama s arrow, and Kama's promise. 


(LL. 20-21). 

On account of the fear of Taraba-dandadhipa, Chola lost heart, vacated his 
capital and as if he was the first to run (?).... 

(LL. 21-22). 

Chasing the troops of the Ch6la king at Madakedore, . Tamba-dandadhisa set 
up a pillar of victory. What a fame did he bring to the emperor ? 

(LL 23-25). 

What more need he said ? The Chola king Jayangonda of Gangegondapura 
was overcome by fear (?) and Tamba, a tbrone of valour, set up under the orders of 
the emperor of Kuntala, in Jayangondacholapura a pillar of fame and also had a 
flag set up in that city and an inscription slab put up, 

(LL. 25-27). 

While Kanchi which shines like the waist-belt of the Goddess of the declining 
kingdom of the Oholikas who call themselves the lords of the Dravida people 
trembled, Tamba crossed the ghauts in the south and in its slopes set up with 
great valour a pillar of victory which was like a ( . . meti . . . . ) pillar 
in the middle of a threshing floor set up by Yama for thrashing Rajiga. 

(LL. 27-30). 

The lord of mountains, Himalaya is great. Greater than the lord of mountains 
is the Earth. Greater than the Himalaya (father of Uma) and the circular earth 
is the Ocean. The cardinal regions are greater than the Himalaya mountain, Earth 
and Ocean. Greater than the Mountain, Earth, Ocean and cardinal regions is his 
fame. Greater than all these is Tamba-dandadhisa, 

(LL. 29-32). 

While thus prosperous, the illustrious general Tambarasttr was ruling in 
happiness Santalige Thousand, Mandali Thousand, Jiddulige 70, Nagarakhanda 
70 and others including several bhatta-grdmas (villages granted for subsistence) ? 
conquering the wicked and protecting the righteous. 

(LL. 32-33). 

A dependant on his lotus feet, glorious on account of his position of the grea^ 
minister (mahamatya), carrying on the burden of the whole kingdom and highly 
honoured and possessed of the three constituents of regal power, power to rule, 
power to give counsel, power to infuse energy in subordinates, the illustrious 
dandanyaka Perggade L6kanathaiya. 


(LL. 34-36). " " ' ! 

The good character of Loka who is a Manu in - high -- conduct, - who talks 
politely, who acts according to his word, and who is free in his acts from fraud^ 1 
captivates the minds of the learned. Just as the sun is able to make the lotuses 
expand, so also is Lokanatha, an ornament to the anklet of Sarasvati, -competent 
to protect the righteous. Possessed of these natural attributes, he was discharging 
the duties of Pergade over Santalige Thousand. 

(LL. 37-45). 

In Santalige Thousand, at the agrahara village Banniyur : be it well. 

The mahajanas possessed of self-restraint, discipline, study of scriptures,' 
meditation on God, concentration, silent prayer, performance of religious rites, 
repetition of sacred formulae,- absorption of the mind in God and several persons 
of the village descended from a long line of ancestry noted for their charities and 
benevolence, the chief among them being Jakkagosi and Perggade L6kan&thaiya 
went to the Arasu (Tambarasar) and represented to him, " The previous kings 
built several times the tank (bund) at Banniyur but failed to make it stand, 
righteous lord (dharmardja), if the tank is to stand, it must be built in your 
name and- then -it will remain firmly and when all the inhabitants become happy 
thereby you will gain merit." Thereupon Tambarasa said that it was no great 
task to build it elaborately and that he would undertake its construction. He next 
called Jakkagosi to him and said " You are like a son to me. Be a friend to the 
charities made by me and carry them on." Thus saying, he placed his hand on his 
head and handing over to him the income from the quit-rent (siddhdya) of the 
village Banniyur for two years (-grdhe-hamlets?), he got the tank built and named 
it Tambasamudra. - ...... 

(LL 45-47). 

In the fifth year of the Chalukya Vikrarna era, the year Eaudri, on Sunday "the 
full moon day in Jyeshtha, on the occasion of solar eclipse, Tamba granted, under 
the orders of the, illustrious- Nolambadevar, two mattars (Gales?) of rice-land 
below the north weir -of Devingere and the PerfjunJca (customs duties on major 
articles) were granted for the upkeep of Tambasamudra (tank) of Banniyur. 

(LL 47-52). 

. Whoever protects this charity without minding that it is not his gift will 
incur the merit of giving away a thousand cows with their horns and hoofs inlaiid 
with five -precious stones to-- thousand Brahmans deeply versed in the Vedas at the 
sacred places Gange, Banarasi, and Kurukshetra. The wicked man who destroys.this 
charity will have incurred the sin of killing the same number- of cows: in the. same 


places and will also be guilty, of the Jfrve great sins. He who takes, away .land 
given by one-self or others is born as a worm in ordure for sixty a-thousand years./:; 

(LL 52-53). 

The writing of Nilamayya, son of Sobhanayya. Good Fortune. , . . - 

Maloja made this sasana and incised the letters. Good Fortune. 


This inscription belongs to the reign of the Western Chalukya king 
Tribhuvanamalla Vikramaditya YI and is dated in the fifth year of the Chalukya 
Vikrama era Kaudri Sam. Jyesh. ba. 30 Sunday, with solar eclipse. This date 
corresponds to June 21st Saturday, A. I). 1080 on which day there was a solar 
eclipse and the tithi of; ain&uchya ended at "19 of the day or 11|- ghatikas after 
sunrise or about 11 o'clock in the morning. But the week-day is given as Sunday 
in the grant on which day there was no eclipse or amavasya. Apparently the grant 
was made on the morrow of the solar eclipse and as a gift at the time of new 
moonday and especially at the time of solar eclipse is considered to be highly 
meritorious, the day is spoken of as amavasya and surya-grahana. 

The record also states that the king's younger brother Jayasimha was the 
ruler of Banavasi and Sa'ntalige, Mandali (a place near Shimoga Town), Belvala 
and Puligere Districts. A subordinate of his named Tamba is stated to be a great" 
general who defeated Eajiga or Eajeiidra-Chola at Madakadore and set up a pillar 
in memory of his victory. He is said to have been governing Santalige 1,000, 
Mandali 1,000, Jiddulige 70 (a place in Shikarpur Taluk), Nagarkhanda 70, etc. 
Madakadore may be provisionally identified with Mudakadore in T.-Narsipur 
Taluk, Mysore District. . 

A subordinate of Tamba named Perggade Lokanathaiya is also named as 
Mahamatya and Perggade of Santalige 1,000 District, 

The main object of the inscription is to record the breach of the tank at the 
village Bannur and its repairs by Jakkag6si under the instructions of the governor 
Tamba at the request of the mahajanas of the village and of Perrggade 
Lfikanathaiya. He was provided with the funds accruing from the fixed sources 
of revenue of the village Banniyur for two years (?) for repairing the breach. The 
tank was named Tarnbasamudra after the governor. Further, the income from 
two mattars of land and from the customs dues on merchandise coming into 
or exported from the village was also granted for the annual expenses of 
maintaining the tank, sanction for this grant being obtained from the Prince 
Jayasimha. The usual imprecations occur at the end of the grant. The name of 
the composer of the grant is given as Nilamayya and unao-of the engraver as 
Maloja. Some of the Kannada poems in the inscription are very fine and- mark 


the author as a poet of considerable merit. For Tamba, see p. 140 of M. A. E. 
for 1929. 


At the -village Salur in the same hobli of Shikarpur, on a stone set up at the 
back of Patel Bhadrappagauda's house. 

Size 3' X 1' 6'. 
Kannada language and characters. 

co ~cV 

q' v -j ' err 

O /N. -L D 



This records the grant of a plot of land as wmbaU (rent-free land granted for 
the maintenance of a chief or ordinary individual for some service to the State) to 
D6sayi Kari Sivapanayaka of the village Bettadur. No date is given. The 
characters are of the 18th century. 


On a stone set up below the Sampige tree at the same place in Salur, 

Size 1' 6" X 1' 6" 

Kannada language and characters. 


3 t 


1. Libharanga-pa- 

2. chu-sahebaru 

3. Olera Yanaga- 

4. lage kota u 

5. bali 


4 > 07^ 

5 > eo^ 



This records the gift of an umlali to Yanagala of Holeya caste by Libharanga- 
pachusaheb. The latter may be a corruption of the name of some European 
Officer. (Levering?). 


At the same village Salur on a stone set up in the rice field of 33hadrappagauda 
to the south. 

SizeS' 0"x 2' 10" 

Kannada language and characters. 

Q 00 

'_0"X2' 10". 

2. [sraqteiy 

g ( ra s^s5c3 , 

7, [a37>St^5toas7)SS)]8^tf^do zo^srs^^dsjODO^d^^oJos-a 

[a 6 ] 



17 t d zo 

18. ^ rfoJo ss-Dqrsdra ^osj^jdrf 3g>ajjRSac3 

1. srimat-parama-gambhira-syadvada-mogha-lanchhauam jiyat trailokya- 

2. [nathasya sasanam jina-] sasanam " svasti samasta-bhuvana 

3. ...... [ . ma] ha rajadhirajam paramesvara para- 

.4. ..,.[. Satya] sraya-kula-tilaka Chalukyabharanam 



5 srinia [d Bhuldkamalla-] devara vijaya-ra-jyam uttarottarabhivri- _ 

6. [ddhi pravardhamana] m achandrarkka-taram saluttamire I samadbiga- 

ta-pancha-ma- m -i i, i" "' 

7. [hasabda rnaha-ma] ndalesvaram Banavasi-puravaratovara.Trikhshaya-, 


8. [sambhavachaturasiti-naga-j radhishthita-La [latalochana] -ehaturbhu- 

jam . ; :j 

9. sri jayanti-Madhukesvara-deva-labdba-vara-prasadam namadi- 

10. samasta-prasasti-sahitam sriman mahainandaiesvaram Mayu- 

11.' ravarmadeva [r] tat-pada-padmopa-jivi sriman maha-mandalesvaram 

12. Magara Karagarasar Santalige-sayira-mumam dusbta-ni- 

13. graba-visisbta-pratipalanadin aluttire'l sri-Mula-sangba Ko- 

14^ [nda] kundanvaya Kanurgganada Mesba [pa] sharia-gachchbada sri 

15. di^a-siddbanta-devara sishya Kula-Cbandra-pa- [ndita] devara guddam 


16. drarayi-setti srimad anadiy-agrabara Saliytira sasirba- 

17. ra Bramba-jinalayada basadiya niv^dyakke Bbuloka-varsbada 

18. 5 neya Sadbarana-samvatsarada Pusbya suddba 3 Somavarada Viltta . 


Tictory to Jina-sasana, fcbe religion of fcbe Lord of tbe three worlds characterised 
by tbe illustrious, profound, excellent and invaluable Syadvada doctrine. 

Be it well. While the victorious kingdom of the illustrious [Bhuloka-malla- 
de~var] , the refuge of the whole universe, maharajadbiraja, param^svara, parama- 
bhattaraka, ornament of Satyasraya family, jewel of the Ohalukyas was increasingly 
prosperous to last as long as the moon, sun and stars, endure. 

A dependant on the lotus feet of the illustrious mahanaandalesvara Mayura- 
Yannadevar, obtainer of tbe band of five musical instruments, lord of the excellent 
city of Banavasi. born of Siva (lit. Three-eyed) and Earth, presiding over eighty- 
four cities, possessed of a frontal eye and four arms, obtainer of great boons from 
Madhukesvara, possessed of these and other titles. 

"While the illustrious Magara Karagarasar was ruling Santalige Thousand, 
punishing the wicked and protecting the righteous. 

Bbadrarayisetti, disciple of Kulachandrapanditadeva, who was a disciple of 
Prabhaebandra-siddhantad6va of tbe illustrious Mulasangha and Kondakundanvaya, 
Kanur-gana and Mishap ash anagachchha (made a grant) for the food-offerings of 
Brahnaajinalaya-basadi of tbe immemorial agrahara of the Thousand of Saliyur on 


.the .uttarayana .day being Monday the.. 3rd lunar day of the bright half of Pushya 
. year .Sadharana 5th year of. Bhuloka. . j .--- 

' ; : ' ' Note. " " " 

This records a grant to a Jaina temple named Brahma-jinalaya-basadi in 
Saliyur (same as the present village Salur) by a merchant named Bhadrarayisetti 
during the rule of Magara Karagarasar (the name is not very clear in the inscription) 
over the district Santalige 1,000, as a subordinate of the Kadamba king Mayura- 
varma who, in turn, is referred to as a subordinate of the Western Chalukya King 
Bhulokamalla (S6niesvara Bhulokamalla III Circa : 1126-1139 A. D.). The usual 
titles are applied both to'the Chalukya and Kadamba kings. The titles tryaksha- 
kshma-sambhava and chaturasiti-nagaradhishthita-Lalata-lochana-Chaturbhuja are 
applied to Mayuravarma Til (1130-1132) alias Hemma (the Kadamba king who at 
this time was ruling over Banavase"*), son of Tailapa, who ruled from 1117-1130. 
The phrase chatter astti-na'garddhishthita-LaldtaldchaTia-Chaturbhiij a has been some 
times split into two, cliaturasiti-nagarddliislithita meaning presiding over eighty- 
four cities and Laldta-ldclianachaturbh'itja meaning Frontal-eyed (Siva) and four- 
armed (Vishnu) in the Niralgi inscription edited by Dr. Barnett in E. I. XVI, I*. 68 
and the names of the gods are connected with the succeeding epithet jagad-vidit- 
dslitd-dasasvam&dlia-diksliita and translated as consecrated in eighteen world-famous 
sacrifices to Siva and Vishnu. But it is said in other inscriptions that Kadamba, 
the ancestor of the Kadambas, was born from a drop of the perspiration of the God 
Siva on earth under a Kadamba tree and that he had four arms and an eye on the 
forehead (sarala-bhuja-chatushko bhala-ntrah Purarih, para iva : B. C. VII,; Shikar- 
pur 117). Hence these phrases four-armed and frontal-eyed are merely ^pithets 
applied to the progenitor of the Kadambas and thence to his descendants and have 
no connection with the gods Siva and Vishnu. ( : 

The donor in this grant was a Jaina and his preceptor is named ^Kulachandra, 
disciple of Prabhachandra of Kanurgana and Meshapashanagachchlia. These 
classes of Jainas are also met with in E. C. VII, Shikarpur 221 of S 996 which 
also mentions a Kulachandra disciple of Ramanandi, and Hoimali 5. 

As regards the date, the Saka year is not given. The 5th year of Bhultikarnalla 
was the year Sadharana, corresponding to A. D. 1130. Pushya su 3 of this year is 
a Friday (December 5) and not Monday, nor is it a day of Uttarayana-sankranti 
and the day coincided with 25th December 1130 Thursday. If we take the next 
year as is sometimes done, viz., Virddhikrit, A. D. 1131, the tithi falls on a Thursday 
(December 24, 1131) which is also an uttarayana-sankranti day, but even here the 
week-day is incorrect. It is probably the date intended and the name of the week- 
day inserted might be due to some mistake. - . . 

* Vide Morses : Kadamba Kula, P. 131. ' ' 



The village Saliyur is spoken of as an agrakdra and its mahajanas are described 
as the thousand in this and other inscriptions. Apparently the village contained, 
on the above date, a thousand Brahman families. To-day, however, there are only 
three or four Brahman houses in the village, which helong to recent settlers. 


At the same place in Salur, on a second stone. 
Size 3' 0"xr6" 

Kannada language and characters. 



>Q" X I' 6" 


3. LortES3Sara d atorf5tog ssosjjsucflorf ptog] 


5. sso^o 

6. rSs? sJosJ^ad a^stoqj oo 



11. pf] 

12. ....... 

13. rtjB^a as^&sbcfl^rttf 

14. stfass ^otostort 


37. rttas^ 


19. dsSffif ^rj t e^o5o wcxJ^ooo 

20. S *4s^? o 




1. namas tunga-siras-chumbi-chandra-ohamara cMrave [trai] 

2. I6kya-nagararambha-mula-stambhaya bambha [v6] 

3. 6m G-anapatyaya namah Sarasvatyaya na [mah] 

4. svasti samasta-prasasti-sahitam sri- 

5. matu Bhuloka-varshade 12 da neya Pin- 

6. gala-samvatsarada Jeshtha-sudha 10 Budhavara [dandu] 

7. yama-niyama-svadhyaya-dhya- 

8. na-dharuna-rDonanushthana-japa-sa [mad hi] 

9. sila-guna-sampannarappa sriman inaha- 

10. grahara Saliyura srima [dase-] 

11. [sha] maha-janangalu 

12 srima 

13. gdtrada Chikka Kfisiniayyagala [bramha] 

14. ni Janaabbeya maga Sankarabhatta- 

15. na bramhani Bij abbey u Cbandsvara~dvara 

16. mokbasaleya bhandisidake [avala ma] 

17. ga Ohikka Kesavayyana kaiyalu 8 gadyana 

18. pada-pujeya kondu Chandesvara- [devara] 

19. nivedyake Kaggereya bayalalu G-uniga- 

20. na matfea 1 londa bittaru a [dharmmaman a-] 

21. vanorva pratipalisi-dange Varanasiyalu 

22. s,sira-Kavileya sasira V^da-paragarappa 

23. Brambanargge kotta pbala i-dbarmmaman alida- 

24. n a-fcirttadal anitu kavile Bramhanara konda pataka. 


(Invocation to Sambbu). Salutation to G-anapati. Salutation to Sara- 

Be it well. In tbe 12th year of tbe illustrious Bbuloka [malla], possessed of 
all tbe good attributes, on Wednesday tbe lOtb lunar day of tbe bright half of 
Jye"shtha in the year Pingala. 

All the mahdjanas of the agrahara of Saliyur, possessed of all the qualities of 
self-control, restraint, study of the scriptures, meditation, concentration, silence, 
observance of religious duties, repetitions of the sacred formulae, absorption of thought, 
austerity of character, etc., received 8 gady^nas as the price (of land) from Chikka 
Kesimayya, son of Bijabbe, wife of Sankara-bbatta, who was the son of Jannabbe, 
wife of the Brahman Chikka Kesimayya and (in for the price received) they 
(the mahdjanas) gave away one Gkmiga's mattar of land in the wet fields below 


Kaggere for the service of food -offerings to the G-od Chandesvara, a mukha&dle (front 
verandah) for whom was built by the said Bijabbe. 

Whosoever protects this act of charity gets the reward of giving away a 
thousand cows in Benares to a thousand Brahmans. He who destroys this charity 
will incur the sin of slaying so many cows and Brahmans in that sacred place. 


This inscription also belongs to the reign of the Chalukya king Bhulokamalla 
III. It is dated in his 12th year Pingala, on Wednesday Jyeshtha su 10. The 
year Pingala is evidently A. D. 1137 and Jyeshtha su 10 would correspond to May 
31, A. D. 1137;, a Monday and not Wednesday, as stated in the grant. A grant of 
some land is stated to have been made for a Siva temple at Saliyur for which a 
woman named Bijabbe built a front verandah. The usual imprecation ends the 
grant. ; . . . 


On a stone set up in the bed of the tank at the same village Salur. 

SizeS' 6" xl'-~ 0" 
Kannada language and characters. 

oort " 





5. do ado 


.9.. crasrad 

10.- <?^afcj 

11. ^ SJO 

-12, p] dojddfsrsrl^ s3^33o p] dds^ ^^sto p] 


1^ Y OS 

17'. - -SJ^j 


19. [s] 

20. d^aaoort 


24. ^i (?) 





29. sjjF a^ss^RSSsJrtr 38,o33srtsys 

31, O 

32. sS 

33, rf 

34. o ris?ofea 3 & tsa^srs 


37 1 


Trans liter ation. 

1. ta ..... 

2. d^vara rajya . . . 

3. ttar6ttarabhivrid-db.i-pravarddlia- 

4. manam achandrarkka- ta- 

5. xambaram salutfcamire sri svasti yama 

6. niyama svadhyaya dhyana dharana mona- 

7. nushthana japa samadhi slla guna-sa [m pa] 

8. ' nnaru chatur-v^da-vedanga-samasta- [sa] stra-pa- 

9. ravara-pagararu yajana yajana- 

10. dhyapana y6ga-parayanarum 

11. srima samotfcamar ? ekayka-paiidi- 

12. .[ta] ra saranagata-vajra-pan [ja] -rarappa srima [d] a- 

13. nadi-yagraharam Saliyur a [sfi] - 

14. sha-sasirvvaru mahajanamgalu [sva-] 

15. sfci srimach Ghalukya Vikrama- [ka] - 

16. lada 44 neya Subhakritu sam]- 


17. vatsarada Karttika su . 

18. radandu Saliyura 

19. [pe] rvvaruva sri 

20. devaringe Kagereya baya- 

21. lolage nivedyake bitta ga- 

22. de mattalo 1 svasti sri Naga [re] - 

23. svara-devarimge bitta dhannmama U- 

24. ddura-munurvvaru prati- 

25. palisvaru L6kabharana-pa- 

26. nditara sisya Nagarsa i-dharmmada 

27. keyya sasirvvaru prati- 

28. palisuvaru 1 dharmmaman avano- 

29. rvva prafcipalisadavarge Prayage Ya [na]- 

30. rasiya Arghghhya-tirtfcha G-aya-gal-a- 

31. li s&yira-kavileya sasiravara- 

32. r Vv^da-paragarappa sasira-Bra [hmana] - 

33. rgge kodum kolagumam suva- [rnna-ratna-] 

34. galim kattisi Aditya-va [rad Amavasye] 

35. Vyatipata si;ryya- [grahanadali] 

36. bitta palamu 

37. navanorvvan alipida [pat a-] 

38. kan anitu kavileya [nanitu pa-] 

39. rvvaruvam nanitu [ksh&tragalali kon-] 

40. da papake [hohanu] , ' 


This inscription is full of lacunae. Some lines on the top are effaced, and a 
portion of the right side of the inscription slab is broken ofi and several letters are 

The record seems to belong to a Western Chalukya king whose name however 
is lost on the inscription 'slab. - It is_dated in the 44th year of the Chalukya Vikrama 
era, in the bright fortnight of Karbika in the year Subhakrit. The Chalukya 
Vikrama era commenced in A. D. 1076 and the 44th year of this era corresponds to 
A. D. 1119. But A. D. 1119 is Vikarin according to the southern system of 
luni-solar years ourceni^in this country. The nearest year Subhakrit is A. D. 1122, 
three years later and Eartika sukla . . . corresponds to the first half of October 
in 1122 A. D. Hence 44 may be considered as a mistake of the engraver for 47 and 
the correct date of the grant taken as 1122- A. D. Vikramaditya VI was, ruling at 
this time. - :. . 


j.~ "But if we 1 take the Northern, cy c cle c of Jovian. years, A. D. 1119 or $ 1041 
corresponds to Subhakrit as stated in the grant. Tt is not yet certain, however, 
.fchat this, system was" prevalent in this country at the time. - - 

The inscription seems to register the gift of one mattar of ^ice-laud , below 
Kaggere tank for the service of food offerings to the god Nagaresvara of the 
village SaliyurJSalur) by the malidj anas of the village. N-agarasa, disciple of 
Lokabharana-pandita, was the manager of the temple, The three hundred (Brah- 
mans) of the village Uddur (?) were appointed as the guardians of the above charity. 
The usual imprecatory sentences occur at the end of the grant. 

, . . . - . " 82 . . . 

At the village Chikkapura, a hamlet of Salur, on a viragal to the west near 
the weir of the tank. -, 

-- " Kannada language and characters. 

/'.:.: : . . ' Size 3' X 2' : 7 

3' x 2' 
Part I - 


6, . . nf!>GfeTK?s&n*d . . . .^ '. ; ; r. _____ ^radrrsocfeto Sef^p 005,0^ [33,] 
y t 

Part II 

2. o 

3, ' 

Part I , . '_ f , ,, , ,, ,. t . Transliteration. . : > 

:Vl, '"..".' v... .!'. ; ^ ". - . .:...,. . !. :'-': - ! /' 

2. ., . . . . 

' ->.' - -. . -- '* - *o .' ' " ' r. 

3;. ', . %;',.-. v ... . . _:, satyaratnakararu saranagatara va [jra] - l '"" - .: 

4. panjararum sri , ;. .. .y devata diviya-sri-pada-padma'-radha [karu] - 

5. mappa ^rfmad anadiy agrahara^ SMiyura Makanahalliya^. ' , - ,1 



6. gaucla Kalimagauda Maehagaundanu Sakavarsha 1131 

ne [Pra]- . - 

7. moda-samvatsarada Vaisakha su 15 . . dinadole bandali atana viradhuracfr 

8. ... kidiragi palara kondu 

Part II - " 

1. [turn] harivali Makanahali Hadada suraloka-praptana [da] - 

2. li Hadunilikaliya kada hariya gale kam 300 yikidar 

3. tapidade ka [vile] Bramhanara kondavaru 


This inscription slab lies on the stone pavement on which the waste water of 
a small tank flows periodically. Hence several letters are worn out completely and 
cannot be made out. . '': 

The record is dated S 1131 Pramoda sam. Yais. s"u. 15 corresponding to 
10th April 1210 (if we take S 1132 Pramoda) and records the grant of some land, 
300 poles in estent, in memory of a warrior named Hadada of the village Makanahalli,' 
a hamlet of Saliyur (Saltir) who died while defending its cattle and men against 
Machagaunda when the latter marched on the village and gave battle to its gaudas 
named Kalimagauda 5 etc. The gaudas are praised as the oceans of truth, adamantine 
cages for the refugees, etc. The usual imprecation is found at the close of the 
grant. No king is named in the grant. 


At the same village ChikkapuraTon a stone in the field of Guttiga to the east. 

Size 5' 0"-xl' 6"; - ... 

Kannada language and characters. 


2. 9^>^5^OK3jSP?3"Sf30S5'e> 9J * i 

ed I j[ 

8. s!jstos&e^&!a!;3 ,_. ~jov*^ 

** I *X* c^(2Q fcW^CWw 

J_ 3* WJv\^(J 

5, tS^osj'sdorej^eSpFdo sJ33 

~* "~* eS -o i\ o ,1 K w 

W MjWI. ^ _ . . J-t/ 


f\ -a *^a > a . -^- ' 

16- rtdS. sy^ai prt FJ 



1. svasti yama niyama svadhyaya- 

2. dhyana-dharana-monanushtana-ja- 

3. pa-sarnadhi-sushtla-sapanna- 

4. rappa anadiyagraharam 

5. Salivtira sasirvvaru ma- 

6. dida datti yentendade svasti s"ri- 

7. ruatu Chalukya vikrarna 

8. varishada 47 neya Subhakrit- 
. 9. samvatsaradalu Magha bahu- 

10- la 11 Adivara uttarayana- 

j 11. sankramana-dandu Hervaru- 
. . 12. . vainly a Hariroayya Tekavalli- ... 

13. yalu chatrakke bitta G-uniga-vatta- 

14. r 2 yi dharmmama pratipalisidavage 

15. Varanasi-yalu sasirvvar veda-para- 

16. garappa Bramha [nargge] . sayira-ka 

17. vileyuma koita palam akku 


This inscription is similar in contents to the previous record No. 82. , 
It registers the gift of some land by Bniya Harimayya, hervdrava (chief of the" 
Brahmans) on behalf of the thousand (Brahmans) of the agrahara village, Balivur 
(Sal fir). The land granted was two mattars of Guniga in extent and was given 
away for a choultry at the village TSkavalli. The usual sentence about the merit 
of maintaining a previous grant is found at the close of this record also. 

The date of the grant' is given as Sunday, Uttarayana Sankramana day, being 
the llth lunar day of the dark half of Magha in Subhakrit, 47th year of the Ch&lukya 
Vikrama era. Now the 47th year of this era is a Subhakrit corresponding to 1122 
A. D. The Uttarayana Sankranti day in the year falls on December 24th, a Sunday 
as stated in the grant, but the tithi is Pushya ba. 9 or 10 and not Magha ba 11, as 
stated in the grant. In that year, Magha ba. 11 fell on a Thursday (Jan. 25 1123 
A.D.) and this day was the 3rd day of the solar month Kumbha and not Uttarayana 
sankranti day. It is possible, however, to take the month Magha as the solar month 
corresponding, viz., Kumbha and bahula 11 of that month would then correspond 
to December 25, 112'2, the day succeeding Uttarayana-sankranti. 


On a stone lying to the east of Sanku-Basavanna image, in the village Belagami 
in. the Hobli of Talagunda. 

Kannada language and characters. 


3SUJ3& sstfrtoodd 




4. A)^a5oo a 

The letters of this inscription are very much worn out. It seems to record the 
grant of a plot of land with the sowing capacity -of eight khandugas. .. 

The name Channabasapa in line 3 is probably the donee. The date given is 
S 14-21 Sidharfchi sam. Chai. su. 3 which is equivalent to 15th March A. D.. 1499, 




,. f. st ,S e 1 3? n S near the tank weir on th e road to Chittanhalli from Kalltir in 

the Hobh of Kadaba. " 

Sizel' 2"x2' 6*. 

Kannada language and characters. 




/ _2"x2' 6" 

i. ^g-sdK ^SosS^d sjocos-sso a L aSJs^srodzSosSj 
2- ft,^sto sftas'^zpsSo stedaJScjato^J ^O^D to 

8. s^c^sto cfc^ajjdz^sfcJ Soaraa^rtrf eztocs^s F 

*>. ^ o 


1. SMharana-samvatsara Vayisakha ba 7 Somavara-dandu . 

2. srimanu mabapradhanam Marayya-Nayakana tamma Ba- 

3. mmayyanu Melesvara-devara nanda-divigege a-chandr^rkka- 

4. t^rambaramnadevantagikotta ga 2 atana bha M n - 
6. yyakottaga7idamkidisuvargemahapataka. ....... 

C." ' - -- - - Note: :.--..-. ,- .- 

This records the gift of a sum of 2 gadyanas by Bammayya, younger brother of 
maliapradliana Marayyanayaka, and of 1 gadyana by Mallayya, his brother-in-law, 
for maintaining a perpetual lamp in the temple of the god Melsvaradevaru. No 
Saka year is given. The date is stated to be as Sadharana sam. Yais. ba. 7- Monday. 
It is not possible to determine who this Marayyanayaka was;. The usual 
imprecation is found at the end of the record. 


At the village Nittftr in the hobli of Nittur, on a stone set up behind the Jaina 

Kannada. language and characters. 

( cfc 


5. srsd 



Q C3 33DOO S3 

*-/* A 

*ff ; . 

"" " ' Note. 

This is a nishadhi stone, a monument set up in mornery of the death of a pious 
Jaina after becoming a sanydsi. The present inscription records the death of one 
Bommanna on Monday the 8th lunar day of the bright half of Phalguna in the year 


A copper plate in the possession of Nanjamma, in the village Mukanaya- 
kankote in the same hobli of Nittur. 

Size 1' 0" X 0' 9": 1 plate. 
Kannada language and characters. 

I'- 0" x 0' 9" 


3 .cSsJwfc ortSjdsa.oza LSod z3"ss3odE3)ds3 S 

-^", _s'- to J - . . 

'4. " fdrtcfsdbtf sSojao^ooraato ^o^^S aSj 




s rtS) syaatogtf aP*^je>i zSo^tosSd^-sctioSd 

*-" M _> . 


cdi SDoosscJ sSSo ^o^EsrsrcraoJo s5sc rfsSisra dsto 


' 15 

J - v ' 

15, rioeso 2g)068O 

17. ea 




1. Mudduvirasv&rnigalavara charanaravin- 

2. dagalige 

3. namas tunga-4iraschumbi-chandra-ohaiiiara-charave trail6- 

4. kya-nagararambha-mulastambhaya Sambhave svasti sri vi- 

5. jayabhyudaya Salivahana saklia varushamgaln 1658 ne 

6. Nalanartia-samvatsarada Nija Jyeshtha suddha saptami Bhargava- 
- - vasaradalli 

-7. Salanayakara Bhairappanayakara prapautranada San- 

8. gappanayakara pautranada GheDnabasava-nayakara putra- " 

9, nada Mudiyappanayakanu bhakti-purassara-vagi Hagalava- 

10. di hobali yada Kote-sthalada G-erahalli gramakke pra- 

11. tinamadheyavada Llingasagaravemba gramavannu nama- 

12. skara madi yidhsne yi-gramakke saluvantha gadde beddahi 

13. i5ota tudike aae achchukattu nidhi nikshepa sunka siddha- 

14. ya muntada sakala suvamMaya saha namaskara ma- 

15. di yidhene yendu barasi-kotta dana-4asana sva-dattadvi- 

16. gunam pumnyam para-dattanupalanam paradattapahare- 

17. na sva-dattam nishphalam bhavet I sva-datta putrik^. dhatrl pitru- 

18. datta sahodari aninya-datfca bhaven mata dattam bhft- 

19. mim parityaj^tu sri 33 


To the lotus feet of Mudduvirasvdmi.B^u^iion to Sambhu. Be it well. In 
the victorious and prosperous year 1658 of the Salivahana era, the year named Nala, 
on Friday the 7th lunar day of the bright half of Nija Jyeshtha. 







: ^/*fi!^^ 




-:^?;i ;; :vv : ; : ^ 





Mysore Archceological Survey.] 

(p. 259, No. 88). 


I, Mudiyappa Nayaka, son of Chennabasava Nayaka, grandson of . Sangappa, 
Nayaka, great-grandson of Salanayaka's (son) Bhairappa Nayaka, have granted 
(life, saluted) the village Grerahalli, also called Lingasagara, in Kote-sthala and 
Hagalavadi Hobli. I have given away all the lands, wet and dry, in the. village as 
well as gardens, big and small, embankments, boundaries, treasure on the .surface or 
buried underground, customs dues, quit-rent and all other revenue in gold. 

Thus I have got this ddna-sdsana written. Protecting the gift of another 
is twice as meritorious as making a gift oneself. By seizing another's gift even 
one's own gift becomes fruitless. Land given by one-self is his daughter; land given 
by his father is his sister; land given by others becomes one's mother. Hence one 
should not seize land gifted away. Good Fortune. 


This registers the gift of the village named Grerahalli alias Lingasagara to 
Mudduvirasvami, who was probably a Lingayat guru, by the chief Mudiyappa 
Nayaka. The donor belonged to a line of petty chiefs of Hagalvadi, a village in 
(rubbi Taluk of Tumkur District. Both the donor and his father Ohannabasava 
Nayaka and grandfather Sangappa Nayaka are also named in a copper-plate granfe 
at Tirumalapur of S 1651 (B. 0- XII Ohiknayakanhalli 38). . 

The present grant is dated S 1658 Nala, sam. Nija Jyesh. su.-7 Friday 
Corresponding to June 4, 1736 A. D. The usual imprecatory verses occur at the 
end of the grant. No overlord is named in the grant. 


Kudalur grant of the Granga king Madhavavarma, found buried in the earth by 
JTanjappa in his land at the village Pura in the hobli of Nitttir. 

Size 0' 9" X 0' 3": 3 plates with a ring and elephant 
- Old Eannada characters and Sanskrit language. 

f. CJ 

co o 

3 soortrW) w;3Qfo 

0' 9"xO' 3" 


2. Sj 




II a 6. 


10. rt>ootpg^3'e>sJss> is 

-II b 11. 



- 17, 

. is, 

OS) ^f CdJSra Si 33i3 5"3 
s - J 3 

I. b. . ] 

1. -BMradv&ijasa-gotrasya Hari-tulyasya vikrame sri Pallavakultodrasya 

r^jna [h] sri Skanda-vamnQanah 

2. svasti dharmmat ..palayato bhtimim varddhaman tu sarad6 Chaitre 

masi suohau pakshe Panchamyam Eohini-dine 

3. Jahnavi-vimalakasa-jalamala-kulasya cha Jahnaveya-kuldudrasya 

4. rajnah K^7 asa 'g'o* ras y a srlmat Konkani-varmmana]? putrasya sarvva- 
; - mukhyasya Madhavasya nripasya cha 

5. aurasasyafcha pnfcra^ya karttur ddharinmam anuttamam 1 maharajena* 

vidhina jaya-^rl Simliavarmmana 

n. a. '---.-.-. . .. '"-":.-.- 

6. abhishiktasya suranamnvirasyatulya-karmmaiiah ^rimato Gangarajasya 

Gangavamsa-dlivajasya cha 

7. aryyauain varmmabhutasya namatopy Aryyavarmmanah tasya putrena 

dhirena pragalbhena mahatmana 

8. satrunam . Suiya-tulyena mitranam chtodn-kantina palan^ 3 Krishna- 
. " tulyena ksliamane .bht-sainena cha - . ' 

9. sri Pallava-nrip6ndr6na Vijaya-Skandavarmmana nyayatopy abhishik- 
". teria -sarvva-prakritiibhis'saha " . : . ; 

10. gurubbih krita^namn^ cha -s.atsu Madhaya-varmmana Kausika-sa-gotra 
:::: J- ^- ' , bKyam 


II. b. 

11. Kumara-Bhava-sarmmabhyam Taitriyabhyam tu dharmmato Marukara- 

vishaye gramam Kudaluran-nama-samjnitam ' 

12. Totla-nadi-paschimato Perurat purvatas [s] thitam sriman-Madhava 

rajena brahmariyena subuddhina 

13. jala-datya pradattanta brahmadeya-kramena cha Gange'yo va pya- 

Gangeyo viprayor gramam idrisam 

14. hartta harayita yo va hyanumant6pade"4akah mahapataka-sarnyuktas sa 

bbavet sakalatraka [h] 

III. a. 

15. api cbatra Manu-gitab slokab bbavanti I bahubbir vvasudka bhukta 

rajabbis Sagaradibbih 

16. yasya yasya yada bbumis tasya tasya tada pbalam ' sva-dafctani para- 

dattain va yo ba [(r&)] ta vasundbaram 

17. sbasbtib va[rj sba-sabasrani gbore tamasipacbyat6l svam datum sumaha- 

ch-cbbakbyam du(m)kbam anyarttha-palanam 

18. danam va palanam veti danacb chbreyo nupalanam 

iti Bbaradvaja-sa-gotrena Kumara-^armniarLa likbityan tamrapattika. 

(II. 1-2) 

Be it well. While King Skandavarma, an Indra to tbe Pallava family, an equal 
of Vishnu in prowess, a descendant of tbe Bbaradvaja-gotra was protecting tbe earfch. 
in righteousness. 

In the prosperous year and tbe month Chaitra, bright fortnight, Panobami and 
a day with the constellation of Eohini. 

(II. 4-10) 

By MMhavavarma, called as such among good people with the name given by 
his gurus, and anointed properly by the auspicious Yijayaskandavarma, chief of the 
Pallava kings, in conjunction with all his (Madhavavarrna's) subjects, a great hero, 
skilled in argument, high-minded, a sun to the enemies, a moon to his friends, an 
equal of Krishna in protecting and of the earth in forgiveness; son of the illustrious 
'king of the Gangas, a crest to the Granga family, a coat of mail (varma) for the pro- 
tection of righteous people (drya) bearer also of the name of Aryavarma, hero of 
heroes, performer of unrivalled deeds, anointed according to usage by the king 
Jayasri-Simha-varma, and a son of the eminent king MMhava ; who vras a son of 
the illustrious Konganivarma, of Kanva-gotra, an equal of Indra in glory, lord of 
the Jahnaveya-family, pure like the water of the "Ganges in tbe firmament. 



(LL. 10-13) 

-By the illustrious king Madhava, devoted to Brahmans and possessed of a pure 
lie art was granted with pouring of water according to the usage of Brahmade'ya 
(making gifts to Brahman s) the village named Kudaltir, situated to the east of Pfirfrr 
and -west of the Totla river in Marukara-vishaya to the brothers Kumarasarma and 
-Bhavasaraia (anug'dbfy/dncha), followers of the Taittiriya school and descendants of 

(LL. 13-18) 

Whoever, whether a G-angeya (born of the Granga family) or not, takes away or 
causes to be confiscated such property of the two Brahroans, whoever approves of 
such an act, or who instigates such acts, will be guilty of heinous sins along with 
his wife. 

Here are also stanzas recited by Manu (on this subject): By several kings 
commencing with Sagara is the earth enjoyed. Whosoever is the lord of the land, 
to him accrues the fruit (of the gift) thereof. He who seizes land given" away by 
himself or others will be tormented in terrible darkness for sixty-thousand years. It 
is easy to give away what belongs to one but protecting another's property is very 
troublesome. Between making a gift and protecting a gift (already made) protect- 
ing is more meritorious than making a gift. 

(LL. 18) 

Thus the copper plate was written by Kumarasarma of Bharadvaja-gotra 



This copper-sasana consists of 3 plates 9" long, 3" broad and 1/10" thick. A 
ring 2" in diameter and J" thick is passed round a hole in the left upper edge of the 
plates and a seal also of copper is soldered to the ring. On the seal is an elephant 
standing with its face to the right. It is said that the plates were found while 
digging in a field, full of ashy earth, belonging to Mr. Nanjappa in the village Pura 
in. Gubbi Taluk. 

Of the three plates, the two outer ones are engraved, on the inner side only. 
There are 5 lines on plate I and also on the front side of plate II while there are 4 
lines each on plate III and the back side of the second plate. The characters are 
of an ornamental type and are well-formed and clear. The plates are intact, 
thore being no cuts in the plate ; nor are the letters peeled off. The size of 
tho letters is Y on the average. The characters are early old Kannada and 


resemble very much those of the Penugonda Plates published by Mr. Eice on 
P. 331 , E. I. XIY, and assigned by him to the end of the 4th century or the beginning 
of. the 5th century A. D. The language is throughout Sanskrit, and is mostly in 
verse. - 

Peculiarities of the letters. 

There are very few errors in the paleography of these plates. The test letters 
kha (in 11 4, 17), bha (in lines 1,2, 6, 8, etc.) and ja (in lines 1, 3, 4, etc.) and also na 
in Koiikanivarma in 11 4, 12, etc., and a in lines 6, 15, etc. and ba (in lines 12, 13, 
etc.,) are all correctly formed. In combination with the letter r, the consonants m, t, 
etc., are invariably re-duplicated. 


The subject of the inscription is the gift by the Ganga king Madhavaraja alias 
Madhavavarma to two brothers named Kumaras'arma and Bhavasarma, who were 
Brahmans belonging to Kausika-gotra and Taittiriya-sakha, of a village named 
Kudalur, situated to the west of the river Totla and east of the village Perur, in 
Marukara-vishaya. It i's difficult to determine exactly the geographical position 
of the places referred to. Which is the Marukaravishaya in which Kudalur is 
situated? A Marugarenadu is referred to in E. G. XII Tumkur 9 of 11 51 A. D. as 
the district round Kaidala in Tumkur Taluk. So also Marugali-nad of Tumkur 17 
refers to the same district as Maragare-nad. Marukare-vishaya is referred to 
in the -Sringeri plates of the G-ariga king Avinita (M. A. E.- 1916, P. 34 and 44), 
found in the Smarta Matt at Sringeri in the Kadur -District. Here two villages 
Panapura and Kolpalli in Marukare-vishaya are said to have been granted to certain 
Brahmans by the G-anga king Konganivarrna f Avinita). It is stated in the said 
Eeport, P. 44, that Marukare-vishaya is identical with Marugare-rashtra in E. G. 
IX Dodballapur 67 also relating to Avinita. In this grant the village Tippur in the 
Marugare-rashtra referred to is identified with Tippur in Dpddaballapur Taluk. 
: This Marukara-Vishaya may be identified with the larger part of the present 
Tumkur District and the Doddaballapur Taluk of the Bangalore District. 
- It is within this area that we have to look out for an old place of the name of 
Perur or Herur with a Kudlur to its east and a river Totla to its further east. No 
such river is known to exist now. In the Maddagiri Taluk in the hobli of Puravara 
and a mile to the east of a village of that name is the river Jayamangala, while 
about a mile to the north-east of Puravara there is a village called Kodlapura. 
Though this is one of the likely places, the- name Puravara which is different from 
Perur, and the fact that Kodlapur is not directly to the east of Puravara make the 
identification doubtful. However, the neighbourhood is full of ancient ruins which 
deserve to be studied. 



A more likely place is in the Hosur hobli of the Sira Taluk. Here is a village 
named Herur with a small river flowing about a mile to its east. Between the two, 
on a rising ground is a likely place for an ' agrahara ' with a temple. Nearby was 
found a viragal mentioning the village of Kudlur which, however, does not exist 


The inscription is not dated in terms of any era. The grant is said to have 
been issued in the reign of the Pallava king Skandavarma, on Chaitra su 5, 
with the constellation Rohini. 

The approximate date of Skandavarma is now known to us owing to Mr. B. 
Narasimhachar's discovery of the Jain work Ldkavibhaga. As gathered by 
Dr. Fleet (J. E. A. S. 1915 P. 472) Madhava who granted the Penugonda plates 
was anointed by Skandavarman Pallava about 470 A. D. Since the genealogy of 
Madhavavarma, as given in the present record is identical with that given in the 
Penugonda plates and the connection with a Pallava dynasty is a distinct feature 
of both the grants, it is definite that the grantor of the Kudlur plates is identical 
with the grantor of the Penugonda plates. Thus 475 A, D. may be accepted as an 
approximate date for the present record. 


The historical details given in the grant are as follows : 
Madhavar^ja or Madhavavarma, the Ganga king, was crowned by the Pallava 
king Vij ay a- Skandavarma or Skandavarma. His father was Aryavarma who, in 
turn, is stated to have been crowned by the king Simhavarma, apparently the 
Pallava king of that name. Aryavarma' s father is stated to be Madhava, who is 
said to be the son of Kongunivarma. The titles applied to Kongunivarma, such 
as born of the pure race of Jahnaviya or G anga, are those usually applied to 
Kongunivarma, the founder of the Ganga power. Thus we have the genealogy 
of the Granga kings in this grant as follows : Kongunivarma : Madhava : Aryavarma : 
Madhavavarma. The Pallava supremacy or overlordship over the latter rulers is 
proved by the statement that Simhavarma and Skandavarma anointed and 
enthroned Arya-varma and Madhavavarma respectively. 

It is interesting to observe that the four Ganga kings mentioned in this grant 
are the same as those named in the Penukonda plates and their names occur in the 
same order. Further the Penukonda plates also state that Simhavarma (specifi- 
cally referred to as the Pallava king in 1.7) and Skandavarma anointed Aryavarma 
and Madhavavarma. Some of the epithets applied to the Ganga kings differ in 
the plates ; so also the names and other details about the donees and engraver are 
different in these plates. 


The characters, genealogy, etc., of the present grant being quite like those of 
the Penugonda plate which has been accepted by the highly critical Dr. Fleet as 
genuine, the present grant may also be regarded as genuine and of great importance 
for the history of the Ganga kings. For a fuller note on Ganga genealogy, see 
supra note on inscription No. 3, of this report. 


To the west of the Banganatha-devara-betta in the same hobli of Nittur, on a 
broken stone near a temple in ruins. 

Sizel' 0"xO' 9". 
Kannada language and characters. 

i'__o"XO' 9" 

>^&o> 3^ 
2. O^o w:>$ woqjo 
3 t sSO BcradsJc^ z^orto 
4. $a&AK?{7fa>$>oGto II 

7 t 


10. SDQ^^ s>^ 71^ rJes 

13. a& ^drfjs _ 

1. daram " vara-guni viveka-nidhi sachcha- 

2. ritam budha-bandhu Badarayana-gfitram 

3. Hari-pada-padma-bhringam smara-rupam negald e- 

4. ley oli Gr6vindam (l Kamme-kula-kamala-ra- 

5. viy ati-nirmmala-yas'ah-prabhavam jagadol 

6. dharmmada M^ruvenippam heinmeyol atyadhi- 

7. kan anupamam Govindam I dhare bannise Govindam 

8. Murahara-bhavanada 4alakheyam madi- 


: . ; 9. si vistaradim kalassama nilisida nirupama- 

- "10. eharitran amala-gun.a-gana-nilayain 

11. Sarasijanabhana bhavanama piridum lesagi 

- 12. chitra-patra-sametam paramanandade ma- 

13. disi niranu-padedu klrttiyam Govindam 


This inscription is very fragmentary consisting only of the middle portion of a 
grant. Both the beginning and the end are lost, as the stone is broken off. It 
describes the renovation of some Vishnu temple including the construction of a 
tower over it by one Govinda of Kamme family and Badarayana-gotra. It is, 
however, not possible to determine who this G6vinda was or which temple was 
repaired by him, as no other details are contained in the record, No date is given. 


At the village Chagatur, ' Nittur hobli, on a fragmentary stone at the base of 
a flag staff in front of the village. 

The top of this slab has been broken and some pieces of it are found built into 
the walls. The letters found on them are produced below (Nos. 1 5). The portion 
of the slab which has remained intact is 3' 6" long and 1' 2" wide. The letters 
are Kannada and the language also is Kannada. 







I . 



The record is very incomplete. It seems to have been set up during the 
reign of the Hoysala king Vinayaditya (circa 1047-1100 A, D.) by. a woman named 


Ketalabbe in memory of her son who died apparently in defending the cows of hi 
village against enemies. -' 


On a broken stone pillar near a ruined temple on the road to the village 
Vobalapura, Nittur Hobli. 


Kannada language and characters. 

' Q"x 1' 0". 


3. s d^sJd ^ ^eaSaJj rtd Q rt 



1. Pram6da-samvatsarada Palguna 

2. suddha ' A ' Madhusuda- - - J 

3. na-devara Chikka-kereya gaddega- 

4. reya nirallade bere-Narana- * 

5. gattada nirapantha 6vend odamba- 

6. disikottu inahajananga- 

7. lu devarige vritigalopa- 

8. diya nira samake varsham-prati. 

9. neleyagi koduva gadyA,na 

10. vondu ga ' srigurubhydm namah 


This inscription seems to record an agreement made by the mahdjanas of some 
village, perhaps Naranagatta, with the authorities of the temple of Madhusudana, 
apparently the ruined temple in front of which the present inscription slab is set 
up. The temple authorities agreed to irrigate the wet lands of the temple under 
the tank Chikkakere only from that tank and not from the water of Naranagatta to 
which also they seem to have been entitled. In compensation for this the mahd- 
janas agreed to pay the temple authorities an annual rent of one gadyana for their 
exclusive use of the water of Naranagatta. The date is given as Pramdda sam. 


PhaL su. Sunday, As no tithi is given and as the date is not expressed in terms of 
the Saka era, the exact equivalent of the date cannot be determined. No ruling 
Mng is named in the inscription. 



At the village Bellada Madiivu in the hobli of Dodd&ri, on the back of a slab 
standing in front of the village (on the front side of this stone Maddagiri Taluk 
No. 13 is inscribed). 

Sizel' 2"x2' 6". 

Kannada language and characters. 



2. coosi 

oood . . 



2. Yiva-samvatsararn Chaitra ba 

3. Timmapanayakaravaru Yira . ...,.. 

4. devarige kotta Beladama- 

5. duvina yi grama Virabhadra- 

6. devarige yidu 


This seems to register the gift of the village Belada Maduvu (now called 
Belladamaduvu) by Timmapa Nayaka to the god Virabhadra in the year Yuva, in 
the darir half of the month Chaitra. 

The characters of the record are much worn out and seem to be of the latter 
part of the 16th century A. D. It is difficult to determine who this fTimrnapa 
Nayaka was. The year Yuva of the record may stand for A. D. 1575 Yuva. 


At the village Tonasagondanhalli in the same hobli of Dodderi, on a stone 
slab lying in the land of Kddappa. 

Size 8' x 2'. 
Kannada characters and language. 


rra sfccS 

8' x 2' 

ed stosb 

2. Sc^ 33 30340^ 03^^2.^030 

3, sJos&jd &^&J to L. co 

4, CJ3&5 DDK 

5 d zSoStas 

g. s&3:>r!J30G aortrdo 




"*" v -' 




"* * 

16 ort 


17. stos 
20. c3: 
2l, cdo 

22. rf26 




27. tfrtesritf 5"DOOs3 

QQ oo nj3cSr1^o5ooo 


29, dou *o-sdow 


31 . 

39. i 

33. so 






35, t3<j3ccfc ec7SH#?cto &/3fc|, ero 

36. coocfcto 


39, ?&4E5;> cSoocto 



1. sabhatn astu svasti sri Yijay^bhyudaya 

2. hana saka yarushangalu 1527 neya Erodhi 

3. samvatsara Asvija ba 7 lu sri mahar^jadhi- 

4. raja rajaparamesvara sri viraprafcapa sri vi- 

5. ra Venkatapatideva-inaharayaraiyanavara 

6. Penngoude-diirgadali ratana-simhasanaru- 

7. dhaiagi prithvi-sambrajya geyiii- 

8. ttam yirala sriman mahanayaka- 

9. charya bh.ash.ege-tapuva-nayakara-gan- 

10. da. inare-hokkara-kava Haratiya Lakshmi- 

11. pati-nayakara komara Eangapa-na- 

12. yakara komararada Yimmadi Bangapa- 

13. nayakaru Sivaganesvara-vodeyaravara 

14. chhatra Sidha-vodera komara Mallapa- 

15. yodera komararada Nagiya-~vode- 

16. rige kotta grama-sasanada-dana-kra- 

17. niayentendade BayaraYaru nama- 

18. ge maganiyagi palisilaa B,aya- 

19. durgada-ventheyeke saluva Agale- 

20. ya sthaladolagana Chandapana Dod6ri- 

21. ya siraege saluva Tonasagonda- 

22. nalaallige pratinamavada Ira [ma] di 

23. Rangapuravanu Ktidali Sangamesva- 

24. rana sannidhiyali sarvainanyavagi 

25. (vagi) kotevagi 


26. adakke salirva Bachaha [li] slmeyo- 

27. lagana gade kaluve t6uta hakka- 

28. lu gade guyalu achu anekattu kada-. 


, - 29. ramba niraramba nadu 

. 30 charaday a stiradaya akshirii aga- 

31. mi Jala taru pashana siddha sa- 

a - 32. dhyangal emba ashta-bhoga teja-svamya sa- 

33. ha Harattiya nayaka Yimmadi Eanga- 

34. ppa-nayakarige dharmavaga- 

35. bekendu a Eachaliya kottevu 

36. yidann niinma putra-pautra-para- 

37. mpareyagi a-chandrarka-stayi- 

38. galagi sukhadinda anubhavisu- 

39. vudu yendu a-Bangapura- 

40. grama-sila-s&- 

41. sana sri sri sri 

42. Eangappa 


Good Fortune. Be it well. In the victorious and prospering year 1527 of the 
^alivahana era, on the 7th lunar day of the dark half of Asvija in the year Krodhi : 
"While the illustrious maharajadhiraja, raja-param6^vara vira-pratapa VSra 
Yenkatapatideva-mahar^yarayyanavaru "was ruling tho earth seated 021 the jewelled 
throne in Penugonde-durga. 

The illustrious Immadi Kangapa Nayaka, son of llangappa Nayaka who was 
a son of Lakshmipati Nayaka of Harati, mahdndyahdcJidrya,, punish or of chiefs who 
break their word, sucoourer of those who take shelter under him, granted the 
following sasana conferring the gift of a village on Nagiyavodeyar, son of Mallapa- 
vodeyar, disciple of Siva-Q-anesvara-Vodeyar : 

We have given away as sarvamdnya (tax-free) in the holy presence of (the 
god) Kudali Sangamesvara the village Tanasagondanahalli re-named Immadi 
Eang^pura in Ghandapana Doderi-sluie in Agale-sthala belonging to Eayadurga- 
vejjtheya conferred as mclgani on us by the king of Yijayanagar (Eayaravaru), All 
the wet lands of Eacha-halli-sime belonging to it (village Tonasagondanahalli), all 
the canals, gardens, clearings of land, sheaves, heaps, drainage areas, embankments, 
lands fed by rain-water, lands fed by artificial irrigation, income from moveables, 
income from immoveables, and the eight-fold rights and powers including imperish- 
ables, future income, water springs, trees, minerals, actualities and possibilities, all 
these rights in the village Eachali, we have granted for the merit of Immadi 
Eangappa Nayaka, ehief of Harati. 


This records the gift of a village TonasagondanahalH together with Eachahali 
and all the rights arid powers and income thereof to a Virasaiva priest named 



ISFagiya-vodeyar, son of Sidha-vodeyar, disciple of Sivagan&svara-Vadeyar by the 
chief of Harati named Immadi Raiigapa Nayaka, son of Bangapa Nayaka and 
grandson of Lakshmipati Nayaka, who ruled under the suzerainty of the Vijaya- 
nagar king Venkatapatiraya. The date is given as S 1527 Krodhi sam. Asv. ba. 7. 
S 1526 is Krodhin. Taking this year, the date corresponds to October 5, A. D. 
1604. (Cp. E. 0. XII, Intro. P. 14 for a history of the Harati chiefs). It is not 
easy to identify the temple of Kudali Sangainesvara referred to in the grant. 


At the village Dod malur in the hobli of Kodige~nhalii, on a broken slab lying 
in a field to the south of the village. 

Old Kannada language and characters. 




2 S oto. 

" o a 


1. Ku- 

2. ndayyanodane 

3. Svarggakke poda 


This is a very fragmentary inscription. The top of this inscription slab is 
broken and although a vigorous search was made in the neighbourhood, it was not 
possible to find it. The characters are Old Kannada of the 9th century A. D. The 
record seems to mention the death (going to Heaven) of somebody with Kundayya (?). 
It may be stated that by the side of this inscription was found a sididalegal, a slab 
on which two male seated figures are carved. The head of the figure to the right is 
cut off and shown to its right on the top and attached to its tuft of hair is the end 
of a bent bamboo. The figure to the left is much mutilated, only the trunk with 
the beginnings of arms and legs being left intact. Apparently the figure to the 
left indicates the person who cut off the head of the hero to the right and the head 
sprang up on account of the recoil of the bow. After thus helping in the death of 
the hero to the right, the person to the left must have next killed himself by 
stabbing himself or by some other means. The name of one of these persons 
apparently was Kundayya and the other person's name is lost. 



At the village Kalenhalli in the same Kodigenahalli hobli, on a viragal 
standing in front of the village. 

Kannada language and characters. 


5 < d 


This viragal record is engraved to the right of two figures, male and female 
with folded hands. It seems to record the death in battle of Yira Kampaya, grand- 
son of Kerisi Viraiya of Malur (a village situated nearby). The characters appear 
to be of the 15th century. The meaning of the word Subhaya in line 7 is not 
clear. It might be the name of the engraver. 


At the same village Ghmdagal, on the garufia-gamfia in front of the 
Tirumaladeva temple. 

Size 7' x 1' 6" 

Kannada language and characters. 



3. f\ 
5. o 

1. SadasivadSvara- 

2. yarige darmartava 

3. gi Yenkatadri-na- 

4. yakaru Gunduga- 
o. la Tiruinaladeva- 

rto&ofo sfooocS rfdoc3rto0d 
7'Xl' 6" 



6. rige diparthi-savege 

7. holke ? nilisida- 

8. nka sileya kambhavu, 

9. ara tapidaru tam- 
10. ma tayi 



This records the grant of some land for the service of offering lights before the 
god Tiruinaladevara in the village Chindagal made by Venkatadri Nayaka .who 
calls himself agent for the merit of Sadasivaraya, king of Vijayanagar friroa 1543- 
1567 A. D.). The stone pillar on which the inscription is carved is stated to 
have been set up to mark the boundary of the land granted. An imprecation is 
found at the end. No date is given. 

On a viragal standing to the west of the same village G-undagalm. 

Size 4' x 2' 
Kannada language and characters. 



O* 3 


This viragal inscription records the death of a warrior named Nakagaunda of 
Kaliyur-nad. The figure of the hero is engraved below the record. The characters 
seem to be of the llth century A.D. 


On a stone standing in the land of Kadire Babanna in the same village 



Kannada language and characters, 
rtocdrttxj rr^sfos 1 s^/asjr ^Ssd ^cjsooesj^ rtcS 



. wi 


Transliteration . 

1. Yenkatadri-na- 

2. yakam Bayi- 

3. ra-gondage kote- 

4. nianyada gade- 

5. kotar 



This records the gift of some wet lands by the chief Venkatadri Nayaka to a 
person named Bayiragauda for maintaining the fort of the village in a proper 
condition (kote-manya). Venkatadri Nayaka of this record is probably the same 
as Venkatadri Nayaka of No. 96. The characters too seem to be of the same 
period, i.e., latter half of the 17th century. 

On a slab set up in the middle of the road near the school house in the village 


Size 4' X 2' 

Kannada language and characters. 

jo 6 EOS? dsoto 

4' x 2' 



The characters of this inscription arc very much worn out probably due to the 
cattle rubbing their heads against the stone which is in the centre of the main road 
of the village. The inscription seems to record some service made to a temple of 
the village by some one in S 14-50 Kartika (November 1528 A. D.). 


At. the village Bidirakere in the hobli of Midigesi, an inscription on a boulder 

to the east. 

Kannada language and characters. 



?) dd ooridsi 
oa^sJ p] 



9. daJcfl^tfsJort qfefcrsrsft gdjO sj^drfoo gesSo 
0. ft cs33co3o,oocoo&&So &Dt3ddaS 30 espdrioa coo 

i Q ft3 3dtf rid etfJoJoojD rtc3 soo rol es^ddoo ^^o ^js^rt ric3 

-!" L J a? - 

ig cess ag^d cjs^rl nd j3Sr\ sjraa.sraft ^eas ^So 

O.U 1 . jj ( 

s sjerogjSj-sdosjDoSosrah ^^oi^^r^coocdssfN 3: a: 
e ........ tssdeesS 

&BG3ft rtdr? wdo 


1. subharn astu svasti srl jayabhyudaya 

2. S&livakana saka 1446 neya Tarana-samvatsarada Nija Ghai- 

3. tra sudha 12 Budhavara srlma Dharasu (pu) rada Lingarasa- 

4. ra kaiyake kartarada Devalapurada Narasappayyana [va] - 

5. ru Bidirakereya gaiida Tirumali Timma voderi- 

6. ge kota kereya kalugodagiya silasasauada 

7. kramaventendare navu Bidirakereya kere vo- 

8. dedu .... kala khilavagi yiralagi namrna sami Linga- 

9. rasayyanavarige dharmavagi Sarvari-vatsaradalu kereya katisuvudaka- 

10. gi nimma kayyalu yikisidu kote varaha 20 aksharadalu yi- 

11. pattu varahavagi nirnage kota kere kodagi ..... kddiya kela- 

12. gina sarada gade alateyalu gade kham <s"10 aksharadalu hattu kolaga gade 

13. yi hatu kolagada gade kodagi manyavagi niu nimma- 

14. putra-pautra-parampariyavagi a-chandra- stayiyagi sukha- 

15. dalu a ...... Bidirakere kerekodagiya silasa- 

16 ......... kodagi gadepe aru tappidam tamma tande ta- 

17. yana konda ...... Yaranasiyali konda papa- 

18. dali hoharu tamma abhirnana ..... 

19. kota sila^asana 


Good fortune : Be it well. In the victorious year 1446 of the &alivahana 
era, in the year Tararia, on Wednesday, the 12th lunar day of the bright half of Nija 
Chaitra, Narasappayya, agent for the affairs of Lingarasa of Dharapura granted to 
Tiruinali Tiinma Yodeyar of Bidirakere, a stone sasana for the EattuJcodagi of a 
tank as follows : 


Whereas the tank of Bidirakere had breached and lay in ruins for a long time 
and we took 20 Jcdte varahas from you for rebuilding the tank in the year Sarvari 
for the merit of our lord Lingarasaiya, we grant you as kere-kodagi (gift of rent-free 
land for the maintenance or construction of a tank) a plot of wet land of the 
sowing capacity of 10 kolagas below the waste water weir of the tank. This is 
given to you as Kodagi-mdnya that you and your sons and grandsons and your 
descendants in lineal succession might enjoy it in peace for as long as the sun and 
moon endure. . . . This is the stone sasana of the JcereJeodagi of Bidirakere. 
Whoever seizes this Jcodagi land will incur the sin of killing their parents . . . 
. . in Benares. The sasana is given out of our own free will and love 


This inscription registers the gift of some wet land in the village Bidirakere 
to one Timmavodeyar for having provided funds for repairing the breach of a tank 
which had lain out of use for a long time. Such grants of land are known as 
kattu-godagi, i.e., rent-free land granted for the construction of a tank, etc. 

The grant is dated Wednesday the 12th lunar day of tbe bright half of Nija 
Ohaitra in Tarana S' 1446. S r 1446 corresponds to A. D. 1524. But there was 
no intercalary month Chaitra in that lunar year as seems to be stated in the 
grant. Chaitra su 12 corresponds to Wednesday, March 16, A. D. 1524 on 
which day the 12th tithi commenced about 6 hours after sun-rise or about 
12 o'clock noon. 

Tamil Supplement- 




(14) o) evtrisi&luSlLLi 

(15) Qufri$iBV}< QsirsmQ 


(16) iiuirir Q/5Js!ujrisii/ri5 










(11) LlutlL-^"^ 0tty G@3ULLu.mi 



Page Inscription 

umber j number 

.n the | in the 

Report | Report 











Chaitra su. Paneharni, Rohini 
nakshatra (circa 475 A.D.) 

No date. Only full moon day of 
Yaisakha is mentioned (About 
500 A.D.) 




Madhava II 

176 36 j No date (About 800 A.D.) 

Subhakrit, 3936th year of the reign 
of Nitimarga Permanadi, full moon 
day (circa 882 A.D.) Bhadrapada. 

9th regnal year of Permanadi (circa 
894 A.D.) 

No date circa 961 A.D. 

No date 0. 943-956 A.D. 

Saka 939, 5th regnal year ; Bha- 
drapada Paurnima, Thursday, in 
the cyclic year Nala-G. 1017 A.D, 


Nitimarga Permanadi 

raja srimat Permanadi (son?) 
of Nitimarga Permanadi. 



Dillpa} 7 ya 

III. CndiA. 
Para kesari Raj endra Ohola.... 


Contents and remarks 

Becords that during the reign of King Skaiidavarma, of thn Palhwsw Mfiatiiwsi wh< 
had been, anointed by him and belonged to that branch of tiiii (hiiipi, Kind's which included 
Aryavarma granted the village Kuclajur situated to the, oast of IWur^aud wrsi, of fho 
Totla river to the brothers Kurnara Sarrm arid Bhavo^anua, follows of tho 'Kittiriyi 
School This inscription supports the light thrown by the Ponu-onda plate cm UH* 
overlordship of the Pa lavas over some of the early Gangas who prnhab'ly M .|OM..-, { I t( , a 
branch different from the mam one- 

Eecords that this king who had obtained victory in HUHHTOUS lmirs (^al)lirtliiHl tho 
SaDgamapnra agrahara and granted, for eiijoymojil JIB KAlabluVa, five. vilht-vs^K -, A I A ' 
PoBayafli, MidundavaUi KHohftppalli and Katullainali^Hitu.!.^ in tl.o w ", o t Kvi 
^wenty4wo Brahman families who wore performing importiuii, , K1 iivi| ( i, hoi, h ' s ( 
and society. Some technical words nsod in tho ArthaBilsU-a, a,r, found in this . 
The Pallava connection is not acknowledged. Tin, dirfv.rnnt hmm-Jms oh" t v U ,' M 
kings and their probable relation to each other h nv hcuui clio,, H Hcul u I s ,' 

Inn record 



3KK5^J^ ta ^ri^-^^.S 1 &iS 

giving the Ganga genealogy. 

and granted Teragala as property to it. 
Fragment. No details given. 


of. Pon a WarOT ' ada-kappaua by ,, whil() dof , !mlint , 

d.uln, a caUlc raid at 


List of Inscriptions published in the Report, 



in the 





in the 














Sunday, the full moon day in 
Jyeshtha, on the occasion of Solar 
eclipse in the cyclic year Raudri; 
Chalukya Yikrama year 5 1080 
A.D. 22nd January. 

Dundubhi sam. Push. ba. 3 Sunday 
in the 7th year of Chalukya 
Yikrama Bra (December 25, 
A.D. 1082). 

44th year of Chalukya Vikrama Era, 
in the bright fortnight of Kartika 
in the year Subhakrit 0. 1119 
A.D. (?) 

Chalukya Yikrama 47-Sunday the 
llth day of the dark fortnight of 
Magha in the cyclic year Subha- 
krit 0. 1122 A.D. (?) 

Bhul6ka Yarsha 12. Pingala sam. 
Jyeshtha su. 10 Wednesday 
corresponds to May 31, 1137 A.D. 
a Monday and not Wednesday. 

5th year of Bhulokamalla, Sadha- 
rana sam. Push. su. 3 Monday 
C. 1131 A.D. (?) 

19th regnal year. Tarana sam. 
Yaisakha su. 5 Thursday 29th 
March or 28th April 1164 A.D. 
Wrong week-day. 



(Yikramaditya YI). 


A Western Chalukya 
Name lost. 


Bhul6kamalla III 

Y. EADAMBA (Provincial) 
Mayuravarma-deva III 


arranged according to Dynasties and Dates (contd.). 

Contents and remarks 

Describes the exploits of Tamba-dandadhipa, governor of Santalige 1000 etc., under Prince 
Jayasimha Chalukya and records the grant made by Tamba and his officer Lokanathayya of 
some land for repairing the breached tank Tambasarnudra at Banniyur and for its future 
upkeep. The eulogy of Tamba and Lokanathayya is a fine Kannada piece of high literary 

Eecords the grant of some land as s'arana-vritti by the watchman of the village of 
Bannivur (Bannur) who had purchased it from the mahajanas of the place, during the 
governorship of Tamba. 

Seems to register the gift by the mahajanas, of some land for the service of the god 
Nagaresvara at Saliyur (Saliir) and the appointment of the three hundred Brahmans 
of Uddur (?) as guardians of the charity. 

Eegisters some grant by the people of Salivur to a choultry. 

Eecords the grant of some land to a Siva temple at Saliyur, the front verandah to 
which was built by a woman named Bijjabbe. 

Eecords a grant to the Brahma- Jinalaya-basadi in Saliyur by Bhadrar&yi-setti, a 
merchant, during the rule of Magara Karagarasar (?) over Santalige 1000 as a subordinate 
of the Kadamba king Maytiravarma III whose overlord was Bhul6kamalla S6rnes"vara III. 

A viragal describing the exploits of a hero named Haleyama in a battle against the 
Aluva king Jagade"varasa. There was also a fight between Birarasa of Hosagunda 
and his overlord Yira-Santara-dva who was perhaps ruling under the Kajachuri king 


List of Inscriptions published in the Report,; 

in the 

in the 



VI. SANTABA (conoid.} 



Ananda sam. Chaitra su. 10. Saka 
1116. April 2, 1194 A.D. 





Virodhikrit sam. Ashadha ba C. 
1251 A.D. 
No date about 1260 A.D 




Saka 1191 Sukla sam. A.D. 1269 





Kilaka sam. Phalguna su C. 1189 





Saka 1078. Dhatu sam. Bhadra- 
pada su. 5 A. Sunday, llth Aug. 
1157 A.D. 
No date- About 1180 A.D. 

Narasimha I 
Vira-Ballala II 



Saka 1110 Kilaka, Chittirai 1188 
A.D. March- April. 




No date -1200 A.D. (?) 




Yuva sain. Mesha ba. 10, 1275 

Narasimha III (?) 

- 184 . 

- 41 

Saka 1207 Subhakrit sam.Ph&lguna 
-1285 A.D. (?) " 


arranged according to Dynasties and Dates (contd.}. 

Contents and remarks 

A viragal describing the exploits of Belagauda, a warrior, who fought in dofonoo of 
the cattle of Hiriya Haraka (Shikarpur Taluk) on behalf of the Siintara,K agaiuwt D&miga 
verggade and others of Mudanad. In memory of his valour tho prince Tailarasa, nophow 
of Birarasa, made a grant of land. 

A viragal which appears to record the death of a certain horo. 
Eegisters the grant of some land to the god (?) Vuttaya deviir. 

Records the heroic fight and death of a warrior nanuul Bommtjya-nayaUjb in it. IniMil 
against Annaleveggade at Indasor in Pulka-iiad. 

A viragal recording the death of Birarasa BoimnaraKa, yoiuigm- broMmr of UvjiraMva 
of the Sinda dynasty, in a battle at Hombuchcha (.Ilumcliam .Na,g!tr Taluk). 

Eecords a grant of land by the chief of lludugunad in memory of a warrior wim fuitght 
and fell during the invasion of Kongu. 

Appears to record a grant by the merchants of Ami.korn. Hoywila ^ciuutlony and 
accounts of the exploits of the kings are givon as in othor nicordK. .'P'raJHO of ArHikJlv, 

Records grant of land for certain servicoH on ct:l,ain occjjisiojiH in tlin i,pinnl( of 
Abhayavallabhadevar (the present Kesava toinplcO in lilies villain Al>;6d c.rdlod also 
Kulottunga-Solapur, by MaligaiyudaiyanNetiyMvan who alnogavo liioiu^y luv llm pnr t -,l,n,HH 
oi land to the village assembly. 

Registers the grant of a plot of land by the village Wm.bly of .PiunHaiyur, cuJh'd H!KO 
S mmadeva chaturpedimangalam (Hunsur), in tho Iclaluatiu cliHtriot, to tho JJufi^ilatti- 
gandar (? merchants like the Nanadesis) of the 18 Vi.Bhaya,K (eoun tries), 

Records the gift of two yarahas of money the interest, on which wan to 1m urn! for 
a m th6 ' eml antclarAa at Jhvn 

Seems to register the gift of some lands, rent-free, in tho villacoH Tiwulur Tavur ' 
Gujiyapura, made by a certain Jaina heggade to Nagagauda h H - Lt ^^ lul ld > lu l 


List of Inscriptions published in the Report, 

Page Inscription j 

number j number | 

in the i in the j 

Report i Report 


















Saka 1296 Ananda, Pushya ba 5 
Monday 25th Dec. 1374 A.D. 

Saka 1302 Raudri, Sravana su 1 
Sunday July 3, 1380 A.D. 
(a Tuesday, not Sunday). 

Anglrasa sain. Kartika ba 
Thursday Thursday 7th 
November 1392 A.D. 




7 i Harihara II 

Saka 1326 Tarana sam. Margasira 
Arnavasye 2nd December 1404 

Vikriti sam. Chaitra su. chauti 
March 10, 1410 A.D. 

No date About 1511 A.D 

Saka 1434 Srimukha, Phalguna ba 
5 15th March, 1514 A.D. ' 

Saka 1449 Sarvajit, Pushya su. 7 
Sunday Sunday 29th December 
1527 A.D. 

Jaya sam. Ashadha su 10 June 

Saka 1468 Parabhava Bhadrapada 
ba. 3 12th September 1546 A.D. 

No date About 1560 A.D. 



Krishnaraya styled as Krish- 


Sadasiva (nominal) 


arranged according to Dynasties and Dates (contcl**). 

Contents and remarks 

Charter issued by Nan] anna Odeyar on the occasion of the death of his father, Chikka 
Kampanna Odeyar, son of Bukka, for services in the temple of R&mayyadevaru (Raman^tha) 
in Yijeyapura, granting Madehalli, a village in the district of Kndugunad (comprising 
portions of Gkmdlupet Taluk). 

Another record of Nanjanna Odeyar registering the gift of some land as kodagi in 
Kunagahalli for the service of Palgunesvara of Jayita in Karinadu (some portions of 
Nanjangud Taluk). 

Records the gift of Bhayirapura by Kedaranathabhatta of Alugod to Rainabhakta in 
the presence of Tirumakudalaiiatha Yodeyar who was evidently an officer under 
Harihara II. 

A mastikal inscription recording the death of Mechigaudi as a ' sati.' 

A mastikal recording the death of Sayakka as 'sati.' 

Records the grant of the village Sambakipura, as kodagi- vritti, to Yirapa Q-auda of 
Badanaguppe belonging to Umrnattur ruled by Saluva Timmaraja, under the orders of the 

Registers the grant by the minister Saluva Timmarasa, of Kavahalli or Kalihalli 
(Kahalli) for services in the Kirtinarayana temple at Talkad, under the orders of the 
king while he was on a victorious expedition to the south. 

A charter issued as a niriipa by the king addressed to DSmarasayya registering the 
gift of the village Heggothara in Ummatur-slme for services in the temple of the god 
Balakrishna in Bammapura. 

A vlragal in memory of a warrior named Lingarma of Bairapura. 

Records the _ grant by Rustumjikhan, a local officer, of the village Masahalji and its 
hamlets in the Yijayapura (Gundlupet) sub-division to a Lingayat priest, under orders of 
Ramaraya. .''': 

Registers the grant of some land for the service of offering lights before the god 
Tirumaladevaru in the village Q-un^ugal made by Yenkatadri Nayaka, agent, for the .merit 
of the king. 


List of Inscriptions published in the Report, 



in the 










in the 









Dundubhi sam. Prathama Sravana 
ba. 5 20th July 1562 A.D. 

S 1326 Tarana sain. Sravana 
Paumirna Monday 10th August 
1584 A.D.(?) 

Khara sam. Sravana su. 7 July 17, 
1591 A.D. 

Sobhakrit sam. Kartika ba. 10 
A.D. 1603. 

Saka 1527 Krodhi, Asv. ba. 7- 
October 5th, 1604 A.D. 

Sarvari, Ashadha su 1480 A.D. ? 

Saka 1429 Kshaya sam. Mar. ba. 
10 9th December 1506 A.D. 

Saka 1495 Srimukha, Srav. su. 5- 
3rd August 1573 A.D. 


IX VlJAYANAGAE (contd.) 


Narasimha IV son of 
Ranga I. 

Ramaraja- Tirumalaraja 

Rangappa Nayaka II 

Tammayya-gauda II 

Chaudappa Nayaka 

Rarnaraja Nayaka 


arranged according to Dynasties and Dates (contd.). 

Contents and remarks 

Eegisters the grant of BeramMdi, a village in Vijeyapur-sime, to the Virasaiva priests 
of Kongur in Terakanambi by Basavappa Vodeyar. 

Eecords that Eangabhupala (I) with his queen Timmambd, installed his son 
Narasimha (IV) and left for the forest. Narasiuaha visited Belur and celebrated the 
Tulabhara. On this occasion, he granted the village Soinasettipalli to a Brahman named 
Srikantha-Vajape'ya. The inscription supplies the useful information that Narsimha IY, 
son of Eanga I, succeeded his father and ruled for some time before Venkata came to 
the throne by .1.585. 

Eecords the remission to the barbers of Hangula of all taxes including benevolences, 
customs duties etc., made under the orders of the Mahamandalesvara by his agent Bhadrapa. 

Seems to record some grant by Sankarayya, an officer, to the son of Ankegauda. 

Eecords the gift of the villages Tonasagondanahajli and Eachahali by the chief to a 
Virasaiva priest named Nagiya- Vodeyar. The chief ruled under the Yijayanagar king 

Seems to record the gift of some land, rent-free, to an individual named Nagappa. 

Eecords the gift of some land by the king to the children of Kalukutiga Yirapaiya of 
Kalise and stipulates that succession to the estate should pass to males through females. 
This shows that the law was followed by the stone masons in the Shimoga 
District, who were perhaps immigrants from South Canara. 

Eecords the right of ' aputrike ' i.e. succession to the estates of people who die without 
male issue, to all the settis, pattana-svainis and merchants of the p6the (bazaars) of Kalise. 
Escheat to the crown was the rule which this record modified. \ 


List of Inscriptions published in the Eeport, 



in the 











in the 










Saka 1578 Dunnukhi Yaisakha ha. 
12 Monday Monday, 12th May 
1656 A.D.' 

Sarvadhari sain. Ashadha su. 3 
17th June 1768 A.D. 

Saka 1733 Prajotpatti, Phalguna ba. 
3 March 1st, 1812 A.D. 

Date of writing 26th November 
1822 (Tuesday, the 12th lunar 
day of Kartika su. in the year 
Chitrabhanu). Endorsement on 
Tuesday, the 3rd lunar day of 
Pushy a ba. in the year Chitra- 

Saka 1131 Prarnoda sarn. Yais. su. 
15 10th April 1210 A.D. 

Saka 1165 Subhakrit, Magha su. 1 
Friday 23rd January 1243 A.D. 

Saka 1352 Sadharana sam. Ashadha 
su. 1 21st June 1430 A.D. 

aka 1361 Siddh&rfcki, Jyeshtha ba. 

9 5th June 1439 A.D. 
Saka 1375 Srimukha sam. Kar. 

su 15 17th October 1453 A.D. 

Dodda Ddvaraja Yodeyar 

Hyder Ali 

Krishnaraja Yodeyar III 



Mahamandal^svara Chik- 
kanna Yodeyar, Chief of 

arranged according to Dynasties and Dates (contd.). 

Contents and remarks 

Eecords the construction of a matt and the gift of the village Horakeri Bachali to a 
Virasaiva guru at Hangala by the queen Arnritamma who is also said to have set up a 
lingc't. and built a matt around it to mark the place in the old palace site at Hangala where 
Eaja Odeyar (very probably Muppina Devaraja Odeyar, her father-in-law) died. 

Sannad issued to Pradhana Venkappayya, a minister, recording an additional grant of 
lands to the Vodr (Virasaiva priests) of the matt at Sankaranarayana, a sacred place 
south of Mangalore in South Canara District. 

A nirupa (sannad) recording an order by the king to the Amildars and Killedars in 
several places, informing them that the head priest of the Suttur matt would visit places in 
their jurisdiction, that his people may be offered all facilities in the execution of their 
duties and that no tolls need be demanded in respect of their articles. 

An order addressed by the King to Seshagiri Eav, Amildar of Tayur, recording the gift 
of some land to the Virasaiva guru Basavalinga Vodeyar, head of the matt at Suttur 
(Nanjangud Taluk). 

Eecords the grant of some land in memory of a warrior named Hadada of Makanahalli 
in S&liyur (Salur) who died while defending the cattle and men against Machagaur^da who 
had marched against the gaudas of the place. 

Eecords the gift of a piece of land by Damodarabhatta for the purpose of setting up a 
fire altar (agnishtage). 

Eecords the gift of a village named Alattur in KuduganM to the god Nanjunde"svara 
(in Nanjangud Town). 

Mentions that Manchayi became a 'sati 3 . 
Another instance of c sati'. 


List of Inscriptions published in the Report, 

in the 

in the 








Saka 1446 Tarana Nija Chaitra su. 
12 Wednesday Wednesday 16th 
March 1524 A.D. 

Lingarasa of Dharapura 



Saka 1450 Kartika November 

1528 A.D. 



Saka 1489 Prabhava, Magha ba. 14 
Sivaratri 27th January, 1568 AD. 



Saka 1519 Hevilambi, Kartika su. 
12 10th November 1597 A.D. 

Basavapanayaka 3 son of Kare 
Purushottama N^yaka. 



6aka 1638 Tarana (?) Margasira su. 
5 Sunday? 1704 A.D. 



Saka 1658 Nala sam. Nija Jyesh. su. 
7 Friday June 4, 1736 A.D. 

Mudiyappa N^yaka of 



Saka 1693 Khara sarn. Sravana su. 

10 19th August 1771 A.D.' 

Note. The rest of the inscriptions are not fully dated and 


arranged according to Dynasties and Dates (concld.). 

Contents and remarks 

Eegisters the grant of some land as ' kattu-kodagi ' to one Timma Vodeyar by the 
agent Narasappayya. 

Eecords some service made to the temple of the place. 

Eecords the gift of some land by Bayichayanayaka of Tagarfci for the services of food- 
offering to the god Gautamesvara of G-auja. 

Eegisters the gift of some land in the village Ghikka Jambane for a matt of the 
Vlrasaiva sect at Kaluse (Kalase in Sagar Taluk). 

Eegisters some agreement by which the guilds of the artisans of Nilagiri, etc., had to 
pay certain taxes to their priest in Vijayapura. (The genuineness of the grant 
is doubtful). 

Eegisters the gift of the village Grerahalli alias Lingasagara to Mudduvirasvami, 
probably a Lingayat guru. 

Eegisters a grant, by certain merchants, to the matt at Kalangaridi, of certain fees or 
taxes on articles of merchandise in which they traded. 

cannot be assigned to any specific dynasties. 

APPENDIX A. .. . . .-.. - -.. 


In the year 1929-30. 

(Based on the Annual Eeporfc of the Consulting Architect to the Government of Mysore, 
Bangalore.) - 

In the year 1920, Government had passed orders laying down a policy to be adopted in the 
preservation of Ancient Monuments and insisting on a regular inspection of the same periodically. 
In 1921, a consolidated list of ancient monuments classified according to their importance was 
approved by Government. In the year 1925, the anciont monuments Preservation Regulation was 
promulgated into law and in 1926, a first list of monuments declared " PROTECTED " under section 3 
of the Regulation was published in the Gazette- The work of preservation waSj however, not; being 
carried out in any systematic manner hitherto. The work was transferred over to the Office of the 
Consulting Architect in March 1929. 

Immediately after the transfer, a consolidated list of ancient monuments was printed and 
-supplied to all the Deputy Commissioners and Executive Engineers and they were requested' to 
consult the Consulting Architect invariably in all matters of repairs to monuments. The circular 
giving instructions to local officers in regard to this work which had been issued before was revised 
and republished. The Forms of inspection reports to be submitted by Sub-Division Officers were 
suitably altered and the approval of Government obtained thereto. The copies of the revised ins- 
pection forms were supplied to the Deputy Commissioners by the Superintendent of Government 

On the recommendation of the Consulting Architect, the Government requested the Muzrai 
Commissioner to place at the former's disposal funds for the erection of notice boards in front of 
ancient monuments and a sum of Rs. 1,076 was allotted for the purpose from the Public Works 
Departmental Budget. Fifty enamelled notice boards were got- prepared and distributed to the 
several Amildars for being erected in front of the more important monuments. 

A register was opened in which the history of each monument is written up together with a 
brief description of the same illustrated with photographs and key plans. And as each monument 
is dealt with, an entry is made therein noting -the action taken as regards the inspections carried out, 
repairs executed and recommendations made in regard to their maintenance, etc. 

This is a permanent record and a valuable guide for the officer placed in charge of the conserva- 
tion work for all time to come. 

Regular inspections were conducted in the case of twenty monuments during the year. Some 
more were, however, visited by the Consulting Architect in the course of his inspection for gardens 
and town-planning work, and also during the Dewan's fcours. A consolidated list of monuments 
visited during the year is given as Annexure (A). More monuments cpulcl not be inspected on account; 
of pressure of other work. A regular programme of inspection will be adhered to during each year 
and the prescribed number of monuments inspected. 

Inspection reports from the Revenue Sub-Division Officers were received only in the case of 
very few monuments during the year, the number being only ten. It will facilitate the work of the 



office if the Sub-Division Officers make it a point to visit every monument within their jurisdiction 
at least once every year and invariably forward their report as prescribed in the Government Order. 

The following monuments were declared "PROTECTED" under section 3 of the Eegulation 

during the year : 

(1) Narayana and Maralesvara temples at Marase, Mysore Taluk. 

(2) VinAyaka temple and image at Euru^umale, Mulbagal Taluk. 

(3) G6vind6svara a ad Nukes vara temples at Koravangala, Hassan Taluk. 

Proposals for the renovation of the monuments (1) and (2) have been called for and are under 

In the year 1926, Government appointed a Committee consisting of the Muzrai Commissioner, 
the Eegistrar of the University, and the Director of Archaeological Eesearches to draft rules under the 
Ancient Monuments Preservation Eegulation. In Government Order No. 6643-6 Bdn. 86-25-28, 
dated 13fch December 1929, the Consulting Architect was also appointed an additional member of that 
Committee. The Committee met in June 1930 and as a result of the discussions held in the meeting, 
the whole set of rules was re-drafted by the Consulting Architect and forwarded to the Muzrai Com- 
missioner who is the Convener of the meeting. The rules are being circulated to the other members 
of the Committee for opinion. It is already five years since the Act was passed and it is very desirable 
that the rules under the Eegulation should be published early. 

In all, twenty-four monuments have been dealt with during the year. A statement giving the 
names of these monuments and the action taken in the case of each is attached as Annexure (B). 

As stated above, only fifty monuments have been supplied with notice boards. There are about 
sixty more protected monuments for which notice boards have to be put up. An equal number of 
boards will be got prepared and put up during the current year. 

This notice board is intended only for " PEOTBCTED " monuments and is only declaratory in 
character specifying the penalties for any damages done to the monument. Another notice giving 
instructions to the visitors as to how they should conduct themselves in respect of the monument 
has to be put up in all monuments- Such a notice has been got printed already and will be fixed in 
all the monuments during the current year. 

Short descriptive notes in the case of every monument are being prepared. These will have to 
be printed in bold characters and hung up in each monument. This has been done in the case of 
all monuments in British India- 

In the interest of the preservation of ancient art and to guard against wilful damage to 
monuments, it is very necessary to have some agency to keep watch over all monuments. There are 
already watchmen appointed in the case of a few important monuments and a few others that are 
Muzrai institutions in service have the temple servants to look after them. But in the case of the 
majority, there is nobody who can be held responsible for their upkeep and it is not feasible to employ 
paid watchmen in the case of all. It is therefore proposed that the Eevenue Officers should appoint 
one local man, either the Patel, or the Arohak or any other man of respectability, to be responsible for 
its maintenance and fix up such responsibility by a written order. Steps will be taken to give effect 
to this proposal. - 



The following monuments were visited during the year 1929-30 and necessary 
action in the matter of their maintenance was taken : 

District Monuments 

Bangalore .... All the monuments in Bangalore, 1-8. 

Fort at Devanahalli 





Somesvara temple in Kolar. 
Makbara at Kolar. 
Amaranarayana temple at Kaivara. 
Bhoga Nandisvara temple at Nandi. 

Channigaraya temple at Kaidala. 
Yoga Madhava temple, Settikere. 

Kesava temple, Belur. 
Monuments at Halebid. 
Lakshmi Narayana temple at Nuggehalli, 
Kirti Narayana temple at Heragu. 
Buchesvara temple at Koravangala. 
Lakshmi temple at Doddagaddavalli. 
Isvara temple at Arsikere. 
Kesava temple at Ambuga. 
Narasiniha temple at Hole-Narsipur. 

Varahasvami temple, Mysore, 
Lakshmiramana temple, Mysore. 
Srikanthesvara temple, Nanjangud. 
Monuments at Seringapatam. 
Kesava temple at Somanathapur. 
Temple at Basral. 

Lakshmi Narayana temple at Hosaholalu, 
Sauinya Kesava temple at Nagamangala. 
Brahmesvara temple at Kikkeri. 

Hariharesvara temple at Harihar. 
Isvara temple at Anekonda. 



Statement of ancient monuments dealt with during the .year 1929-30. 


Name of monument 

1 ITippu Sultan's Palace, Banga- 

Narasimha Temple, Hole- 


Kamanujacharya Temple, 

Channigaraya Temple, Kaidala. 

j Nagar 

IFort at Devanhalli 

Isvara Temple, Arsikere 

Action taken 

In G. 0. No. D. 10582-6 G, G. 12-28-4, dated the 15th 
April 1929, this monument was handed over to the Consulting 
Architect and a caretaker sanctioned to keep watch over it. 
While be was formulating proposals to remove the recent 
alterations and bring it to its original condition, a portion of 
it was again handed over to bhe Scout Headquarters for 
occupation. The work of restoration therefore had to be sus- 
pended an til the building could again be vacated. Besides 
this, the monument suffers for want of a compound wall and 
the grounds in front cannot be laid out pleasantly in conse- 
quence to be in keeping with the Muslim character of the- 
monument. Proposals were sent to the Executive Engineer for 
the construction of a compound wall which was perhaps held 
up for want of funds during the year. It was proposed that 
the work might be taken up during the next year. It is also 
necessary that the Scout Office should be removed from the 
building early. 

An estimate had already been sanctioned for the repairs 
of the temple. Advice was given, as to how the estimate 
should be worked out and designs for door shutters were 

An estimate for Es. 749 for urgent repairs was received 
from the Deputy Commissioner, Mysore, and was returned 
with eountersignature- 

An estimate having come up from Government for opinion, 
the monument was visited and a thorough inspection made of 
the same. A copy of the inspection note was forwarded to 
Government and the repairs contemplated, viz., of construct- 
ing a compound wall and repairing the Garuda shrine were 

The Deputy Commissioner, Shhnoga District, reported 
that the whole fort had been overgrown with lantana. The 
monument being an ancient one, a recommendation was made 
to Government that a sum of money might be sanctioned for 
clearing the vegetation. 

This was visited on 23rd August 1929. Eemoval 
of vegetation over the walls and petty repairs to some 
portions of the fort were urged. Also it was suggested that 
a monument may be constructed over the spot marked as 
" Tippu Sultan's Birth Place " and enclosed with a neat com- 
pound wall. Estimates for Bs. 4,500 and Es. 6,000 for these 
items respectively have been prepared and these works are 
ordered to be taken up during the current year. 

The temple premises had not been kept clean and the 
watchman in charge was not doing his work properly. The 
temple also stood in need of repairs urgently. The defects 
noted were rectified and an estimate for Es. 2,000 for repairing 
the temple was sanctioned by Government to be met out of the 
provision of Rs. 5,000 in the Public Works Department Budget. 

ANNEXUBB B (conicf.) 


Name of monument 









Lakshminarasimha Temple, 

Narayana and Maralesvara 
Temples, Marasegrama. 

Kirtinarayana Temple, Heragu. 

Twin Temples, Mosale 

Prasanna Channakesava Temple, 

Narasimha and Kesava Temples, 

Bhimesvara Temple, Eaivara 

Nagesvara Temple, Basral 

Hoysalesvara Temple, Halebid. 

Kesava Temple, Belur 

Action taken 

An estimate for Bs- 2,500 received from the Deputy 
Commissioner, Hassan, for repairing the compound wall was 
countersigned and returned. 

On a requisition from Government, the temples situated 
in the village were examined "and a report submitted .to 
Government. These temples were declared as " Protected " 
ancient monuments. The proposals for their renovation were 

An estimate for Bs t .375 for repairing this monument was 
received from the Deputy Commissioner, Hassan, and it was 
returned with countersignature. 

The inhabitants of this village waited upon His Highness 
the Maharaja during his tour in the Hassan District in 1928- 
29 and prayed for the restoration of their beautiful temples. 
An estimate for Rs. 2,400 was accordingly prepared by the 
Deputy Commissioner, Hassan, .and sent to the office for 
opinion. The estimate was countersigned and returned. 

Some years ago, the Sub-Division Officer's inspection 
report stated that this monument stood in need of urgent 
repairs. An estimate had been called for from the Executive 
Engineer, Hassan, and approved. The monument was 
inspected and as no repairs had yet been effected, the Muzrai 
Commissioner was requested to expedite the matter. 

On the strength of the inspection report of the Sub- 
Division Officer, proposals for setting the temples right were 
called for from the Executive Engineer. Two estimates, one 
for Es. 870 and the other for Es. 30 for the Kesava temple 
and the Narasimha temple respectively were received. They 
were countersigned and returned. 

These temples are very ancient and deserve to be declared 
as "Protected Monuments." These were visited on 2nd 
September 1929 and a recommendation has .been submitted 
to Government in the matter. 

An estimate for its repairs and for certain improvements 
in its vicinity having come up for opinion, the monument was 
visited and the estimate was returned to the Deputy Com- 
missioner, Mysore, for, certain modifications, considered 

Extensive restoration work was undertaken for this 
monument and commenced systematically. The work 
carried out during the year" consisted ia clearing up alT 
vegetation, levelling the ground and cement pointing to the 
joints of the basement and supplying the missing pieces such 
as finials, etc., to the small pavilions surrounding the temple. 

The work of restoration begun in 1928-29 was being 
continued still. Much good work was done and the whole 
premises was tidied up. The two ugly accretions that were 
standing on the platform for centuries past were removed and 
the carved images that had been hidden by these were cleaned. 
The temple now looks very neat. 




Name of monument 

Action taken 



j Kesava Temple, Belur 

Buchesvara Temple, Kora- 

Kesava Temple, Honnavara. 

20 I Kesava Statue, Angadi. 




Yoga Madhava Temple, Setti- 

Saumya Kesava Temple, Naga- 

Kesava Temple, Somanathapur. 

Isvara Temple, Anekonda 

Several isolated images that were lying within the 
enclosure were repaired and. housed in the several pavilions. 
Door shutters for one of the openings of the temple were 
prepared and fixed. A design for a new set of doors for the 
main gateway was furnished to the Executive Engineer. 

A petition from the raiyats of the village having been 
received regarding the urgent necessity of repairs to the 
temple, the Executive Engineer of Hassan Division was 
requested to forward an estimate for necessary repairs. 

An estimate for Es. 675 for repairing the temple having 
been received from the Deputy Commissioner, it was returned 
duly countersigned and with a suggestion that a vigilance 
committee for the protection of the several temples of the 
village might he formed. Such vigilance committees are very 
necessary for the supervision of religious institutions in every 

There are a few ruined temples in the village in one of 
which stands a beautiful image of Kesava quite exposed to 
sun and rain. It was recommended that a roof might be 
built over it. An estimate for Es. 1,421 was sanctioned by 
Government for this work. 

On a requisition from the Amildar of Chiknayakan- 
halli, the temple was visited and the items of repairs that 
require immediate attention were noted down. The Deputy 
Commissioner, Tumkur District, was addressed to get these 
attended to early. 

An estimate for fixing Jcalasas over the gopura of the 
temple was countersigned and returned. A suitable design 
for the same was also furnished. 

The monument was inspected on 4th February 1930 and 
its condition noted. The Deputy Commissioner, Mysore 
District, was requested to take action in the matter. 

Extensive restoration work was carried out at a cost of 
Es. 16,000 during the year 1928-29. But at the time of 
inspection in October 1929, a portion of the newly constructed 
portion was leaky. This defect was brought to the notice of 
the Executive Engineer, Mysore Division. 

An estimate for Es. 600 for its repairs received from the 
Sub-Division Officer, Davangere, was countersigned and 



List of photographs taken during the year 1929-30. 










Do* .'. 

Lakshminarayana temple 

South-east view 
South-west view 






Lalishminarayana figure 






Sarasvati figure 






Venugopala figure 






Janardanasvami temple 
Kesava temple 
Ghanaundesvari temple 

South-east view 
View of the temple with 



, ,, 

front mantapa. 




Madanakai figure . 





Gayatridevi temple 
Kesava temple 

G-ayaitri figure 
South view 

. Do 






Kesava figure 






Lakshminarasimha figure . 






Venugopala figure 





Narayana temple 

North-west view 
Narayana figure 





Kallesvara temple 

South-east view 
Bhairava figure 






Another figure 





Jaina figure in the field 
Excavation 26 












. .. 
















Isvara temple 

Side view 

















View of Basti 





A Jaina figure 





View of Isvara temple on Brahmagiri 







Back view 






Dipastambha near the pond 
View of a cromlech before opening 






Do after opening 






View of another cromlech before 





Do after opening 
Dipastambha on Jatingaramesvara hill 
Surya figure on do 







Bhairava figure on do 






Chamundi figure on do 






Kali figure on do 






View of mantapa do 






Do Brahmagiri from. Mahal 






Do Garegundu 






Do Jatinga Rarnesvara hill from 






Ea madurga fortress 






Front view of the cave temple 





Interior view of do 





Ceiling do 
Chandravalli lead coins, etc., obverse 

Ghandravalli ... 










Chaudravalli stone inscriptic 






Do do jn 



on impression. 



Photo of Jayarekha 





Do stone inscription ^ on 




impression. -_ 



Do stone inscriptior ken on 


impression. , * 



Persian sannads ^ 

(From Madhugiri) 




Do do 






Do the survey map of Chandra- 




valli valley. 



Nagari copper plate inscription 

Of Bamachandrapur mutt ... 




Stone inscription of Udri 





Do do another 






Do do another ... 






List of Drawings prepared during the year 1929-30. 

1. Arsikere ... Is vara temple ... Detail of a wall. 

Q. Do --.-. --- Do- ... Detail of a basement. 

3. Somanathapur - ... Kesava temple ... Perforated screen. 

4. Do ... Do ... Ceiling. 

5. Do ... Do ... Section of ceiling. 

6. Basral ... Mallikarjuna temple ... Ground plan. 

7. Belavadi ... Viranarayana temple ... Do 
. S. Do ... Upparige ... Do 

9. Doddagaddavalli ... Lakshmidevi temple ... Do 

10. Koravangala ... Buehesvara temple ... Do 

11. Chitradurga ... Hidimbesvara temple ... Do 

12. Do ... Phalgunesvara temple ... Do 

13. Do . ... Karivartisvara temple ... Do 

14. Anekannambadi ... Narayanasvami temple ... Do 


Page viii line 

13 for 


read 303 








,, Murugamale 








,, were also 



(Plate V 4) 

(Plate VI 4) 




,, wooden 



one the 

one of the 





I! 3d ,, 



,, noted 




,, antique 




,, Vasudeva 




,, including 





ri 92 ,, 















' This ' 




,, Transliteration 



off rings 

, , offerings 



sixty a-tbousand 

,, sixty-thousand 



(at the end) 

3'x2' 6" 




Abaiya-Vallabha-deva or Abhayavallabha 
deivar, a form of Vishnu, 199 

Abdul Hakim Khan, warrior, 96 

Abdul Hussain Khan, do 96 

Abdul Nabhi Khan, do 96 

Abdul Bussool, employer of Hi/tier's father, 

81 n. 3 

Abdul Syed Khan, warrior, 96 

Abhayavallabhadevar, see Abaiya-vallabha 


Abhimanyu, figure of, 45 

Abu Mohamad Mirde, officer under Hyder,lQQ 
Achyuta, a form of Vishnu image of, 63 
Achyutaraya, king of Vijaijanagar, 74, 76, 
' 78, 203; coins of 7678 
Adagur, temple at, 4. 

Adavani, fort of, 94, 100 

Adhikarigavunda, a warrior, 184 

Adhokshaja, a form of Vishnu image of, 63 
Adinatha, god temple of ', 55,53; 

image of, 58, 59 

Adi-Sankara, setting up of a ' yantra ' 5z/, 13 
Adisesha, figure of, 39 

Adityas, figures of, 45, 65 

Adiyapanayaka, a private individual, 218 
Agale, a sthala or division, 270, 271 

Agastyesvara, god, 201 

Aghoresvara, god, 213, 214 

Agni, a Dikpdla figure of, 38 

Aibisetti, a private individual, 224, 225 

Ajit^svara, god, 113 

Akkatangis, legendary sisters, 31 ; 

temple of, 23, 24, 30, 31 

Akola, district, 71, 73 ; 

coins from, 13, 74, 77 

Akrura, -figure of, 40 

Alageyara Lakkanayya, -warrior, 171 

Alarnbadi, village, 142 

Alarnbgiri, monuments at, 8 

Alasalamma, a private individual, 143 

Alatur, or Alattur, village, 168, 169, 171 
Algod, see Alugdd 


Algdd-Bayirapura, village 202 

AH Raja, Paleyagclr of Kaniyanur, 88 

Ali Saheb, Hyder's uncle, 81 

Aliya Bamarya, de facto ruler of Vijaya- 

nagar, 131 

Allala-natha, signature, 144 

Alliya, a private individual, 233, 234 

Alugod or Algod, village, 198, 199, 200, 201 
Alund, Uyder's ancestors at, 80 n. 2 

Alva or Aluva, a dynasty, 224, 225 

Alvar, -figure of at Kurudumale, 16 

Amanda, a private individual, 176, 177 

Amaniya, district, 116, 118, 120, 121 

Anibale, village, 125, 132, 133 

America, Central 78 

Amir Saheb, a general under Hyder, 91 
Animalike-saruvUj^Zace, 208, 209 

Amminayaka, Pdleijagdr, 83 

Amnnale-Verggade or Annale Veggade 

a warrior, ' 206, 207 

Amrifcamma or Amrutamma, Queen of 

Dodda Devardja Odeyar, King of' 

Mysore, ' 164,165,166 

Ananda Rao Rasta, a Mahratta general, 


Ananta, figure of, 60 

Anantagiri, taluk 84 n. 2 

Anantapadmanabha, god image of, 60 

Anantapur, district, 122, 123 ; 

hobli 226, 230 ; town 148, 149 
Ananta^ ay ana, a form of Vishnu figure of, 

42, 44 

Andasara, village, 224, 225 

Andhakasura, figure of, 47 

Andhakasuramardaina, JE^WdJ of, 59 

Anegalakere, same as Anekere, 5 

Anegundi, pond, 3 ; 

elephant stall, 53 

Anekal, a taluk, 85 n. 4 

Anekannambadi, Hoysala temple at, 1, 3 ff 
Anekere, temple at, 5, 6 

Aniruddha, a form of Vishnu image of, 63 




AnjanSsvara, god temple of, 14 

Anjaneya, god temple of, 17, 25 ; 

a relievo of, 54 

Ankappayya, a priest, 146, 147 

Ankegauda, private individual, 159 

Ankusagiri, conquest of, 89 

Annadanidevaru, priest, 208, 209, 210 

Anniah Sastri, private individual, 85 

Antara-Gaiige, stream, 18, 19 

Auwaruddin, occupation of 2 1 , ''-.-'- 

. ** ~ ' 

Appaji Balavanta Rao, Maliratta general, 92 
Appaji Earn, Hyder's vakil, 89 

Appaji Rao do 92, 93 

Appanarya, a rdjaguru, 141 

Appinayaka, a paleyagnr 83 

Arabia, country 80 

Aralayan, officer, 224, 225 

Aramane-hola, site at Halebid 53 

Arandukka Kuripatfci Marisetfci. private 

individual, 166 

Aranyaparva, MahabJidrata episode, 41 

Arasikere, Arsikere or Arasiyakere, a town, 

53, 107, 110, 112, 113 ; 

temple at, I, 3, 25, 61-67. 

Aravidu, a dynasty of Vifai/anagar, 131,132 

Arcot,' " district, 82, 84, 89, 100 ; 

siege of 96, 97 


Arhat, figure of, 56 

Arjuna, do 41,42,43,44,45 

Arkalgud, taluk, 84 n. 2 ; 85 n. 1 

Arksvara, god shrine of, 29 

Ami, place, 96 ; battle of, 80, 98-99 

Arthasastra, of Kautilya, 115, 117, 124 

Aruna, figure of driving the seven horses, 29 
Aryavarma or Ayyavarma, a Ganga king, 

122, 123, 124, 178, 260, 261, 264 
Asad Ali Khan, Darogha of Bangalore, 


Asaga Gaiigaya, private individual, 184 
Ashtagrama, division, 189, 191 

Asoka, inscription of, 2, 23, 27, 28, 30 ; 

EocJc Edict of, 24, 26 ; 

town of, 26; 

tree, 46 

Asvathanaranaiyya, munaslii, 'underKrislina- 

rcijavadeyar III 190, 191 

Afcma Vithala Dasar, private individual, 226 

Avard, a place of pilgrimage, 10; 

inscriptions at 11 ; fortress 11 
Avasarada Demarasayya, officer, 148, 149 
Avintta, Ganga king, 12 1 , 122, 123, 3 24, 

Ayyavarma see Aryavarma, 
Ayyanur, Hyder's capture of, 87 

Bababudan-giri, Mils 53, 


Bachayi, lady, 

Badamakalahalli, village, 

Badanaguppe, do 

Badari, river, 127, 128, 

Bagilu, village, 

Bagiyabbe-gaviti, lady, 

Bahadur, title of Hyder, 

Bahamani, kingdom, 

Bailey, Col. English General, 

Bairapura, village, 199,201,203 

Baji Kao ; Peshva, 

Bakasura, demon figure of, 

Baladerige, tax, 

Balaji Panth, Maliratta officer, 

Balaji Rao, Peshva, 


130, 131 Balakrishna, god, 70, 72, 348, 149 , 

42 figure of, on coins 72, 74 ; type of coins, 

231 70-74; varahas 69; half-varahas 73; 

133 temple 146, 147 

152, 153 ' Balamuri ' trunk of Ganapati, 17 

130, 131 Balana, sculptor, 41 

218 Ba]arama,^wre of, 39,40 

221, 222 Balavanta Rao, Appaji, Mahratta general, 92 

82 Bale Ars, father of Queen Amritamma, 166 
73 Balelanadu, Hyder's conquest of 93 
97 Bali, demon king story depicted, 38, 39 ; 

220, 223 figure of, 44 

83 Ballala, Ballalaraya or Ballu, Hoysala king, 
39 Ballala II called also Vallala and Vira 

101 Ball aja or Vallala deva, 53, 54, 109, 110, 

93 111, 203 ; II 55, 61, 112, 198, 199 ; III 

94 11, 13,52, 185; IV 140 



Ball a] a ray ana durga,/or;ms, 87 

Ballavi, division, 120 

Bamana, private individual, 224, 225 

Bammana-nayaka, do 134 

Bammapura, place, 148, 149 

Banimavve, &%, 113 

Baminayya, private individual, 256, 257 
Bana, dynasty inscriptiojis, 10 

Banadala, village, 152 

Banarasi, sacred place, 239, 242 

Banasaiikari, temple, 230 

Banavar or Banavara, village, 34, 83 w. 6 
Banavase or Banavasi,^rcwmce, 110, 112, 
224, 225, -233, 234, 235, 237, 240, 243, 

246, 247 

Bangalore, place, 1, 22, 69, 78, 81 n. 5, 
0; 84, 85, 86, 88 n. 1, 90, 91, 94, 95, 100, 

101, 102, 140, 263 

Bankapura or Bankapur, place, 7, 55, 88, 


conguest of, 95 

Bannaballi, village, 120 

Banniyur, Bannivtir or Bannur, village, 231, 

233, 234, 235, 239, 242, 243 

Barakki Srinivasa Rao, general, 84, 86, 87, 

89, 90, 92, 93 

Barakki Venkata Eao, do 82, 85 

Barnett, Dr. 247 

Barur, province, 208, 209, 210 

Basalat Jung, Nawab, 86, 94 

Basappa, private individual, 184 

Basava (bull), figure of, 9, 27, 33 

Basavalinga Gdeyar, a donee, 166 

Basavalinga Vader, priest, 186, 187, 188 
Basavanabhavi 9 

Basavanpura, village, - 142, 143 

Basavapa-gavundeya or Bassavappa 

Vodeyar, private individual, 170 

Basavapa-nayaka, Kdre chief, 208, 209, 210 
Basavapatna, place plundered, 95 

Basavapattana, place, 208, 209 

Basave"svara, temple of, 199 

Basavesvarasvami, priest, 194 

Basavi Viragonda, private individual, 208, 


Bassein, coins from, 71, 73, 77 

Bastiballi, near Halebid, 53, 59 

Basti temples, at Halebid, 55 

Bayalnad, place, . 171 


Bayicbaya, private person, 211 

Bayicbayanayaka, do 228, 229 

Bayikunda, division, 211 

Bayiragauda or Bayiragoncla, private 

individual, 9,74. r^x 

i-x . ** ) c. I rj 

Bayirapa, private individual, 134 

Bayira ravuta, do 135 ; ^35 

Bedagampana, a collection of the Bedas, 142 
Bedas, a community, 142 143 

Bednore, Hyder's conquest of, ' 87 

kingdom 100 

Beenee Visaji Pandit, Maliratta leader, 85 
Begar, figure of, 25 

Begur, place, 173 

B^la, see Beleya 
Belada Maduvu or Bellada Maduvu, 

village, %QQ 

Belagami, village, '255 

Belagauda, warrior, 221 222 

Belagunji, village, ' 205 

Belandur, do 933 

Belavadi, do 53 . 

Venugdpdla image at, 3 
Belekuta, agriculturists, 143 

Beleya, Belaya, Bela or Belagauda, warrior, 

221, 222, 223 

Belgami, village, 73 

Bellary, district, 24 \Q\ - 

siege of, 90, 94 
Belur, place 1, 3, 4, 7, 34, 35, 

36, 44, 47, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 83 n. 

6, 120, 121, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132 

Beluvala or Belvala, division, 237, 240, 243 

Benares, sacred place, 145, 194, 210, 250, 


Bendiganaballi, village, 121, 122, 123, 178 
Bengal, 93 

Benggaluru, (Bangalore) 189 

Bennegud^a, hill at Halebid, 51, 52, 53, 54 
Bennur, village, 120 

Berambadi, do 169, 170, 171 

Betagerepura, do 127, 129, 131 

Bettada Gbamaraja, Vadeyar, Mysore 

King, ' 192 

Bettadapura, village, 84 n. 2, 85 n. 1 , 189, 


Bettadur, do 244 

Bbadra, name, 143 

Bbadra^ river, 121 


Bhadrakali, goddess, 143 

Bhadrapa, officer, 160, 161 

Bhadrappagauda, patel, 244, 245 

Bhadrarayisetti, private individual, 246, 247 
Bhadri, name, 143 

Bhagadatta, figure of, 42, 45 

Bhagayata, scenes from the, 37, 39, 42 

Bhagya-Lakshrni, temple, 26 

Bhairappa Nayaka, private individual, 

258, 259. 

Bhairava, god figure of, 7, 15, 29, 30, 38 
39, 42, 43, 44, 48; shrine of, 29, 54 

Bhairavana gudda, hill, 


Bhairavi. goddess figure of, 38, 39, 43, 46 
Bhanappa vedant-i, private perso?i, 218 

Bharatesvara, god, 13 

Bhasmasura, demon figure of, 41, 44 

Bhavasarina, private individual, 261, 262, 


Bharasvanii do 116, 118, 120 

Bhayirapura, village, 200, 201 

'Bhimz,, figure of, 40, 41, 42, 43, 45, 66, 112 
Bhimanna, private person, 231 

Bhishrna, figure of, 41, 45 ; 

title, 234, 240 

Bhisbraaparva, MahdoJidrata episode, 40, 41 

Bhringi, dancing figure of, 60 

Bhu, goddess,- figure of 16, 61 ; 

accompanying Venkatesa 8; 

accompanying Yitliala 17 

Bhujaga, god 152 

Bhujanga, 0oa5 152 

Bhuioka orBhulokanialla, Chdhikya king, 

246, 247, 249, 250 

Bhuvanendra-yaksha, figure of 56 

Bhiivikrama, Ganga king, 177 

Bidarakere, tank, 53 

Bidie, author, 72 

Bidirakere, village, 275, 276, 277 

Bijabbe, Za^?/, 249, 250 

Bijjala also called Bijanadevarasa 

Ealacliwri king, ' 224, 225, 226 


Bijapur, town, 9 

Bilegundu (Gare gundu), a place in 

Brahmagiri 23 

Bilgere, village, 179, 186 

Bille^vara, god, 216 

Binnamangala, village, 69 

Birarasa, Sdntara general, 216, 221, 222, 223, 

224, 225, 231 

Birarasa Bomrnarasa, ivarrior, 217 

Bittijinalaya, temple, 157 

Boar incarnation of Visbnu, 74 

Bobbesvara or Bficbesvara, temple, 61 

Bojeraj, minister of Basalat Jung, 94 n. 1. 
Bombay, town, 54 n 1, 93, 97, 98 

Bomrnanna, private individual, 257 

Boniniarasa, general, 206, 207 

Bommarasi, Mz/ 5 "216 

Bommayya, scribe, 222 

Bommegauda, private individual, 136 

Bommeyanayaka, warrior, 206, 207 

Boppadeva, minister, 55 

Boppavve, Gaiiakinndri, 132 

Borekunte, sifo m Brahmagiri, 23 

Bowringpefc, taluk, 133, 135 

Brahma, ^ztre o/, 7, 38, 39, 42, 43, 44, 46, 
47, 48, 59, 61, 66, 69, 109, 111, 238, 240 
Brahmagiri, 23, 24, 26, 28, 29, 30 

Brahmajinalaya-basadi, 246, 247 

Brahma-tlrtha, pond, 12 

Brahmesvara, god, 142 

Brahmi, goddess figure of, 62 

Brihaspati, sage title 233, 234, 238, 240 
British Museum, coins at, 69, 70, 73, 77, 78 
Buddha, temple, 17; image 17, 21 

Buddhist stupa, 10 

Bukka or Bukkaraya, Vijayanagar king, 
128 n. 2, 130, 155, 156, 174 
Bukkan6ji, Mahratta vakil, 85 

Bull type, coins of Vijayanagar, 74, 75, 76 
Bussy, Mons., French general, 82, 98 

Buvayya, scrioe, 224, 225 

Byrappa Nayaka, private individual, 6 

Calburga, place, 
Calcutta, do 
Calicut, do 

80 72. 2 Carnatic, province affairs 82; coins 73; 

98 invasion 96 

88, 93, 97, 100, 101 Cave shrines, 29, 32 


Central America, country 
Central Provinces, 
Chagatftr, village, 
Chakiyakka, lady, 
Chakra-tlrtha, pond, 



71, 73 




Chakra-vyuha, Mahdbhdrata incident, 45 
Chakresvara, god figure of, 56 

ChalamakOte, another name for Puranipet, 9 
Chalukya, 'dynasty, 61, 78, 233, 234, 285, 
237, 238, 240, 241, 243, 245, 246, 247, 
250,251, 252; town 26; layer at 
SiddclpurQ,', architecture 24, 25, 31 
Chamaraja or Chamaraja Wodeyar (Voder), 
Mysore king. 93, 95, 188 
Chamarajanagar, place, 121, 137, 144, 157, 

159, 182 

Chamarajiah, of Hamagiri, officer, 93 

Chamunda or Chamundesvari, goddess, 

shrine 1, 29; images and figures, 7, 13, 

20, 28, 29, 62 
Chandar Rao, officer, 87 

Chanda Saheb, ' a royal personage in the 

Carnatic, 82, 89 

Chandapana Doderi-stme, province, 270, 271 
Chand Bibi, Hyder's step-mother, 22 

Chandesvara, god, 24:9, 250 

Chandikesa or Chandike~svara, god images 

of, 9, 18, 20, 29 

Chandra, god figure of, 8 

Chandradr6na, hill, 127, 128, 130, 131 

Chandragiri, local dynasties in, 73 

Chandragutti, place, 212 

Chandrarnaulisa or Chandraraaulisvara, 
god temple of, 2 ; image of, 29 
Chandranl-inatha, a Virasaiva matt, 140, 


Chandra valli, ancient site, 1; Dolmen potteri] 

/, 10 

Channabasapa, private individual, 256 

Charmabasava, do 141 

Channabasavappa Nayaka, Bednore king, 87 
Channabasava svami, Lingdyat guru, 161 
Channamallapura, village, 168, 169 

Channapatna, place siege of 84 ; battle 

near 85 

Channarayadurga, fortress, 93, 94 

Channarayapatna, place, 5, 83 n. 6, 88 

Ohannavlraradhya, private person, 137 


Chanura, wrestler figure of, 40 

Charamagavunda, person, 184 

Chatchathalli, village, 53 

Chatrapati, type of Sivdji's coins, 76 

Chaudagauda or Chandappa nayaka, Keladi 

king, 219 

Ckavuridabbe, lady, 145 

Chavunda-permrQanadi, ruler, 171 

Chavundayya, chief, 171 

ChayatnrDa, matha of, 21 

Chellakere, place, 32 

Chengalpufc, do, 96, 97 

Chengamavu or Chengannavu, do, 96 

battle at 89 

Chennabasava Nayaka, person, 258, 259 
Chennagiri, place plunder of, 95 

Chermakesava, a form of Vishnu image of, 
5, 6, 16; temple' of 15, 16, 131 
Chennarayadurga, place, 91, 101 

Chennigaraya, temple of, 199 

Chhaya, figure of, 29, 45 

Cbickanayakanahalli or Chikkanayakana- 
halli, place 83 n. 6, 165, 259 
Chickappa Growda, private person, 91 

Chick Krishnaraja Wodeyar, Mysore king, 

death of, 88 

Chidambara bhatta, private person, 229 

Chik-Arasayya, do 229 

Chika Ylranodeyar, priest, 196 

Chikballapur, place, 86, 88, 91 

Chikerahalli, village, 30 

Chikka Benne-gudda, hill, 51, 53 

Chikkadevaraya, Chikkad^varaja or Chicka 
(Chikka) Devaraja Wodeyar (Odeyar), 
Mysore king, 72, 74, 101 } 165 
Chikka Hagari, river, 24 

Cbikkajambane or Chickkajambani, milage, 

208, 209, 210 

Chikka Kampanna-odeyar (Yodeyar), prince, 

155, 156, 157, 173, 174 
Chikka Kesirnayya, private person, 249 

Chikkana-ravuta, .do 135 

Chikkana-Vodeyar, ruler, 168, 169 

Chikkapura, village, 2e53, 254 

Chikmagalur (Chickmagalur), place, 3, 120, 

125, 131, 132, 140 

Chiliya Begtir, village, 211 

Chinapaganahalli, do. 134 

Chinfcamani, do, 8 



Chitradurga, Ghitaldrag or Chiferakal, town. 

1, 2, 23, 28, 33, 7-2, 81, 86, 87, 94, 95, 

100, 101 

Chitrasena, a Gandharva figure of, 42 
Chittanhalli, village, 256 

Ckoja, dynasty, 69, 78, 109, 111, 150, 151, 

238, 241; architecture, 11, 16, 20; 

image, 20; lingas, 11, 18, 21 

Cholagauda, private person, 175 

Cholattara, cZo 150, 151 

Gholi Annavodeyar or Cholianna-vodeyar, 

private person, 173 


Ohukuttur, place, 121, 122, 123 

Chuncheganda, private person, 142 

Cochin, submission of, 88 ?i. 5 

Coimbatore, place, 100, 154, 157 ; Hyder's 

descent on, 86 n. 3 

Oooke, Capt., person, 22 

Coorg, invasion of, 93 

Goote, Col., English General, 97 

Copper Age, 78 

Copper type of Vijayanagar coins, 75 

Culloor, place, 83, n. 6 


Dadegauda, private person, 154 

Dakanachari, a figure shown as, 16 

Daksha, a figure pointed out as JanaJia, 11 
Dakshina-desa, country, 141, 180 

Dakshinamurti, figure of, 8, 13, 15, 20, 41, 

43, 44, 46, 56 

Dalvoy DSvaraja or Devarajiah, Dalvoy 81, 


Damodara, a form of Vishnu image of, 63 
Damodarabhatta, private person, 227 

Dandinatha Pandita, a minister, 5 

Darga, Moslem monument, 9, 18, 22 

Daryadaulat, building, 101 

Dattaka, aphorisms of, 115, 117, 122 

Delhi, place, 102 

Demarasayya, Avasarada, officer, 148, 149 
Demoja, sculptor, 36, 48 

Derga Kooli Khan, general, 80, n. 4 

Desai Narasinga Eao, do 94 

Desayi Kari Sivapanayaka, private person, 


Desikachari, author, 76, 78 

DSsingaverggade, -warrior, 221, 222, 223 
D&vala, Devalge or Devalige, provi nee, 116, 


D&vambika, lady builder of a temple, 11 
Devamina do 11 

Devanahalli, place siege of 81 ; insurrection 

at 81, n. 1 

De"varajiab, Dalvoy, 81, 83 

Devaraballi, village, 124, 176, 178 

Devaraja Odeyar or Devaraju Yoderu, 

Mysore king, 164, 165,' 166 

Dfivaraya or Sridevaraya, Vijayanagar lung, 
28, 69, 75, 132, 153, 169, 210 
Devarayadurga, fortress,^ 91 

Devayani, daughter of Sukra, 38 

Devi, goddess image of 18, 52 ; figures of 

the varied forms of, 65 
Deviramma, lady, 204 

Dhanushkdti, sacred place, 12 

Dhara, capital, 108, 111 

Dharanindra, yakslia figure of, 57 

Dhararii Yaraha, a form of Vishnu figure 

of, 43 

Dharapura, place, 276 

Dharwar, district, 55, 87 n. 4 

Dhenukasura, demon figure of, 40 

Dhevanagara or D&vanagara, town, 193, 194 
Dhritarasbtra, father of the Kauravas, 

figure of, 45 

DikpalasorDikpalakas,^-Mres of, 18, 21, 33, 
38, 39, 40, 42, 44, 47, 48, 57, 58, 59, 60, 

65, 66 

Diler Khan, governor of Sira, 80 

Dilipayya, Nolamba king, 134 

Dmdagur, place temples at, 5 

Dindigul, do 82 n. 5, 83 

Dinnur, village, 136 

Divyalingesa, a Ling ay at guru, 141 

Dod Byadgeri, village, 131 

Doddaballapur, place, 81, 86, 88, 93, 100, 


Dodda Singariya, private person, 204, 205 
Doddayya, do 5 

Dodderi, place, 268 



Dodha (Doda) Devaraju Vader or Dodda 
Devaraja Vodeyar, Mysore king, 162, 


Dohala, iigure of, 46 

Donnekuta, village police, 143 

Dorasamudra, Hoysala capital 34, 50, 51, 
53, 110, 112; tank at, 59 ; site of, 50-54. 
Double Temple, at Arsikere, 67 

Draupadl, wife of the Pandavas figure of, 
40, 41," 43, 44, 45, 55, 66 
Dravida people, 238, 241 

Dravidian architecture, 14, 16, 18, 21, 32 
Drona, warrior figure of, 41, 45, 66 

Dronaparva, Mdhdbhdrata episode, 41 

Dubreuil, author on the Gangas, 122 

Dugga also called Bhuvikrama, Gang a 

king, 176, 177, 178 
Duggamara, Ganga prince, 111 


Durga, goddess image and figure, 14, 31, 
44,45,51,56, 65, 72, 74; temple' U, 


Durga or Durgi varahas, 70, 72, 74 

Durvasa, figure of, 66 

Durvinita, Ganga king 121, 176, 177, 178 
Durvinita Ereappor, Ganga prince, 176, 


Duryodhana, Kaurava king depiction of 

the durbar of, 41 

Du^sasana, do figure of, 43. 45, 


Dvarapalas, figures of, 33, 47, 48, 59, 60, 67 
Dvarasamudra, another name for Dora- 

sarnudra, 35 

Dvaravati, Dvaravatipura, capital of the 

Hoi/salas, 110, 112 

Dyavayya, of Karagalli, 95 


Bchaladevi, Hoysala gueen, wife of Ere- England, country, 98 

yanga 109, 111 ; wife of Narasimha, 109, Eniya Harimayya, private person, 255 

111 Ere Tinnnaraja, brother of Edmardja of 

Edava-Murari, title, 219 Vijayanagar, 159 

Edurlagavi, large cave, 9 Ereyanga, Eoysala Mng, 108, 109, 110, 111, 

Ekanba-Tirtha, pool, 30 112 

Elephant type of coins, 17 Ereyanga Nitimarga, Ganga king, 145 

Eli, place, 167 Erode, place, 90 

Elliot, author, 68 n. 2, 69, 72 Europe, continent, 78 
Elurapade, a huge rock, 26 


Eakir Shah Wall, darga of, 9 Fergusson, author, 

Eateh Ali, also called Fatten Mohammed Fleet, Dr. do 

and Fateb Ali Khan Sahib, Hyder's Eyzulla Khan, officer, 

father, 21, 80, 81 

33, 36, 50 

264, 265 



gundla,' tank, ' 21 

Gajalakshmi, goddess figures of, 5, 6, 8, 12, 
19, 25, 27, 28, 2-9, 30, 51, 60, 66 
Gajaranya Ksbetra, same as Talkad 180, 181 
G-ajasuramardana, god figure of, 46 

Galigekere, place, 
Ganas, figures of, 
Ganachari, Vira&aiva priest, 
Ganakumari Boppavve, priestess, 



Ganapafci, Ganadhipati or Ganesa, god, 213, 

" 214, 219/249; images of'l, 9, 15, 18, 

19, 21, 25, 28, 30, 35, 61 ; copper image 

of, 17 ; temple of, 27, 30; figures of, 27, 

38, 39, 42, 43, 45, 46, 48, 57, 66 

Gandabherunda, anthropoid figure 8; other 

figures 32 ; crest 78, z/>0 of Vijayanagar 

coins, 76, 77, 78 

Gandhara, artf o/, - 42 

Gandharvas, figures of, 42, 43, 47, 48 

Ganga, dynasty, 1, 16, 19, 112, 113, 119, 121, 

122, 123, 124, 137, 145, 177, 178, 182, 

184, 197, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 264 

265 ; linga, 18 

Ganga, Gange or Ganges, river, 158, 181, 
182, 227, 239, 242, 261, figure of the 

goddess, 20 

Ganga Haja, Hoysala minister, 55 

Gangavadi, province, 110,112 

Gangegondapura, place, 238, '241 

Ganges, see under Ganga 
Gangoja, private person, 160, 161 

Ganjagunte, a spot in Avani, 11 

Gafi.jd.rn, village, 124, 177/178; shahr, 101 
Ganji Cottab, place siege of, 80, n. 4 

Gare gundu also called Bi]e gundu, site in 

Brahmagiri, 23 

Garuda, vehicle of Vishmi- figure of, 38, 39, 
40, 42, 50 ; on coin's, 74, 75, 76, ; type of 
Vijayanagar coins 75-76 ; title 221, 222 ; 

image 62, 63 

Garudanahalli, village, 22 

Gattahalligudda, hill, 53 

Gaudi Alatfcur, village, 169, 171 

Gauja, do 224,225,228,229,230 

Gauribh altar, private person, 217 

Gaurigundu, boulder, 26 

Gautara&svara, god, 228, 229 


Gaya, sacred place, 252 

Geraballi, village, 258, 259 

Gbattadaballi, do 35 

Ghulam Hyder Saheb, Hyder's brother, 81 
Girijakalyana, marriage ofPdrvati depicted, 


Gollas, a community, 26 

Gopalakrishnabhatta, private person, 125 
Gopalapura, village, 173, 174 

Gopal Eao, Mahratta general, 87 n. 4 

Gopidevi, figure of in the Bhdgavata 

scene, 39 

Goplnathadeya, god, 

204, 205 

Gdsalachannabasava, Virasaiva, 141 

Gosalarya, Virasaiva guru, 140, 141 

Gourasamudra, place, 24 

Govardhana, hill, depicted, 39 

Govinda, image of god, 62 ; private person, 

265, 266 

Govindaraja, Sdluua minister, 182 

Gryphon, motif, 78 

Gubbi, taluk, 256, 259, 262 

Gudibande, place, 91 

Gudlsvara, god temple of 60 

Guliyapnra, milage, 185 

GummanahaUi, village, 80, 81 n. 1 

Gundagal, cZo 278, 274 

Gundlu, do 189, 191 

Gundlupet, taluk and town, 153, 154, 155 
156, 157, 158, 159, 166, 174, 182 
Guparina-Ejuta, hut-building tnen (?), 143 
Guptas, dynasty coins of, 76 

G-urappa, private person, 163 

Gurrum-Konda, place, 90, 91, 94, 100;. 

capture of, 90, 94 

Gutti, do 100, 101 ; 

plunder of 94, 95 ; kingdom, 211, 212 

Guttiga, private person, 254 


Hadada, tvarrior, 254 

Hagalvadi, village, 258, 259 

Hajarada gundlu, site in HaleMd, 53 

Haji Maccai, torn b of, 18 

Halagevadeyar, Ling dy at priest, 158, 159 

Halaballi, village, 137 

Hale Bannur, village, 235 

Halebid, do 4, 7, 33, 34, 35, 

52, 53, 59 ; 
site of, 1, 50-61 

Haleyamma or Haleyama Setti, warrior, 

224, 225 



Halim Khan, Nawab of Kadapa, 90, 96 

Halkur, village, 177 

Hampi, do 74 

Hamsaraja, Eyder's horse, 92 

Haneya, milage, 23, 24, 26, 30-32 

Hangala or Hangula, milage, 159, 160, 161, 

162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 107,168, 

169, 171, 172, 176 

Hannepalli, village, 127, 129, 131 

Hamiman or Hanumanta, god image, 


figures 8, 43, 44 ; 
relievo 54 ; title, 233, 234, 238 
flanumantarftya, god temple of, 197 

HanurnantesYara, do 202 

Harmmapur village, 23 

Hanumgal, do 110. 112 

Haradanballi or Haradanahalli, village, 

137, 140, 141, 143, 189', 191 
Haralakote, village, lu 

Harapaiiahalli, do 86, 94 

Haratalu, a twelve division, 221, 222, 223 
Harati," kingdom, 270, 271, 272 

JELari, a form of god Vishnu, 127, 260, 265 ; 

image of, 63 

Hari, Gang a Idng see under Harivarma 
Haridasi, sculptor, 43 

Haridravafci, river, 121 

Harihar, place, 121 

Harihara, called also Yira Harihararaya, 
Vijayanagar Icing, I and II, 


coins of Harihara I 69 ; 

coins of Harihara II, 73, 74 

Harihara bhatta, private 'person, 227 

Haripa, sculptor, 46 

Hari Singh, Hyder's rival, 83 n. 4, 84 

Harivarma, also called Hari or Harivarman, 

G-anga king, 115, 117, 121, 122, 

123, 124, 178 

Hariya-gauda, private person, 211, 212 

Hamahalli, village, 83 n. 6 

Hassan, district, 1, 33, 91, 100, 107, 113 
Heggaddevankote, taluk, 2, 189, 191 

Heggotara or Heggothara, village, 144, 

146, 147, 148, 149, 152 
Hemma alias Mayuravaraia III, Kadamba 

Icing } 247. 
Heras, Rev. H,, author, 54 n. 1, 72, 


131, 132 

Herur, village, 263, 264 

Hidimbesvara, god temple of, 28 

Himada KeUresvara, do 183 

Himalaya, father of Pdrvati, 42 ; 

mountain, 238, 241 

Hindi Kama, a clan, 143 

Hiranyakasipu, demon figure of, 8, 42 

Hire Jatinga Raniesa, temple of, 27 

Hirimadavala, village, 142 

Hiriya Harika (Haraka) do 221, 

2-22, 223 

Hole-Narasipur, town, 3 

Hombuchoha, village, 217, 224, 225 ; 

see also Humcba and Patti POIQ- 


Honnali, taluk, 120, 121, 247 

Honnavalli, do 83 n. 6 

Honnenahalli, village, .131 

Hormuhole, river, 121 

Horakeri Bachahalli, village, 162, 163 

164, 165, 166 

Hosagunda, do 206, 207, 224, 


Hosahalli do 121 

Koskote, place, 84, 86, 88, 93 ; 

siege of, 94 

Hosur, do 264 ; 

conquest of, 89 

Hoysala or Hoisala, dynasty, 16, 32, 3, 
34, 35, 37, 48, 53^ 55, 81, 78, 112, 140, 
141, 166, 176, 182, 183, 185, 207, 266 ; 
crest 51 ; architecture, 3, 4, 5, 36, 37, 
49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 57, 58, 59, 
60, 61, 64 ; Early Hoysala type 6 ; 
Hoysala group, 35 
Hoysalesvara, god temple at HaleMd, 

34, 35, 36, 49, 50, 51, 53, 55, 57 
Hrisbikesa, a form of god Vishnu image of, 


Hulikere, place, 54 

Hulikunte, do 23, 26 

Huliyurdurga, fortress, 83 n. 6 

Hultzch, author, 69, 70, 72 

Humcba, village, 207, 217 : see also 

Houtbuchcha and Patii Pornbnrcha. 
Hunasinapura, village, 178 

Hunkunda, do 135 

Hunsur or Hunasior, do 159, 199, 203 




Hura, village , 196 

Husanasahu, Persian title, 170 

Hydari varahas, 101 

Hyder (All), Nawab of Mysore, 9, 21, 79, 

83, 84, 8-% 86, 87, 88, 89, 91, 92, 95, 

192 ; ancestry of, 80, 81 ; rise of, 81, ff; 

First Mysore War, 89 ; victories of, 

90, ff', suppression of Calicut, 93; 

treaty with Baghoba, 93 ; successes, 94; 

Carnatic invasion, 96 ; Second Mysore 

War, 97 ; Battle of Ami, 98-99 ; views 


on English poiver, 98 ; death of, 100 ; 
extent of kingdom, 100 ; revenue, 101 ; 
administration, 101 ; Military depart- 
ment, 101; building activities, 101 ; 
private life and character, 102 ; signa- 
ture, 192. 

Hyderabad, 82, 95 

Hyder Bhakshi, officer, 94 

Hydernagar, another name for Bednore, 87 
Hyder-Nama, a manuscript, 1, 79-102 

Hyder Vali, &ir#a or few 6 o/, 18 

Idai-nattu, district, 203 

Idiga Narasimhe gauda, private person, 167 
Iggali or Iggaliyur, village, 183, 184 

Ijaiy'alvar or Ilaiyalraha-bhashtar, private 

person, 198, 199 

Ilavanji Vasudfiva Eaya or Yasudevaraya, 
Nolamba chief, 12, 13, 18 ; image of, 

13, 14, 16 

Ikkeri, village, 78 

Immadi Bangapura, village, 270, 271 

Imu B*ha, Hyder's elephant, 91 

Inam Commission, 6 

India, god, 260, 261 ; 

figure of, 38, 39, 40, 43, 50 
Indraktla, hill depiction of the story of, 

41, 44 

Indian!, goddess, wife of Indra figure of, 48; 

image, 62 

Indus valley, 78 

Ingulavadi, village, 175 

Iralu-tappina terige, tax, 101 

Iran, _ 98 

Iriva Nolarnba, Nolamba prince, 11 

Iron age, prehistoric, 26 

Irungola, a chief, _ 25 

Isana, one of the Dihpdlas image of, 

38, 40, 65 

Isila, Asdhan town, 26 

Ismail All, Hyder' s brother-in-laiv, 85 H, 4 
Isvara, god image of, 1 ; temple of, 9, 13, 

61-67, 132 
Isvara deva, Sinda king, 217 

Jagadesvara, god temple of, 195 

Jagadevarasa, Alva king, 224, 225 

Jahnaveya, family of the Gangas, 115, 


Jaina, temples and bastis, 31, 53, 55, 
157; images, 52, 57, 59; figures, 57, 
58 ; scenes 56 ; rwwzs, 52 
Jakanachari, a figure shown as, 16 

Jakkagosi, private person, 239,242, 243 
Jali Katte, a spot in Brahmagiri, 23 

Jambane or Jambani, village, 207, 210 

Jambukesvara, god shrine of, 29 

Jamshed Bhai, officer, 91 

Janaka, figure of Dahsha pointed out as, 11 

Janardana, a form of god Vishnu image of, 

6, 17, 31, 63; shrine, 5-6, 29 
Jannabbe, lady, 249 

Jatayu, eagle figure of, 28, 30 

Jatinga Eam^sa, hill and temple, 24, 27 
Java, temples of, 37 

Javahirabandar or, place, 

96, 97 

Jayagonda, Chola king, 238, 241 

Jayamangala, river, 263 

Jayangondacbdlapura, Chola town, 238, 241 
Jayangonda S6la Mandalam, Ohdla division, 

Jayasimha, prince, . 243 


Jayasimhadeva or Jaya Singhadeva, Gover- Jinachandra, Jaina priest, 133 

nor of Sdntalige, 233,234,237,238, Jital, copper coins of Vijayanagar, 74-75 

240 Jiyar, head of a matt, 132, 133 

Jaya Srl-Simhavarma, Pallava king, 260, 261 Jogabbe, courtesan, 144, 145 

Jayita, place, 173 ; 174 Jogigauda, private person, 154 

Jetties, -figures of, 7 Jouveau Dabreuil, author on the Gangas, 

Jiddulige, village, 238, 241, 243 121 

Jina, temple, 142 ; image 31, 142 ; figures, 56 Jubilee Hall, at Mysore, ^ 


Kabaka, private person, 206, 207 Kali, goddess image of, 43, 59 ; 

Kabir Beg, officer, ' 86 -figures of tlie various forms of , 19 

Kabe-Devaru, votioe name, 19 Kalidasi, sculptor, 36, 47 

Kacha, demon, 38 Kalihalli, village, 180, 181, 182 

Kachappalli, village, 116, 117, 121 Kaiikammatsvara or Kalika-Kainatesvara, 

Kachihalli, do 121 god, 154 

KadnJba, place, 83 7?, 6, 256 Kalinga, kingdom, 109, 111 

Kadarnba, dynasty, 54 n. 1, 120, 247; tree, Kalingariiardana, god temple, 141; figure of, 

38, 247 19 ; on coins of Cliikkad&vardya, 74 

Kadapa, district conquest of, 96 Kalirnagauda, private person, 254 

Kadaramba, tax, 142 Kalise or Kalasa, ^^,213,214,215,216, 

Kadaravalli, village, 9}, 219 

Kadavarige, a twelve division, 221, 222, 223 Kaliyammagauda, private person, 221, 222 

Kadavlra Tammadi, a priest, 143 Kaliyur, village, 202 

Kadim Uddin, private person, 93 Kaliyur-nad, province, 274 

Kadire Babanna, do 274 Kalkunda, village, 183 

Kadumanahalli, village, 121 Kallesvara, #otZ temple of, 35 

Kadur or Kadur, district, 1, 83 >z. 6, 100, 125, Kallipura, village, 167 

263 Kaiiur, do 111, 256 

Kadu-Siddb ana Matha, 32 Kalusi> Kaluse or Kalase, village, 208, 209, 

Kagere or Kaggere, tank, 249, 250, 252, 210 

253 Kalyana, Glidlukya capital, 224, 225 

Kaggere, village, 141 Kamakshi, goddess temple, 16; image , 14, 18 

Kahalli, <#o 179,182 Kamalamma, ?#%, 11 

Kaidaia, do * 263 Kamme, family, 265, 266 

Kailasa, mountain, 39, 46, 216, 238, 240 Kamnavur or Kannur, village, 227 

Kairuhalli, village, 202 Kamparaya, governor, 156 

Kaivara, province, 122, 123, 124 Kamsa, demon king, 40 

Kalachuri or Kalachurya, dynasty, 225 ; Kanacha, village, 154 

com o/, 76 Kanara, district, 219 

Kala-Kammata, village, 154 Kanchi, j>Zace, 238,241 

Kalamada Tammadi, a priest, 143 Kanchi, Teluganyada matha, 140, 142 

Kala rnadhaviya, book, 128 n. 2 Kandahar, pZacs, 98 

Kalangaridi, village, 193, 194, 195 Kandarakadu, do 173 

Kalasagara, tank, 172 Kandikere, 6Zo 83 n. 6 

Kal'aSapura, village, 53 .Kangya, ^?o capture of, 90 

Kalenhalli, ^o 273 Kaniyanur, c^o 88, 100 



Kannada, country, 238, 240 ; people, 157 
Kannappa Nayanar, figure of, 32 

Karmayya, private person, 142 

Kanniyala-desa, country, 142 

Kannur, village, 226, 227 

Kantaramma, goddess temple of, 11 

Kanar-gana, a class among Jains, 246, 247 
Kapala-Bhairavi, goddess image of, 20 
Kapalika, do -figure of, 46 

Kapila, river, 168, 169 

Kapila-Kaimdamnya Sangama, same as Nan- 
jangud, town, 168 

Kappechinnigaraya, temple of, 49 

Karacburi Nanjaraj (Urs), general, 81, 82, 

84, 85, 86, 88 n. 6, 99 

Karagalli, village, 95 

Kare, dynasty, 208, 209, 210, 229 

Kareya Bayirappa Nayaka, Rare chief, 229 
Karighatta, hill, 92 

Karikal Rudresvara, god temple of, 51 
Karinad or Karenad, province, 173, 174 

Karivarti, temple at, 33 

Kariya Medeyur, village, 211 

Kama, of the Mahdbhdrata figure of, 41, 
43 ; title, 221, 222, 237, 238, 240 
Karnatakagada, place, 99 

Karnik Lakshrninarasiah, private person, 79 
Karnul, district, 90, 100 

Karumanikkalvar Pilli Bbasbtar, private 

person, 198, 199 

Karur, district, 89 ; capture of, 90 

Kasava or Kesava, god, 1'27 

Kashaya-tirtha, sacred pond, 11 

Kasi, sacred place, 158, 194, 209 

Katappa Nayaka, Kare chief, 229 

Katb.ari Saluva, temple of, 14 

Kattali, kingdom, 142 

Katteraalalavadi, village, 84, 85 n. 1, 189, 191 
Katte Somanahalli, do tank at, 52, 54 
Kattigaballi, " do 221, 222, 223 

Kattu Kodagi, gift 276 

Katullarnali, village, 116, 117, 119, 121 
Kaumaii, one of the Seven Mothers image 

of, 62 

Kaundanya, river, called Gundlu, 168, 169 
Kauravas, of the Mahdbhdrata figures of, 

41, 45, 66 

Kautilya, author of ArtliaSdstra, 124 

Kava-DodSru, village, 167 

Kavabali (balli), village, 
Kav&ri, river, 

Kaveripatnam, conquest of, 
Kavicbarite, book, 
Kavure, a thousand province, 


180, 181, 182 




238, 240 

Kedaranatha-bhatta, pmjafe person, 200, 201 
Kedaresvara, god temple of, 49-50, 53, 55,56 
Kedaroja, master architect, 36 

Keladi, dynasty, 210, 215, 219; place, 211, 

212, 213, 214, 215 

Keladi-Naranappa, private person, 207 

Keleyabarasi or Keleyabbarasi, Queen of the 
Hoysala king Vinaydditya, 108, 110 
Kemballumatha, -matt, 140, 142 

Keinpamada T adi, priest, l!3 

Kenchakodi, place, 154 

Kenchangudda. do 90 

Kenchegauda, private person, 154 

Kendatti Hill, 22 

Kengabalupura, village, 158 

Kerane-palinavarua, profession, 143 

Keregalur, village, 116, 117, 120, 122, 123, 

124, 178 

Kere-Kodagi, a gift, 276, 277 

Kerisi Yiraiya, private person, 27 3 

Kerla, Hindu state, 73 

Ksava, a form of god Vishnu, 127, 128, 129, 

130,131; temple of, 5, 35, 49, 199; images 

of, 5, 6, 7, 25, 48, 62, 63 

Kesavabhatta, private person, 127, 129 

Kesavad&va, do 113 

Kesavapura, another name for Anekere, 5 

Ketalabbe, lady, 267 

Ketalapura, village, 54 

Ketamalla, also called Ketamayya, builder of 

the HoysaUsvara temple at HaleHd, 

85, 37 

Ketana, sculptor, 44 

K&taresvara, Himada temple of, 183 

Khandava-dabana, episode depicted, 44 
Khande Eao, Hyder's vakil, 83, 84, 85, 86 
Khande B^ya, brother of Ilavanji Vdsudeva- 

rdya figure of, 13 

Kbaja Bibi alias Sakina Bibi, Hyder's 

grandmother, 22 

Kbaki Sbab wall, darga of, 9 

Kboolsin Bibi, Hyder's first wife, 21 

- Kicbaka, figure of, as molesting Draupadi, 




Kikkeri, village, 83 n. 6 

Kllugrama, do, 162 

Kilukote, spot near Antaragange, 19 

'Kiim.o^i, figure of, 43 

Kirtinarayana, god, 180, 181, 182 ; temple. 

182, 183 

Kirtipura, ancient name for Kittur, 2 

Kirugasur (Kirudasur), village, 204, 205 
Kirugothara, do 149 

Kirugunda, do 184 

Kiru-kudalur, do 121 

Kirumuiidantru do 116, 117, 120 

Kishkindha-kanda, Rdmdi/ana episode 

depicted, 43 

Kittur, village diggings at, 2 

Kodagi-vritti or manya, gift, 152, 276, 277 
Kodalar, family or village, 116, 118, 119 
Kodanjeruvu, village, 121 

K6dappa, private person, 268 

Kodatihonnu or Kodatiyahonnu, village, 

158, 159 

Kodigenahalli, village, 272, 273 

Kodihonnappa or K6di Ponnappa, private 

person, 173 

Kodikonde, place, 87 

Kodiyala, do 89, 90, 101 

Kodlapura, village, 263 

Kog6d, do 52 

Kolar', district, 1, 17, 18, 22, 80, 81 n. 3, 89 
n. 1, 100, 121, 122, 123,133 
Kolaramrna, goddess temple, 19, 20 ; image, 


Kolar Gold Fields, place, 17, 21, 22 

KolpaUi, village, 263 

Koilegal, do 85 

Kommanahalli, <$o 135, 136 

Konanur, place, 84 n. 2, 85, 86 

Kondala Nayak, general, 91 

Kondavldu, pface, 68, 76 

K6n6riya Kambaya, private person, 1 3 

Kongas, people, 143 

Kongavve, lady, 134, 135 

Kongoni, Konguni, Kongonimahadhiraja or 
Kongonivarma, Gang a king, 115, 117, 
121, 122, 123, 176, 177, 178, 197, 260, 

261, 263, 264 

Kongu, coimtry, 110, 112, 175 

Konguni M&dhava, Ganga king, 176, 177~~ 
Kongur, place, 170 

Korakonde. place, 
Kosarupulki, do 
Rotas, people, 
Kote-stkala, division 
Kovinakere, place, 



176, 177, 178 

258, 259 
140, 141. 
- 154 

Krishna, a form of god Vishnu, 72, 73, 147, 
180, 182, 260, 261 ; image, 63 ; figures, 8, 
39, 40, 42, 45, 50, 66; on coins, 72, 74, 

Krishna, river, 93, 101, 1 1 1 

Krishna, Krishnad^varaya, Krishnaraja or 
Krishnaraya Krishnavarma mahadhi- 
raja or Sri Krishnaraya, Vijaijanagar 
king, 68, 69, '70, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 
148, 149, 152, 153, 180, 181, 182 
Krishnagiri, fortress, 91 

Krishnananda-matha, matt, 17 

Krishnapur (pura), place, 74, 75 

Krishnaraja, see Krishnadevaraya 
Krishnaraja, Krisknaraja-Yadeyar 

(Wodeyar;, Mysore- king, II 192; III 
79, 186, 187, 188, 189, 191 ; coins of~ 

III, 74 

Krishna Rao, Toshikhane officer, 100 

Krishnaraya, see KrishnadSvaraya, 
KrishnaYarma., Gangcildng, 121,122,123, 

124, 178 
Krishnavarma mahadhiraja, see Krishna, 

Vijayanagar king. 

Kshlrasagara-mathana, figure of, 38 

Kubera, a JDikpdla figure of, 38, 65 

Kudali Sangame^vara, god, 270, 271, 272 
Kudli, place, 121 

Kudalur, Kudlur, or Kudalur, place, 119,, 
121, 122, 178, 259, 261, 262, 263, 264 
Kudaluru Kammata, place, 154 

Kudugunad, province, 156, 168, 169, 175 
Kulachandra or Kulaohandrapandita-d6va, 

Jaina guru, 246, 217 

Kullappa, private person, 155 

Knl6fctunga S6lapura, place, 198, 199 

Kuroara, god figures of, 15, 18, 21, 32, 38, 

42, 46 

Kuniara Kama, prince, 29, 79 

Kuixjararadhya, private person, 137 

Kumarasarma, do 261, 262, 263 

Kumbakonarn or Kumbhakonum, place, 96, 




ILurnbUsvara, god temple of, 60 

Kumsi, taluk, ' 87 

Kundanad, province, 211, 212 

Kundayya, private person, 272 

Kimagahalli or Kunigihalli, village, 172, 

173, 174 

Kunigal, taluk, 86, 141 

~-* J Kuimapa-Nagar, country of, 143 

Kuntala, do 238, 241 


Kjunti, mother of the Pdndavas figure of, 44 
j&uppattur, village, 217 

Kurchigundu, rock, 12 

Kurudmxiale, place, 14-17 

Kurugod, do 94 

KurukshStra, sacred place, 22], 222,233, 

234, 239, 242 

Xusa, Rama's son, 11, 12 

Kushmandini, goddess figure of, 57 

Lahore, place, 102 

Lakkanna, prince figure of, 52 

Lakkappa, sculptor, 44 

Lakshmadevi, Queen of the Hoysala king 
Vishnuvarclliana, 109, 111 

Lakshmana, Rama's brother, 12; figure, 32, 


Lakshmana Punt, officer, 94 

Lakshman&svara, god, 13 

Lakshtoi, goddess, 109, 111; temple, 23; 
j%^r6, 3, 4, 38, 62, 68, 64, 69, 72 
Lakahmi G-anapati, copper image of, 1 7 
Lakshmi Mada, type of Vijayanagar coins, 

72, 73 

Lakshminarasiah, Karnik, private person, 79 
Lakshmi Narasimha, god figure of, 8 

Lakshminarayana, do image of, 4, 46, 

59 ; temple, 4 

Lakshmtpati Nayaka, Harati chief, 270, 

271, 272 

Lakshumanadasa, private person, 204, 205 
Lakshuminatha, do 204, 205 

Lala, country, 
Lala Miya, general, 
Lala Saheb, do 
Lal-Bagh, retreat, 
Lally, Mons., general, 
Latif Sahib, private person, 
Lava, Rama's son, 
Lava-Kusara-bande, rock, 
Lava-Kusara totlu, do 
Lava-Kusa gudi, temple, 

238, 240 




94, 96 5 98, 99 


Layada-salige, site at SaleMd, 53 

Libharanga pachu- Saheb (Levering ?), 

private person, 244 5 245 
Lingana-Odeyar, private person, 195 

Linganna, do 87, 203 

Lingarasa, do 276, 277 

Lingasagara, village, f 258, 259 

L6kabharanapandita, Saiva guru 252, 


Loka Ldkanatha or Ldkanathaiya, general, 

239, 241, 242, 243 
Lokavibhaga, Jain work, 264 


Maba or Mabala, sculptor, 40, 46 

Machagaunda, warrior, 254 

Machlibandar or Machlibundar, port, 96, 97 
Maclease, Col., English general, 97 

Madakadore, Madakedore or Mudakadore, 

place, 238, 241, 243 

Madakasira, place, 86, 88, 94 

Madakedore, see Madakadore. 
Madakeri, place invasion of, 93 

Mada Lakka, private person, 172 

Madanika, figure of, 7 

Madappa, private person, 155, 168 

Maddagiri, also called Madhugiri, place^ 81, 
87, 88, 91, 93, 94, 101, 263, 268 
Maddur, place siege of, 84 

Madehalli, (also called Bamanathapura), 

village, 155, 156, 157 

Made -kappana, warrior, 137 

Madesvara, hill, 142, 143 ; temple, 142 

Madhava, a form of god Vishnu image of, 62 



Madhava, Madhavaraja or Madhava Yarma, 
Oanga Ung, 113, 115, 117, 119, 121, 
122, 123, 124, 176, 177, 178, 259, 260, 
261,262, 263, 264; I, 115, 117, 121, 
122,123,124; II, 113, 115, 117, 121, 

122, 123, 124 

MadhavacMrya, author, 128 n. 2, 130 

Madhavaraja, see Madhava, G-anga king. 
Madhava Bao, Peshva, 87, 88, 90, 91, 93 
Madhava Yarma, see Madhava, Gang a king, 
Madhugiri, see Maddagiri. 
Madhuke4vara, god, 246 

Madhura, t)lace, 40 

Madhusudana, a form of Vishnu temple of, 

267 ; image of, 62 

Madigere, village, 184 

Madras, place, 89, 90, 96, 97, 98, 99, 101 ; 

Treaty of, 90 n. 2; Museum, 70, 72; 

Oriental Library, 79 

Madura, place, 84 n. I, 96, 97, 100; coins, 
76 ; GandaWiemnda type coins, 78 
Magadi, place, 92 

Magara Karagarasa, governor, 246, 247 

Mahabalesvara, god, 29 

Mahaba Setti, private person, _ 174 

Mahabharata, scenes from the depicted, 

37, 40, 41, 43, 45 

Mahadeva or Makadevesvara, a svdmi or, 142, 143 

Maha-G-anapati, god temple, 14; image, 15 
Mahal, in Brahmagiri, 23, 24 

Mahalingi-Matha, matt, 140, 142 

Maharnrnarabandar, port, 96 

Mahavrati, title, 233, 234 

Mah&adranfcaka, surname of Nitimdrga II, 


Mahega, god -figure of, 44 

. Mahesvara, title, 237, 240 

Mah^svarl, one of the Seven Mothers image 

Mahimaji Sindhia, Mahratta Sirdar, 90, 92, 


Mahishasuramardinl, goddess figure, 7, 32, 

42 ; image, 4, 59, 66 

Mahrattas, people, 82 rc. 4, 83/84, 85, 86, 
91, 93, 95, 96, 98; relation between 
Hyder and the Mahrattas, 90 ; invasions, 
87,88,89,90,91, victories, 92; affairs, 


Maisuru, see Mysore, 

Majid Khan, of Kadapa, 90 

Makalidurga, fortress, 91 

Makanahalli, village, 253, 254 

Makbara, in Kolar, 21, 81 n. 3 

Malabar, district, 88, 100, 157 ; conguest of, 


Malapaguru svaini, priest, 154 

Malava, Hngilom, 108, 111 

Malavalli or Malavalli, place, 95, 189, 191 
Malekal Tirupati Peak, 53 

Malenad, province, 141 

Maligaiyudaiyan N^tiyalvan, private person, 


Malingaiya, private person, 146, 147 

Mallabftva, do 175 

Mallapa-Yodeyar, ^o 270, 271 

Mallappa, do 231 

Mallappa, H. K. do 113 

Mallar Eao Basta, officer, 84 

Mallayya, private person, 256, 257 

Mallsvara, god temple of, 5 

Mallikarjimapura, another name for 

Dindagur, 5 

Mallikarjunesvara, god temple of, 54 

Mallikarjuniah, of Maddagiri, 81 

Malnad, district, 219 

Maloja, scribe, 240, 243 

Malur or Malur, pZ^ce, 22, 134, '272, 273 
Mamallapuram, place style of architecture, 


Manavikrama, Haja of Calicut, 88 

Manchayi, lady, 172 

Mandali, a thousand province, 237, 238, 240, 

241, 243 

Mandara, mountain fig lire of, 38 

Mangalore, place, 89, 192 ; capture of, 89 
Manigrama, hr&ni, 116, 118, 120 

Manmatha, God of Lorn figure of, 44, 67 
Manu, Jcing, 116, 118, 239, 242, 261, '262 
Maplahs, people, 93, 97 ; rebellion of, 99 
Maphuz IChan, younger brother ofMohamed 

Ali, 84 n. 1 
Marala Basavalinga-devaru, private person, 

164, 165 

Maramma, village goddess, 51 

Marasimba or Marasinga-deva, Ganga 

king, 121, 122, 128, 137, 178 

Marasinga-Ereyappor, officer, 177 


224, 225 


Maratamma, private person, 175 

Marayya, do 167 

Marayya-Nayaka, munshi, 2r>6, '257 

Marigudi, temple of Mdramma, 210 

Mariyala, village., 
Maroja, private person, 
Marsden, author, 72 

Marugali-nad, province, 263 

Marugare-nad, do 263 

Marugare-rashtra, do 263 

Marujaulipura, village, 158 

Marukara-Vishaya or Marukare-Viehaya, 

province, 122, 123, 261, 262, 263 
Marulakkana-halla, channel, 172 

Marularya, a guru, 141 

Masahali or Masahalli, village, 157, 158 
Masbi, ' "do 137 

Maurya, dynasty structures of, 30; layer 

at Siddapur, 2 

Mauryara-mane, cromlechs, '23 

Mayideva, warrior, 134 

Mayuravarmadeva III, Kadamba king, 246, 


Mechigaudi, lady, 211, 212 

Medakere Nayaka, Poleyagar of Ghitrakal, 

87, 94, 95 

MSlSsvara, god, 256, 257 

Melkote, place Hyder' s march on, 92 

M6ru, mountain, 109, 111, 265 

Meshapashanagachehba, Jain sect, 246, 247 
Mesopotamia, country, 78, rock, 10 

Middle Ages, plate armour-dress of, 70 

Midigesi, place, 275 

Midundavalli, do 116, 117 

Mille-Mirangi, do 83 

Mincnukal, hill, 91 

Minda-gudli-Palinavaru, spade workers, 143 
Mir AH Eaja Khan, officer under Hyder, 87, 

88, 93, 96 

Mirchi G-opal Hari, officer, 84 

Mir M chained Sadak, do 100 

Moghals, people, 95, 96 

Mohamed Ali, Nawab, 82 3 84 n. 1, 89, 90, 

97, 98, 99 

Mohammad Ali Khan Sahib, Ryder's grand- 
father, 22 

Mohammadbundar, port, 97 

Mohammed Bhelole, Ryder's ancestor, 80 w. 2 


Mohammed Issoof, Commandant of the 

English sepoys, 84 %. 1 

Mohini, figure of, 8, 19, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 

46, 56, 59 ; myth of, 41 

Molakalmuru, place, 1, 2, 24 

Morses, author, 247 ??. 1 

Moslem, troops, 13, 14 ; grave yard, 21 ; 

dargas, 9 ; building, 21 ; iconoclasts, 

47 ; governor, 159 

Mrityude'vi, goddess figure of, 43 

Mudakadore, s^e Madakadore. 
Mudalabagilu, wam0 o/ Mulbdgal, 17 

Mudanad, province, 221, 222, 223 

Mudiyappa Nayaka, private person, 258, 259 
Mudduvlra svami, private person, 258, 259 
Mughals, army of, 89 ; see also Moghals 
Mugur, place, 166 

Muhammad Ali Sahib, Hyder 's step-brother, 

21, 22 

Muhammad Bhalool, Hyder' s step-brother, 


Muhammad Shahbaz Ali Khan Sahib, 

Hyder's brother, "22 

Muhammad Vali Sahib, Rydefs step-brother, 


Mukanayakankote, village, 257 

Mukhadum Saheb, officer under Ryder, 86 
Muktagiri Matha, ma, 9 

Mukbesvara, god temple of, 10 

Muktinathesvara, god temple of, 69 

Mukunda Eao, officer, 84 

Mulbagal, place, 10, 14, 17-18, 137 ; see also 


Multan, place, 102 

Munijetti, temple-builder, 1 

Munro, Col., English General, 97 

Muppina Devaraja Odeyar, Mysore king, 165 
Muralidhara, god -figure on coins, 74 

Murari Bao, officer, 90 

Murugamale, place, 8 

Muscat, factories at, 101 

Museum, at Mysore 2 ; of Mysore G-overn- 

ment, 70, 73 ; at Madras, see Madras. 
JM ushkara, Gang a king, 178 

Mutganni, see Muttuganna 
Muttagadaharige, 176 

Muttuganna or Mutganni, village, 127, 129,, 

Mutyalachari, private person, 231 



Mufcyalpet, place siege of, 90 

Myl&pux, place, 101 

Mysore, also called Maisuru, place, 1, 2, 83, 

81, 84, 85, 99, 100, 120, 131, 137, 171, 

182, 188, 189, 191, 192, 243; Museum 


of tJie Government of, 70, 73 ; coins 
at, 17, 70, 71, 73; dynasty, 70, 72, 78, 
84, 163, 164, 165 ; independence of, 80 ; 
invasions, 83, 87, 88, 89, 93, 95 ; 'wars, 
89, 96, 101; revenue, 101 


Nadakalasi or Nadkalsi, village, 212, 215, 

216, 217, 218 

Nadavalli, do 221, 222, 223 

Nadayya Bom ma, private person, 233, 234 
Nadkalasi, see Nadakalasi 
Nadugeri, site in HaleMd, 51 

Nadugeri Marainraa, figure of, 51 

Nagadeva, private person, 116, 118, 120 

Nagagavuda, do 185 

Nagappa, do 136 

Naga-kunte, pond, 22 

Nagamangal or Nagamangala, place, 83 n. 

6, 112 

Naganna, scribe, 116, 118, 119 

Nagar, place, 92, 207, 217; Hyder's conquest 

of, 87, 89, 90 

Nagara, kingdom, 100, 101, see also Nagar 
Nagarakal or Nagarkal, stones, 13, 16; see 

also Naga stones. 

Nagarakhanda or Nagarkhanda, division, 

120/238, 241, Q43 

Nagarakunte or Sesha-tirtha, pond, 13 

Nagarasa, private person, 252, 253 

Nagartagada, fortress, 97, 98 

Nagaresvara, god, 15, 50, 252, 

253; temple of, 51, 53 
Nagarpade-Gundu, rock, 29 

Nagasamudra, place, 24 

Naga stones, 4, 28 ; see also Nagarakal 

Nagayya, private person, 132, 133 

Nagiya Vodeyar, do 270, 271, 


Nakagaunda, warrior, 274 

Nallala, place, 121 

Nallappa, private person, 79 

Namakallu, place, 84 n. 2, 85 

Namaluk6te, do 154 

Nammalvar, saint images of, 3, 4 

Nandi, Bull of Siva- images of, 9, 14, 16, 
18, 25, 30, 32, 37, 38, 39, 47, 59, 60, 66 

Nandisvara, god image of, 65 

Nandis6ma, figure of, 60 

Nandi-vahana, image of, 59 

Nana Fudnavis, Mahratta officer, 93 

Nandyala, division 116, 118, 120, 


Nangali, place, HO, 112 

Nanjamma, lady, 257 

Nanjangud, place, 157, 169, 174, 179, 182, 

188, 204, 205 

Nanjarma-odeyar, (Vodeyar), prince, 155, 

156, 173, 174 

Nanjappa, private person, 259, 262 

Naujaraj or Nanjaraja Urs, see Ilarachuri. 

Nanjaraj Urs. 

Nanjaraja Wodeyar or Nanjaraj Wodeyar, 

Mysore king, 88, 93, 

Nanjaraja Vodeyar 192 

Nanjegauda, private -person, 154 

Nanjiah, lover of the queen of 3ednore, 87 

Nanjunde^vara, god, 169 ; temple, 22, 168 

Naranagatta, village, 267 

Narakasura, demon -figure of, 40 

Narasappa Nayak, Hyder's vaMl, 93 

Narasappayya, agent, 276 

Narasapur, place 22 

Narasimha, god image of, 59, 63, 65 ; 

1 figure of, 3, 8, 32, 43, 48 

Narasimha, Hoysala king, I, 36, 47, 109, 

711, 176 ; II, 61 ; III, 166, 185 ; 

see also Vira Narasimkadeva and Vira 


Narasimha, Nrisimha or Narasimha varraa- 

mahadhiraja, Vijayanagar king, 125, 

127, 128, 129,' 130, 131, 132, 180, 


Narasimhachar, E, Retired Director of 
Arch&ology in Mysore, 10, 12, 33, 121, 264 
Narasimhapura, village, 53 

Narsipur, .do 199 



Narayana, a form of Vishnu, 126, 128; 
image of, 14, 62 ; title, 206, 207, 221, 

222 ; temple, 3 ff 

Narayana Rao, Peshwa, 92, 93 

Nasir Jung, Nawab, 82 

Navanitanritta Murti, god figure of, on the 
coins of Krishnaraja III, 74 
Nayaks, ' ' 26, 83, 78 

Nayakanahatti, place, 32 

Nayars, of Calicut, 83, 93, 97; rebellion of, 99 
Nelamalige, site in Halebid, 61 

Nellivadi, place, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225 
Nellore, do 96, 97, 101 

Nepala, country, 109, 112 

Neralekere, milage, 143 

Netiyalvan, see Maligaiyudaiyan 
Nijakaf, battle of, ' ' 91 

Nilakantharaya, private person, 208, 209, 

Nllakanthe&vara, god temple of, 19 


Nilagiri, hills, ' --- 154, 117 

Nilaroayya, composer, 240, 248 

Nimbaja Devi, deity, 1 

Nimbkainahalli, village, 9 

Niralgi, " do 247 

Niraramba, tax, 142 

Niruti, a DikpcUa figure of, 38 

Nitimarga or Nitirnarga permmanadi, 
G-angaUng, 144, 145,197, 198 
Nittur, village, 257, 259, 265, 266, 267 

Nizam, of Hyderabad, 89 

Nizam AH, Nawab, 99 

Nolamba, dynasty, 13, 14, 27, 29, 30, 134; 

temple, 27 

Nolamba-d&var, ruler, 239, 242 

Nolambadhiraja (Dilipayya), Nolamba 

Idng, 134 

Nolamba-Pallava, dynasty, 11, -28; 

cave temple, 12 
Nolambavadi, province, 110, 112 

Obanayak, private person, 
Onte-rnaradi, hill, 


32 Oriental Library, at Mysore, 2 ; 

53 at Madras, see Madras. 

Orissa, Conquest of, by Krishnardya, 68 

Padagauda, private person, 
Padalaiya, governor, 
Padipatti-d&sa, country, 
Padmanabna, god, 

Padinavati, goddess, 


224, 225 

117, 180, 181 ; 
image, 42, 63 
221, 222, 224, 225 ; 
figure of, 56, 

Pagadesalugudda, site in Brahtnagiri, 23, 


Paiyivastika, endorsement, 187 

Palace Library, in Mysore, 79 

Palace Site, at Halebid, 54 

Palakonda, conquest of, 89 

Palegar, ruler, 18, 25, 53, 72 

Palghat, submission of, 88 n. 5 

Palgunesvara, god, 173, 174 

Pallakki Chilume, spring, 23 

Pallaya, dynasty, 1, 13, 14, 29, 122, 123, 

124, 237,240,260, 261,264; 

architecture, 16 ; sculpture, 20 

Palni, place, 83 

Pampakshe'tra, sacred place, L48, 149, 180, 


Panapura, place, 263 

Panchalinge^vara, god temple, 50, 53 

Paodavadiya, person, 1.41 

Pandavas, of the Mahdbhdrata, 11, 41 ; 

figures of, 66 

Pandesvara, god temple, 142, 143 

Pandugudis, cromlechs, 10 

Pandya, dynasty, 110, 112; coins of, 76 
Paradara S6dara Eama, prince 79 

Parainati, place, 84 n. 2, 85 

Paraaara Madhaviya, book, 128 n. 2 

Paradara Smriti, <io 128 n. 2 



-Parasurania, a form of Vishnu, 109, 111 Pondioherry, place, 82, 86 

Parasuramappa, brother of Madakere Ponkola, village, 137 

Ndyaka, 95 Poona, seat of the Peshvas, 83, 83, 91, 92, 

Parijafca, tree and flowers, depicted, 40 93, 94 

Parijata-harana, depiction of the scene of, 40, Posavalli, village, 116, 121 

42 Prabhachandra or Prabhachandra 

Parvanatha, prime figure of, 56 Siddbanfcadeva, Jaina guru, 246,247 

Parsvanatha, Tirthankara image of, 17, Prablmlingaradhya, Lingdyat guru, 142 

57, 59 Pradyumna, a form of Vishnu image of, 

Parsvanatha Basti, at Halebid, 55-58, 59 63 ; Krishna as, 40 

Pamvi, province, 122, 123, 124; Gangas of, Prahlada, devotee figure of , 42,43 

121, 122, 123, 124 Prancing Horse, type of corns, 78 

Parvatl, goddess temple of, 16 ; figures of, Pratapachyutaraya, Vijayanagar Jci?ig 

42, 44, 46, 48 ; utsavamurti of, 9 ; legend on coins, 77, 78 

images of, 9, 18, 32, 62, 63, 69; as Prayag, sacred place, 252 

huntress, 41 Puligere, a three-hundred division, 238, 240, 

Parvvatha-dfivar or Parvata d&varu, 243 

priest, 196 Pulkanad, province, 206, 207 

Patagaraj (weaver), 143 Punasur, Puniyur or Puniseyur 

Patti Pomburcha or Patti Pomburclacha, village, 176, 177, 178 

Eumcha 207, 220, 222 ; Punisaiyur same as Hunsur, village, 198, 

see also Humcha and Hombuohcha. 199, 203 

Pedda Appayya, private person, 12 Punjab, province, 80 n. 2 

Penugonda, Peuugonde or Penukonda, Punnad, kingdom, 2 

place, 86, 87,91, 94 ; 101/119,121, Pura, village, 146,147,148,149,259,262 

122, 124, 178, 263, 264, 265, '270, Puranipet, site in Murugamale, 9 

271 Puranur, village, 87 

Feramakalluj place, 98 Puravara, do 263 

Perdore, river 109 Purniah or Pumaiya, minister, 30, 95, 96, 

Periapatna, place, 84, 85 n. 1, 189, 191 98 n. 1, 100 ; rise e/, 95 

PermmacLigavunda, of Sigendd, 145 Purushamriga, figure of, 32 

Permroanadi, Ganga king, 197 Purushdttama, a form of Vishnu image of, 

Perur, place, 261, 262, 263 63 

Pete-hola, site west of the Brahmagiri Puras6ttania-Myaka, Kdre chief, 208, 209, 

hill, 30 210 

Pilduvi Ganga or Pilduvipati I, Ganga Purushottam Punt, vakil, 95 

Icing, 184 Pushpagiri, hill near HaleUd, 54 

Pilliyalvar, private person, 198 Putangere, place, 89 

Pirangi Bateri, site in SaleUd, 53 Putani, rdJcshasi slaying of, figured, 89 

Pomkunda, village, ' ' 134, 135 Puttanapura, village, 171,172 

Pomme-sunka, tax, 142 Puttanna, private person, 149 

Bacha-hali or Eacha-halli, province, 270, B^charaalla, Ganga king, 145 

271 Eaghoba, Mahratta officer, 83,93, 

Rachali, village, 271 94 




Raja All or Raja AH Khan, son of Ghanda 

Sakeb, 89 

Raja Odeyar, Mysore king, 164, 165 

Raja Ra-ja, legend on coins, 78 

Rajarajapura, village, 180, 181 

Rajendrachola or Rajiga, CJwla king, 10, 150, 

151, 238, 241,243 
Rajoderu, see Raja odeyar 
Rakanad-Daula, minister of the Nizam, 89 
Rakshasa, -figure of, 15, 28, 32 

Rama, god, 10, 11, 12, 109, 111, 193, 

238 ; 240; 

temple, 13, 30 ; group of images 17 ; 
figure of, 30, 32, 43, 44 ; see also 
Ramaehandra and Ramachandre- 


Rama, (?) Vijayanagar king, 132 

Ramabhakta, private person, 200, 201 

RarnachaDdra, god, 181, 182; see also 

Rama and below 

Ramachanclresvara, god temple of, 27 ; 
see also Rama and above 
Rarna-deva, Vijayanagar king, 78 

Ramadurga, fortifications and cave temple, 


Rainagaiida, private person, 216 

Ramagiri, fortress, 93 

Ramakrishna Rao, autlior, 165 

Rainana, rock, 11 

RaiDanandi, Jain guru, 247 

Raroanatha, god, 157 ; temple, 156 

Ramanatkapura, see Madehalli 
Ramaimjacharya, Srivaishnava guru, 69 ; 

image of, 4, 16 
Ramaraja, Ramarajaya or Ramaraya, 

king of Vijayanagar, 
131, 158,159,170 

Ramaraianayaka, Keladi cliief, 213, 214, 


Ramaraja Tirumalarijadfiva or Rainara- 
iava-Tirumalarajaya, governor, 159, 

160, 161 

Ramarajaya, see Ramaraja 
Ramarajaya-Tirumalarajaya, see Ramaraja 

Tirum alara jade va 
Ramaraya, see Bamaraja 
Ramayana, Epic 10 ; 

scenes from, depicted, 37, 43, 44, 50, 


Ramayyadevaru, god, 

Ramesa, god, 
Rame^vara, god, 


156, 157 ; 
temple, 148, 149 
13 ; temple, 27 
32, 111 ; temple, 
11, 13, 144 

Ramesvaram, sacred place, 76, 96, 101 

Rarjamaricm'ga, private person, 175 

Banastarnbha, pillar, 13 

Ranga or Sri Bangaraja (raya), also called 
simply Sri Ranga or Rankba, Vijaya- 
nagar king, 126,127, 128,129, 
130, 131, 132, 159, 164, 

Rangachari, author^ 76, 78 

Ranganatba, god temple of, 54, 60-61 

Ranganatha-devara-betta, hill, 265 

Rangappa Nayaka, a chief, 93 

Bangappa Nayaka, Harati chief, 270, 

271, 272 

Rasigudda, hill near HaleHd, 54 

Rati, wife of Mamnatha figure of, 44 

Batnagiri, fortress conquest of, 89 

Ravana, demon king, 30 ; 

figure of, 43 

Ravinita mistake for Avinita see Avinita 
Rayadroog, Rayadurg.or Rayadurga, 

fortress, 86, 94, 270, 271 ; 

coins of the chiefs of, 72 

Rayanahalli or Rayanballi, village, 142, 


Rayanna-nayaka or Rayappa-Nayaka, cliief, 

141, 143 

Bazia Begum, Hyder's mother, 22 

Recumbent Bull, type of "Vijayanagar 

coins, 76 

Bevoja, sculptor, 42, 43 

Bice, autlior, 137, 165, 184, 197, 263 

Bisbi, sage shrine of, 29 ; 

las-relief oj ', 11; figure of, 15 

Bock Edict, of Asoka, 26 

Rome, ambassadors to, 101 

Boppa, village, 23, 24, 26 

Budra, god, 109, 111 ; title, 221, 2'22, 

237, 240 

Budras, eleven in number figures of, 46, 


Budresvara, godtemple of, 51, 53, 54 

Bustumji Khan or Rustumji Khana-Yoderu, 

officer, 158,' 159 




Saba^Saheb, Hyder 's brother, 92 Sainbhulingapura or Sambakipura, village, 

Sadasiva, Sadasivaraya or Sadasivadeva- ^ 153; see also Sambakipura 

raya, Vijayanagar king, 78, 158, Sambhupura, village, 151 

159,273,274 Sambukapura, do, 152; see also 

Sagar, taluk, 205, 207, 210, 211, 212, 216 Sambakipura 

Sagara, king (mythical), 116, 118, 261, 262 Samudramathana, mythological episode 

Sahapasahu, Persian title, 170 depicted, 66 

Saiva, 24,25,26,30; Sangamapura, village, 115, 117,119, T21 

Purdnas, 32, 37 ; images 15, 18 ; Sangappa Nayaka, Hagalvddi chief, 258., 259 

bas-relief figures, 18; figure on Sankarma, private person, 183 

Ryder's varahas 101 ; temple, 59, 60 ; Sankara, god, 132,133 

sculptural features, 69; practices, Sankaranarayana, a sacred place, 192 

195, 209 Sankaraya, private person, 159 

Saindhava, brother-in-law of Duryodhana Sankaresa, god, 141 

in tiie Mahdbhdrata episode depicted, Sankarshana, a form of god Vishnu image 

41 of, 63 

Sakalagunabhirama, title applied to Ei/der, Sankara-bhatta, private person, 249 

102 Sanku-Basavanna, image of, '^55 

bakatastira, demon, figure of, 39 Sanna-Hanurnanta-K&ya, god, 27 

Sakina Bibi alias Khaja Bibi, Ryder's Sanna Jatinga Baraesa or Sanna Jatinga 

grandmother, 22 Ramesvara, god, 27, 28 

Sakti, goddess, image of, 7, 65 ; shrine of, 7 Sa.nnamina, well of, ' 135 

Sakuni, a figure in the Mahabhrirata, 40 Sanna Mallipura, village, 184 

Sala, projenitor of the Eoijsalas figure, Santa Basavalinga Yader, priest, 162, 163 

47, 56, 59, 64 Santalesvara, linga f 84 

Salabat Jung, Nawab, 82 Santalige, a thousand province, 221, 222, 

Salagiri, fortress conquest of, 89 223, 233, 234, 235, 237, 238, 240, 

Salanayaka, Hagaluadi chief, 258, 259 241, 242, 243, 246, 247 

Salem, place, 89, 90, 100 ; capture of, 90 Santara, dynasty, 207, 216, 217, 223, 225, 231 

Salem Manual, boo'k, 184 Santhebidnur, placeplunder of, 95 

Salivur, Saliyur or Salur, village, 244, 245, Santinatha, Basti temple, 55, 58 ; imaqe, 
246,247,248,249,250,251, 252, 253, 68 w. 1 

254,255 Saptamatrikas, images, 7, 9, 20, 47 ; shrine, 

Saluva Grovindaraja, minister, 182 ' 29 

Saluva Timma, Saluva Timmaraja, or Saluva- Saptatala or Sapta-tala-chh^dana, story 

Timmarasa, minister, 152, 153, 180, r depicted, 43, 50 

181, 182 Sarabba, figure of, 8, 32 

Salya Parva, episode in the Mahabhcirata Sarada, goddess image of, 58 ; figures of, 

depicted, 40, 41 44, 56; see also Sarasvatl! 

Sama-Saptakas, figures of, 45 Sardar Khan, officer, 91, 93 ; see also Sirdar 

Sambakipura or Sambhulingapura, village, ^ Khan. 

152, 153 Sarana Vritti, land given away for religious 
Sambhu, god, 108, 110, 126, 128, 141, devotees, 233, 234,' 235 

208, 213, 214, 227, 249, 258 Sarasvatf, goddess, 109, 111, 239, 242, 
Sambhulinga, god, 152 249 ; images and figures, 4, 43, 46, 

fiambhulinga Basavesvara, temple of, 151 48, 59, 63 ; see also Sarada, 


Sarvavali, place, 96 

Sasalaraya, 'private person, 141 

Safcagada, fortress, 99 

Satyabhama, wife of god Krishna figure 

of ',40 

Satyamangala, place, 83 

Satyasraya, title, 233, 234, 237, 240, 

245, 246 

Satraghnesvara, temple of, 14 

Savai Madhava Rao, Mahratta Peshva, 93 
Savanore or Savamir, place, 87 n. 4, 


Savshattipalli, village, 131 

Sayakka, lady, 211 

Sendraka, province, 115, 117, 120, 121 

Seringapatam, place, 80, 81, 82, 83, 85, 

86, 88, 89, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 97, 

100, 101, 102, 159, 165, 177; 

siege of, 92 

Se"shagiri rav or raya, Amtila of Tayur, 186, 

187, 188 

Seshatirtha, pond, see Nagaragunte. 
Settipalli, village, 127", 129, 131 

Setu, sacred place, 109 

Seven Mothers, panel depicting the, 29 ; 

see also Saptamatrikas. 
Sewell, author, 132 

Shahi, kingdom, 73 

Shah Saheb, Ryder's brother, 81 

Shamaji Sindhia, Mahratta general, 94 
Shama Sasfcry, Dr., Director of Archaeology 
in Mysore (retired), 121 

Shamiah, Anchegwrikar, 100 

Shanmukha, godfigure of, 39, 42, 66; 

title, 221, 222 

Shattihalli, village, 131 

Shikarpur, taluk, 223, 231, 235, 243, !^44, 


Shiinoga, district and town, 1, 78, 120, 

121, 205, 207, 243 ;, capture of, 87 

Sholavander, harbour, 84 n. 1 

Siddapur, village, 1, 2, 24, 27, S2 ; Asdka's 

inscription at, 23 

Siddhalingarya, Tontada Lingdyat priest, 


Siddappa-devaru, figure of, 25 

Siddhesvara, god temple of, 142, 159, 220, 

.Siddhesvara Purana, Kanna$apoem, 140 


Siddhalingasvanri, Lingayat priest, 9; 
(Mysore Sculptor) Silpa Siddhanti, 6 
Sidha-Vodeyar, priest, 270, 272 

Sidlaghatta, taluk, 121 

Sige-gudda, hill, 54 

Sigenad, province, 145 

Silaharas, dynasty coins of, 76 

Silpa Siddhanfci, see under Siddhalinga- 


Simbala, district, 116, IIS, 120, 121 

Siniari, place, 96 

Simhavarroa, Pallava king, 124, 264; 

Ganga king, 121, 122, 123, 124 
Simmadevachchatur-Y^dimangalam, name 
of Hunsur village, 203 

Slnappa, private person, 226 

Sinda, dynasty, 217 

Sinda-Govinda, title, 217 

Singadeva or Singideva, governor of Sdta- 
lige, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225 
Singana, poet, 224, 225 

Singideva, see Singadeva. 
Sira, place, 48, 80, 81, 86, 88, 93, 94; 

taluk, 264 

Siratti, place conquest of, 95 

Sirdarkhan, officer, 94, 97 ; see also Sardar 


Sirdar Ibrahim Khan, officer, 95 

Siriyama Yerggade, warrior, 221, 222 

Sita, wife of Udma monuments connected 

with, 10, 11, 12 ; Sitcthande, 11 ; temple 

of, 12 ; jewel box of, 12 ; image of, 13,, 

32 ; done of, 30 ; feet of, 30 ; figure of, 44 

Sita-Parvati, temple of, 12 ; image of, 12, 


Siva, god, 108, 110, 152, 181, 201, 208, 209, 
213, 214, 219, 221, 222, 238, 240, 247 ;. 
temples and shrines, 8, 13, 60, 153^ 
174, 183, 250 ; images and figures, 1 \ 
9, 32, 38, 39, 41, 42, 44, 45, 46, 48, 62, 
63, 65, 66, 69, 75 ; figures of the varied 
forms of, 65. 

Siva, linga, 216 1 

Sivabhata, Kdlachurya coin of, 76 

Siva-G-anesvara Yadeyar, priest, 270, 271, 


Sivaji, Ghatrapati type of coins of, 76 

Sivamara, G-anga king, 124, 176, 177, 178, 



Sivanankare-svara, god, temple of, ___^ 

vcMalu or family of, \ 43 

Sivappa Naik, ruler coins of, 101 

Sivaratredevar, Sivaratresvami or Sivaratri 

Vodeyar, priest, 186, 195 

Sivaya-gavunda, private person, 184 

^ivayajva, a 129 

Skandavarma (Varman), Pallava king, 

260, 261, 264 

Smith, V. A., author, 42 

Sobhanayya, private person, 240, 243 

S6manatbapur, village, 49 

Somasettipalli, do 127, 129, 130, 131 
Somesvara, god temple of, 15, 16, 17, 21 ; 

ling a, 127, 129 

Somesvara Bhulokamalla, Glialukya ling, 


'Somoja, engraver, 206, 207 

Sondur, place^ ^ 

168, 169 



South Oanara, district, 
Sovanna Vodeyar, ruler, 
Soyi Ballahadeva, loarrior, 
Sphinx, figure, 
Sri, goddessfigure of, ^ 

s accompanying VenltaUsa, 

as accompanying Vithala, 
Jri Chamaraja Voder, s Chamaraja. 
Sri Devaraya, see wwder D6varaya, 
gridhara, a /orm o/ .^ocZ Vishnu image of, 63 
Srikantha Vajapeya, j9erso^ 3 127, 129, 130 
gri Krishna, Ze0e?id on coins, ^ 

signature of tlie Mysore Hng "IB7, 

190, 191 ; 

god figure of, 39 ; 

Sri Krishnaraya, see under KrishnadSva- 
raya ; legend on coins 71 
Sri Nanjnnd6vara-devaru, signature, 170 
Sri Narayana, see under Narayana. 
Sringeri, place, 2 ^ 

Srinivasa Jivaji, officer, ' 

Srinivasa Eaghava lyengar, author, (J 

Brinivasa Bao, Barakki, see under Barakki 

Srinivasa Rao. 


Srinivasapur, place, 10 

Sri Pratapachyuta Eaya, see Pratapachyuta- 


Sripurusha, Gang a king, 177, 197 

Srl-rajya, Ganga kingdom, 144, 145, 197 
Sriramadeva-chchaturpedi-inangala, village, 

198, 199 

Sri Ramanujacharya, see Eamanujaobarya. 
Srirariga, see under Eanga. 
Srirangam, place, 82 n. 3 

Sriranganatha, god temple of, on fire, and 

its rebuilding, 93 

Srivaishnava, figure of, 20 

Sri Venlsatesa ? signature, 8 

Srt-Vikrama, Ganga ling, 177, 178 

Sri Visvesvara, signature, 156 

Sriyamrna, lady, 1* 

Sriyantra, at Kolar,^ 20 

Srotriya-guttage, gift, 158 

Subaiya, munshi, 187 

Subbacbari, private person, 154 

Subbe gauda do 172 

Subhanga, do 273 

Sude, kingdom, conquest of, 87 n. 4 

Sugatur Tammiab, see under Tammiah. 
Susriva, rnonkeii-ldnq in the Edmayana 
5 ' figure of, 43, 44 

Snkra or Sukracharya, sage figure of, 

38, 39 3 44 

Suladavana, site in EaleUd, 52, 54 

Sultan Shah Saidani Blbi, Hyder's step- 
mother, 21 

Sura Padmasura, demon figure of, 42 

Surya or Suryanaraya^a, Sun-God shrine 
of, 29, 34, 36 ; -figures of, 14, 29, 44, 48 
Sutta-guttage, a Und of rent, 158 

Suttur, village, 186, 187, 188, 190, 191, 192 


Sword type of Vrjayanagar coins, 75 

Syadamangala, milage, 84 n. 2 

Syadvada, Jain doctrine, ^45, 24b 

Syed Mukhadam, Hydei's brother-in-law, 


Tadang^Madhav a ,^K^ 123,1^ Tagaiur, milage, 

148, 149, 185, 204, 205 


T&garti, village, 
Tahir Khan, a general, 
Tailapa, Kadamba Icing, 
Tailarasa, chief, 

Taittiriya, school. 


228, 229, 230 

81 n. 3 


221, 222,223 
261, 262, 263 

Talakad, Talakadu or Talkad, place, 110, 
112, 121/123, 124, 178, 180, 181, 
182, 18-3 ; G-angas of, 121, 123, 124, 


Talalur, village, 113 

Talgunda, hobli, 255 

Talikota or Talikote, village, 131, 159 

Taniba, Tambarasa or Tambarasar, general 

and governor, 233, 234, 235, 238, 

239, 240, 241 242 243 244 

Tambasamudra, tank, 239, 242, 243 

Tamil immigrants, 157 

Tamil polegars, 82-83 

Tamraayyagauda, chief, 136, 137 

Tanagundura Haridasi, sculptor, 43 

Tandava-Sarasvatl, goddess figure of, 46 

TandavSsvara, god figures and images, 13, 

41, 42, 45, 46, 47, 48, 59, 60, 61, 64, 

65, C6 

Tanjore, place, 96, 97 

Tankasale-hola, site in Halebid, 53 

Tapolinga, shrine, 29 

Tar, coins copper, 75 ; silver, 76 

Taraka or Tarakasura, demon, 221, 222 ; 

figure, 42 

Taiigodalu, village, 1.32 

Tatabbe, lady, 167 

Tayur, also called Tnayur, village, 183, 186, 

187, 188, 190, 191, 195, 197 ; province, 

180, 181 

Tegure, district, 116, 118, 120, 121 

Tekal, village, 134 

Tekavalli, do 255 

Tellichery, fortsiege of, 96, 97 

Teragala, place, 145 

Terakanambi, do 168, 169, 170, 182, 189, 

191 ; kingdom, 182 

Tfirar, person, 167 

Tereyur, village, 275 

Thayur, province, see Tayur. 
Thomas, author, 72 

Tiromambika, Queen of Hatiga, Vijaya- 
nagar king, 127, 128, l30 
Timinapa Nayaka, person, 268 


Tirnniarasa or Timmayya, minister, ISO* 

181 ; see also Timmaraja. 

Timm^ Vodeyar, Tirumali priest, 276, 


Tiruma kudala-natha Vodeyar, officer, 200, 


Tirumakudalu, village, 201, 202 

Tirumakudlu Narsipur or T.-Narasipur, 

town, 171, 182, 198, 199, 203, 204, 


Timmaraja, Sdluva minister, 152, 153 ; see 

aUo Tirnmarasa. 

Tippoo Sultan or Tippu Sultan or Tippu, 
Hyder's son, 9, 79, 92, 94, 95, 97, 98, 

99, 100 

Tippur, village, 263 

Tiptur, place, 140 

Tlrthankara, Jain a statue of, 21 ; images, 

31, 57 ; fragments rej erring to the 

early lives of, 56 ; foot prints of, 58 

Tirthamall66vara, siteiviili a famous well, 54 

Tirumaladeva, god temple, 230, 273, 274 

Tirurualadevaraya or Tirumalaraya, Vijaya- 

nagar king, 127, 129, 131, 13 V 2; coin 

of, 78 

Tirumalanatha, god temple of, 8 

Tirumalapur, village, 259 

Tirumalaraya, see Tirumaladevaraya. 
Tirumalarya, author, 132 

Timmala Vamanna, private person. 172 
Tirumale khedi, siege of, 90 

Tirumali Timma Yodeyar, see Timma 


Tini-narayana, god, 166; temple, 167 

Tirupati. sacred place, 68, 69 ; image at, 69 
Tiruvannamalai, place, 96 

Tiruvengalanatha, god temple, 135, 136 
Tolappalacharya, guru, 75 

Tonasagondanahalli, village, 268, 270, 271 
Tonda-mandalikas, chief, 221, 222 

Tontadarya, a Lingdyat guru, 140 

Tdntada Siddhalingarya, do 141 

Toshekhane Srinivasa Jivaje, see Srmivasa 


Totla, river, 261, 262, 263 

Totlugundu, rocb, 10 

Tribbuvana-kartara-bbatar, priest, 13- 

Tribbuvanamalla-Vikramaditya VI, 

see Vikramaditya, 



Trichinopoly, district, 82, 84, 96, 97, 


Trimurfcis, gods, 69 

Trip ar vat a, Kadamba capital, 54 n. 1 

Trisankesvara, god temple of, 25, 26, 28 

29, 31 

Trivikrama. a form of god Vishnu figure of, 

39, 42 ; image, 62 

Triyambaka Kalavi Matba, a Matt, 196 
Triyainbaka Visvanatha Rao, officer, 91 
Triyambakaya Yodeyar, a donee, 196 


Tuluva, country, 141; 

coins of the Tuluva dynasty of Vijaya- 

nagar, 68 n, 1, 75 

Tumkur, district and taluk, 1, 79, 91, 

92, 100, 120, 122, 123, 256, 259, 263 

Tunga, river, 121 

Tunga-bhadra, river, 91, 121, 148, 148, 

149, 180, 182 

Tuppur, village, 157 

Turuvekere, place, 83 n. 6 

Tuviyal group of merchants, (srashthi or 
sr6shthi), 116, 118, 120 


Uchchangi, place, 112 

Udayaditya, Hoysala prince, 109, 111 

Udayagiri, place, 74 

Uddftr, village, ^ 252, 253 

Uduvalagondi, site in Brahmagiri, 23 

Ugra-Narasimha, god figures of, 43, 45, 46 
Uma, goddess, 238, 241 ; figure of, 38, 44 
Urnamah^svara, god figures of, 13, 38, 41, 
42, 43, 44, 4(3 ; images, 39, 59 ; type of 

coins, 69-70, 74, 75 

Ummattur, province, 148, 149, 152, 153, 


Undiganal or Undigeya Hal, village, 6-7 
Up4dri Srinivasaiyangar, person, 1 98 

Upagola, a division, 176, 177 

Upavasi-Achariya, person, 181, 182, 183 
Upendra, a form of god Vishnu image of, 63 
Dppaliga-setti, private person, 143 

Uttamaraya, legend, on coins, 78 

Uttara-Madhura, kingdom, 220, 222 


Yadagalai, caste mark, 20 

Yai^ampayana Lake, 45 

Yaisbnava dvdrapdlas 24 ; images 15, 69 ; 

king, 70; Purdnas, 37 

Yaishnavi, f goddess figure 15, 62 

Yaisbnavi-Sakti, do 13 

Yaisbnavism in Vijayanagar, 70 

Yajramale, place, 142 

Yali, monkey king in the Rdmdyana figure 
of, 43, 44 

Yali, (?) coin with the image of T}ull, 120 

72. 1 

Yalita, a kind of grant, 184 

Yallala, Hoysala king, see Ballala II. 
Yali are nadu, district conquest of, 93 

Yallavi, province, 116, 117, 120, 121 

Yalmiki, sage figure of, . 11 

Ytaana, a form of god Vishnu, 226 ; 

. .. figures, 33,-39, 42 ; image, 6.3 

Yamana Mallana, warrior , 175 

Vanijya matha or Yamjyapuri-matt, a 

' matt, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144 

Yaradaraja or Varadarajasvami, god-temple, 
of, 166, 167 

Yaraha, a form of god Vishnu image, 

Yarahi, one of the Seven Mothers image, 


Yaram, a kind of tenure, 187 

Yaranasi, called also ly mistake Yanarasi, 
Benares, 22] , 222, 233, 234, 249, 

252, 276 

Yartana-patte, list of dues, 194 

Yaruna, god figure of, 38, 47 

Yasanta, goddess figure, 44 

Yasantika, do HO, 112 

Yasudeva, father of Krishna figure of, 39 
Yasudeya, a form of Vishnu image of, 63 




Yasudevaraya, Ilavafiji, see Ilavanji Yasu- 


Vasuki, serpent figure of, 38 

Vayu, a Dikpdla figure of, 38 

Yedanti Bbanappa, private person, 218 

Yeeranna Setty, a banker, 85 

Yeerapatcby (Corruption of Virupdksha- 

pura), place, 83 n. 2 

Yelapura, (Belur) do 127, 128, 129, 

130, 131 

Yellore, place, 96, 97, 99; Bdlakrishna type 

of varahas from, 73 

Venkapaiya, minister, 192 

Venkappiak, Pradhana, do 92,93, 


Yenkata or Yenkatadri Nayaka, chief, second 
of tlie name, 132; agent of the name, 

273, 274, 275 

Yenkatagiriyappa, private person, 226 

Yenkatapatiaya, Pradhana, 85, 86, 91 

Yenkatapati or Yenkatapatiraya, Vijaya- 

nacjar king, 13l, 132, 159, 164, 272; 

coins of, 68, 76 

Venkatapura, village, 127, 129, 131 

Yenkatarainana, god temple, 9, 22 

Yenkataramaniah, mutsaddi or clerk, 95 
Yenkata Rao Barakki, 82, 85 

Yenkata Rao, Deivan, 83 

Yenkatesa, god images, 8, 16, 19, 28 ; cha- 
racier, 69 ; of Tiru-pati, 68, 69 ; type of 

coins, 68-69 

Yenkatesiah, oficer, 91 

Yenkafcesvara type of coins, 68 

Yenugopala, god temple, 9 ; images and 

figures of, 3, 4, 5, 9, 17, 21, 59 

Yibbutipuia, village, 19 

Yidy^dbaras, heavenly musicians figures 

of, 32, 66 ; title, 233, 234, 240 

Yigbnesvara, god image, 4 ; 

see also Ganapati, Ganesa, Ganadbipati 

and Yinayaka. 

Yijayanagar, Yijayanagari, Empire, 17, 
27,-29, 30, 32, 60, 72, 73, 74 ; city, 180, 
181, 182, 183; dynasty, 78, 125, 131, 
132,153,159, 165, 169, 170,174,182, 
210, 212, -270, .271, 272, 274; coins, 17, 
68-78 ; architecture and sculpture, 14, 
16, 17, 18, 19, 21, 29, 52, 55, 58, 59, 66 ; 
figure of a ruler, 19 


Yijaya Par&vanatha, god, ' ' ' 55 

Yijayapura or Yijeyapur (pura), place, 

t 154, 156, 158 ; province, 170 

Yijaya-Siva-Krisbnavarma, Kadamla king, 

Yijaya Skandavarma, Pallava king, 

f 260,261,264 

Yikrama (? Srivikrama), Gang a king, 

176, 177 

Yikramaditya Tribhuvanamalla, Glidlukya 

king, VI, 61, 233, 234, 235, 237, 

240, 243, 252 

Yinayaditya, Hoy sola king, 108, 110, 

' 112,266 

Yinayaka, god. figure of, 20 ; see also 

Ganadbipati, Ganapati, Ganesa, and 


Yindhya, mountain, 27 

Yiraballala, called also Ballaladeva, Hoysala 

' king, 5, 17, 23, 31, 140/141 ; 

see also Ballala. 

Yirabbadra, god, 268; temple, 28, 59, 60, 
205, 206, 212, 215, ^16, 217; images 
and figures, 11, 21, 26, 28, 39, 45, 47, 
51, 60 

Yira-ch6la, title, 206, 207 

Yirachikka Kampanna Yodeyar, chief, 173 
Yiradevaraya, governor, 152, 153 

Yiragonda, person, 208, 209 

Yira Haiihararaya, Vijayanagar king, 200, 

201, 211 ; Bee also Harihara. 
Yiraiya, private person, 173 

Ytra Kampaya, do 273 

Yirakta matha, a matt, 59 

Yira Mahendra Nolambadhiraja, see Nola- 


Ylramroa, Queen of Bednore, 87 

Yira Nara (Nara) simba deva or Yira 
Narasinga (Singa) deva, Hoysala king, 
see also Narasirnha, Hoysala king 153, 

166, 175, 185. 
Yira Narasimba devaraya, Vijayanagar 

king, 153 

Yira Nayaka, private person, 135 

Yirarma, prince figure, 52 

Ylranna, private person, 168 

Virapagauda or Yirappagauda do 152, 153 
Yirapaiya, ( do ' 219 

Yirarayi nanas, coins, 16, 27 



Yirasaiva, sect, 33, 140, 141, 166 ; figures of the varied forms of, 19, 45, 46, 

mathas, 140, 142, 143, 144, 172, 186, 48, 65 ; coin with the image of, 120 

195 ; gurus or priests, 144, 165, 188, ' n, 1 

192,; priestess, 132 Vishnu, Yishnu Yardhana, Yishnu Yar- 

Vira-Santara deva or Yira Syantara deva, dhana Hoysana deva, Hoi/sala king, 

Sdntara king, 221, 222/223, 224, 1 225, 7, 35, 55, 58, 109, 111/112, 183 

226 Yishnu, private person, 116, 118, 120 

Yira Sovanna Yodeyar, see S6varma Odeyar. Vishnugopa or Vishiiugottarna, Ganga king, 

Yira YallaJa devar, i.e., Vira Ballala, " il5, 117, 119, 121, 122, 123, 124, 176, 

Hoysala king, 198, 199, 203 ; 177, 178 

see also Ballala II. Vishnuvardhana Hoysalesvara, see under 
Yira Varrna, Ganga king, 122, 123 Hoysalesvara. 

Yira Yenkatapati devamahara^a or Visvan&tha Rao, Triyambaka, Mahratta 

Yenkatapatiraya, Vijayanagar king, 270, officer, 91 

271, 272 ; see also under Yenkatapati. Visves"vara, god temple, 18 

Virupaksha, linga, 180, 182 Yithala, do do 17 ; image 17 

Yirupaksha, place, 83 Vitar&ga, Jaina god signature, 185, 186 

Virupakshapura, do 14 Yobala Rao, officer, 94 

Virupakshayya, private person, 141 Vobal&pura, village, 267 

Yirupakshesvara, god, 148,149 Vuclichangi, do 110; see Uchchangi. 

Vishnu, god, 7, 75, 128, 199, Yuduguru, do 4; see Adagur. 

247,261; temple, 13, 266; figures and Vuttaya dvar, god, 231 

images, 38, 39, 41, 42, 44, 45, 47, 61, Vyasa, sage figu/re of, 66 

62, 65, 66, 69, 70, 74, 75, 116, 117, 120 ; Yyasaraya, a guru figure of, 72 


Walis Medis, invader, 14 "Wilks, author, 1, 80 n., 81 n., 82 n., 83 n., 

Wandiwash, siege of, 86 n. 2; battle of, 97 85 n., 86 n., 87 n., 88 n., 89 n., 90 TO., 

Western Chalukya, dynasty, 243, 247, 252; 92 n., 93 n., 94 n., 95 n., 98 n. y 99 n., 

see also under Chalukya. 100 n. 

Watters, Col., English general, 90 

Yadava, race, 110, 111, 112; family, 108, Yantra, 13 

109, 110; dynasty 180, 181; crest, 76 Yededore, fort, 94 

Yagachi, river, 54, 130, 131 Yindasor, (Indasor) Battle at, 206, 207 

Yaksha, figures of, 32, 39, 49, 56, 57, 59, Yingulavadi, village, 173 

62, 64, 65, 66 Yoganarasimha, god' temple of, 53 ; figure, 

Yalis, figure of, 13 42 

Yama, a Dikpdla figure of, 38, 40 ; God of Y6gi, figure of, 57 

Death, 214, 215, 238, 241 Yudhishthira,o/^eMa^6^^m^ figure of, 

Yanagala, private person, 244, 245 40 

WD 349 G-PB 60031.8-34